Condensation/ Dehydration Synthesis (In digestion and synthesis of carbohydrates/glucose<-->glycogen)
Dehydration reaction (def) <ul><li>Condensation/ Dehydration Reaction- A chemical reaction that involves the loss of water from the reacting molecule, as defined in the subject of chemistry. </li></ul><ul><li>A dehydration reaction is a subset of an elimination reaction and water is the leaving group. </li></ul>Condensation/ Dehydration Synthesis Reaction
Condensation reaction (def) Condensation/ Dehydration Reaction <ul><li>Condensation Reaction- A chemical reaction in which two molecules combine to form one single molecule, in accordance with losing a small molecule. </li></ul><ul><li>Relative to hydrolysis which is a basic process by which complex organic molecules such as carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins are degraded to simpler forms that the body can easily assimilate. </li></ul><ul><li>Reactions that deal with the digestion of food nutrients: starches and disaccharides to monosaccharides, proteins to amino acids, lipids to glycerol and fatty acids. </li></ul><ul><li>The by-products are H+ and OH- of the reaction of chemical bonds being split apart and the addition of the constituents of water during decomposition. </li></ul>(Continued)
Relationship Hydrolysis Reaction and Condensation Reaction Relationship <ul><li>The relationship between hydrolysis reaction and condensation reaction is very interesting. They are basically the same process, the only difference is that condensation is when the molecule loses water. They are the same exact process, just in the reverse of each other. </li></ul>Hydrolysis Picture Source:Fourth Edition Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance Authors- William D. McArdle, Frank I. Katch, and Victor L. Katch
Glucose Glucose <ul><li>Glucose is a simple sugar (monosaccharide) that is an important carbohydrate in biology. It is transported by blood and metabolized by tissues. </li></ul><ul><li>The living cell uses glucose as a source of energy and metabolic intermediate. </li></ul><ul><li>All of this information basically means that glucose is a sugar, that gives the body energy to use up. </li></ul>
Glycogen Glycogen <ul><li>Glycogen is a polysaccharide of glucose which functions as the primary short term energy storage in animal cells. It is a glucose polymer synthesized in cells as a means of storing carbohydrate. </li></ul><ul><li>It is made by the liver and the muscles but can also be made by the brain, uterus, and the vagina. </li></ul><ul><li>Glycogen forms an energy reserve that can be quickly mobilized to meet a sudden need for sucrose. It is less compact than the energy reserves of fat. </li></ul><ul><li>Glycogen in the liver- When you eat and digest a carbohydrate meal, blood glucose levels rise, and the pancreas secretes insulin. The liver acts with the glycogen to produce energy for the body to function and stay active. </li></ul>
Glucose and Glycogen Relationship Glucose and Glycogen Relationship <ul><li>Glucose is stored in cells in the form of a complex polymer called glycogen. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Synthesis of glycogen from glucose is carried out the enzyme glycogen synthesis. This enzyme utilizes UDP-glucose as one substrate and the non-reducing end of glycogen as another. The activation of glucose to be used for glycogen synthesis is carried out by the enzyme UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Glycogen is a polymer of glucose residues linked mainly by glycosidic linkages. The chains and branches are longer than shown. Glucose is stored as glycogen predominantly in liver and muscle cells. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Glycogen forms mainly in your liver when your body does not need the glucose for energy anymore and then when you use energy again, the glycogen forms back into glucose and is used as energy. </li></ul></ul>
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