Sexual Violence Prevention Literature Review - Male Rape
LITERATURE REVIEW 1
Sexual Violence Prevention within the Afro-Hispanic Male Community
P.C.D.I. Healthcare and Consultants of Texas, LLC
April 8, 2014
LITERATURE REVIEW 2
Rape is one of the most unreported crimes in American history. Society may view
rape as a crime that is committed against women and men who are incarcerated. The act of
rape will leave devastating regrets, thoughts of guilt, and unforgiveness within the victim.
Sexual violence within the minority populations extend from the social influences of their
environment. The influences of social media and environmental cues can pose threats on
communities with obscene behavior such as rape. This explanation can also offer cues on
formulating rehabilitation service programs, which may foster positive behaviors within the
Rape is used as a submissive act that paralyzes its victims to prevent resistance to the
demand of the perpetrators. For example, with prisoners of war (POW), rape was used to
subject the prisoners to become submissive to their oppressors by ripping their emotions,
altering their mental state, and inflicting long-lasting physical pain (AllAfrica.com, 2011).
Rape is also used to force victims into performing acts against their free will. Most men that
rape other men will profess to be a straight man. In fact, this may be true, but the object of
rape is not always sexual attraction but to instill control and fear into the victim.
My essay will inform the reader about the etiologies of rape, the impact of rape in
underdeveloped countries, the world’s view on the subject of male rape, and resource
management in advocating for male rape victims. The essay is a general broad view on
male rapes in comparison to reported female rapes. The targeted audiences for this essay
are health care professionals who perform forensic rape exams. The perception of male rape
is unbelievable, but for a female, it is much more socially acceptable.
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Etiology and Global Belief Systems
According to my historical discoveries on rape, In the 1700s, women were treated as
property, which made them useless if raped. There were no laws to protect victims of rape
during this time. Men that raped other men were seen as homosexual rather than victims of
circumstance. The Latin root raptus (Et tu roma) referred to the abduction of a woman
against the will of whatever male controlled her life. What the abductor did to her was
secondary (Eichelberger, 2012). The etiology of rape also extended to eras that believed
that men and women who are slaves were considered property. Men were abused as well as
women because of the property laws of the era.
White slave masters raped African Americans females in the 1800s. These acts of
aggression were beyond repair within the slave community. Most of the slave rapes
occurred during the adolescent years (Marshall, 2002). Some of the slave owners raped
men as well. Most men during this time could overtake their master, but some slave masters
threaten to sell their wives and children if they did not comply with the master’s sexual
demands. The men had no choice but to submit to the desires of the slave master. Rape by
society standards are acts of violence only against women. On the contrary, historical
research presents that men were also targets of rape for their master’s pleasures (NCFM,
There were many male rapes committed against men in our past history, but one
attempted rape is still talked about today in the holy word. This attempted rape occurred in
the land of Sodom and Gomorrah. In the book of Genesis chapter 19: 4-5, “But before they
lay down, the men of the city, even the men of Sodom, compass the house both old and
young, all the people from every quarter: 5.And they called unto Lot, and said unto him,
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Where are the men who came in to thee this night? Bring them unto us, that we may know
them (Gen 19:4-5, KJV).” The examples that were given are illustrations of how rapes can
occur with either sex and at any time.
Culture of Rape
Society views male rape as an act of consensual sex between two homosexual men.
These acts are never consensual when sexual aggressive energy produces physical injuries
such anal tears, proliferated colons, and the objective signs of force trauma exhibited by the
victims. Some male rape victim will not come forward to the police for fear of the police
arresting them for letting the rape happen. Many male rapes in the Congo and in other
African states go unreported because of the stigma of becoming the neighborhood weak
man or homosexual (Abdullah-Khan, 2008). Men who come forward are questioned
regarding their sexuality and teased for the events that lead them to be raped. As health care
providers, we must become sensitive to their needs by placing our feet in our patient’s
shoes. Healthcare workers must understand that the history of rape does not only happen to
women but also to strong men.
Society views rape as an act that was initiated by an invitation. For example, how a
man may carry himself my pose an idea that he is gay, which in fact he may not be a
homosexual. Another example, in the prison system, rape is used as a form of protection
from other inmates or a claim to property. This ideology extends back to the history of rape
Et tu roma. Male rapes according to culture may pose a threat on the victim’s future
relationships with immediate family members and friends.
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There are many agencies that render care to rape victims, but for male victims they
are restricted. Medical and counseling services should be offered to all victims regardless of
sex (AllAfrica.com, 2012). Research has shown that males suffer the same aftermath of
trauma and humiliation as women, but they are more reluctant to admit that they have been
assaulted and to seek help (Collins, 2014). Male victims need to be supported for getting
the help that is needed to heal. Male victims tend to keep negative emotions inside may
cause physical diseases to manifest. Rape trauma is an acute illness that may manifest into
an acute stress disorder, and it is the same for both sides (Collins, 2014). In healthcare and
ministry professions, turning patients away can have a devastating turn for the worse
because people instill trust in the health and ministry professions.
Exam and Teaching Approaches
When examining patients, healthcare professionals must address each issue with
accurate information and provide sensitivity in their care plans. The chart below will
illustrate the stages of healing with rape victims. According to the abuse, rape, and
domestic violence aid, and resource collection website, victims of rape tend to go through
the cycle of emotions before healing can begin.
Shock This is the initial reaction to rape
Denial This is the stage in which the patient does
a question and answer session. (e.g. why
Blaming The patients will begin to blame self and
other people for the sexual assault.
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Pain The patient will begin to grieve causing
physical and emotions pain
Anger The patient will began to become feel
anger with the perpetrator and with their
inner self for the incident.
Acceptance The patient will begin to accept the
incident and move toward recovery
This chart illustrates the need for qualified services to aid the patient through his or her
wellness journey (AARDVARC, 2011).
Counseling and other services such as HIV testing and supportive medical services
should be offered to the patient immediately (Collins, 2014). During the healing processes,
patients should address the spiritual ramifications of rape as an opportunity to find
forgiveness in their hearts. When a person is raped, the victim often feels empty, shamed,
and degraded (Bowman, 2013). Counseling services for male rape victims may be awkward
for some counselors who give a generic approach to every patient. Male patients may
question their masculinity after a rape (Daniels, 2011). The male patients may be reluctant
to seek health care services because of self-judgment.
Counselors must comfort male rape victims as men and not as female patients.
Services for rape victims are never considered a one-size fits all. Healthcare workers must
address the spirit, the emotions, and the physical rehabilitation within the teaching plan.
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Male rapes are more frequent in our society that than female rapes (Abdullah-Khan,
2008). Rape has not been a crime only for woman and children but for adult men as well.
Services for the male victims are limited in the United States and in other countries around
the globe. According to the recent research, male rapes are more prominent in Africa and
Great Britain that in any other country on the planet (Abdullah-Khan, 2008). The reason for
the shift is that the rapes are being reported the authorities. Most men do not report the rape
for fear of labels and retaliation from the government. Male rape victims tend to seek help
for their stress when they can no longer handle the pain of being raped. Male rape victims
in African nations are seeking help for their stress, but government leaders are refusing to
render aid to the victims.
Educating the community will ensure that males are aware of the dangers of rape.
Most men believe that rape cannot happen to them, but it can! Healthcare professionals
need to address the spiritual and emotional injuries during the assessment phase of
discovery. Education is the key to stopping violent acts against male victims. According to
research, rape in juvenile jails is lower than in male prisons (Sapien, 2013). This may be
due to a large staff of workers.
My recommendations are that healthcare workers give male rape victims that same
medical-counseling services that female victims receive after a rape. Advocates must
educate the community regarding male rape. Male rape is a real crime, and there must be
set standards to protect these male victims from exclusion from society. Counselor and
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social workers must address major issues regarding masculinity, disease transmission, and
the aftermath of rape. A person may never forget the event that happened, but they may
heal from spiritual and physical hurts.
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AARDVARC. (2011). Stages of healing process. Retrieved from Stages of Healing :
Abdullah-Khan, N. (2008). Male rape: The emergence of social and legal issue.
Basingstoke, Hampshire, GBR: Palgrave Macmillan.
AllAfrica.com. (2011). Unreported horrors - Male rape. Retrieved from ProQuest :
AllAfrica.com. (2012). Male rape survivors demand equal services. Retrieved from
Boffard, R. (2012). Victory for male rape . Retrieved from TheSouthAfrican.com :
Bowman, T. (2013). Shame, guilt, and christian counseling: An attachment-based
perspective. Retrieved from American Association of Christian Counselors :
Braiden, O. (1995). Male victims of rape. Retrieved from Proquest:
Collins, G. (2014). Counseling male rape victims. Retrieved from ProQuest:
Daniels, A. (2011). Men get raped too. Retrieved from Revolutionary Paideia :
DeAngelis, T. (2013). Rape take global toll on women's lives. Study Finds (44) , p 1.
Dysert, G. (2012). Rape and spiritual death . Feminist Theology, Sage Publishers, 209-10.
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Eichelberger, E. (2012). Men defining rape: A history . Retrieved from MotherJones.com:
Jacobs, E. M. (2012). Group Counseling: Strategies and skills 7th Edition . Belmont, CA:
Brooks/Coles Cengage Learning.
Marshall, G. (2002). Failing our black children: Statutory rape laws. Moral Reform and
Hypocrisy of Denial.
NCFM. (2011). Rape victims - Male . Retrieved from National Coalition for Men :
Sapien, J. (2013). Rape and other sexual viloence prevalent in juvenile justice system .
Retrieved from Pro publica: http://www.propublica.org/article/rape-and-other-
Turchik, J. E. (2012). Myths about male rape: A literature review. Psychology of Men and
Masculinity (13) 2, pp. 211-226.