Sexual Violence Prevention Literature Review - Male Rape


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This short essay will educate the reader on the number of male rapes globally committed by other males. The article will explain the history including the biblical side to forgiveness.

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Sexual Violence Prevention Literature Review - Male Rape

  1. 1. LITERATURE REVIEW 1 Sexual Violence Prevention within the Afro-Hispanic Male Community Anthony Wallace P.C.D.I. Healthcare and Consultants of Texas, LLC April 8, 2014
  2. 2. LITERATURE REVIEW 2 Introduction Rape is one of the most unreported crimes in American history. Society may view rape as a crime that is committed against women and men who are incarcerated. The act of rape will leave devastating regrets, thoughts of guilt, and unforgiveness within the victim. Sexual violence within the minority populations extend from the social influences of their environment. The influences of social media and environmental cues can pose threats on communities with obscene behavior such as rape. This explanation can also offer cues on formulating rehabilitation service programs, which may foster positive behaviors within the community. Rape is used as a submissive act that paralyzes its victims to prevent resistance to the demand of the perpetrators. For example, with prisoners of war (POW), rape was used to subject the prisoners to become submissive to their oppressors by ripping their emotions, altering their mental state, and inflicting long-lasting physical pain (, 2011). Rape is also used to force victims into performing acts against their free will. Most men that rape other men will profess to be a straight man. In fact, this may be true, but the object of rape is not always sexual attraction but to instill control and fear into the victim. My essay will inform the reader about the etiologies of rape, the impact of rape in underdeveloped countries, the world’s view on the subject of male rape, and resource management in advocating for male rape victims. The essay is a general broad view on male rapes in comparison to reported female rapes. The targeted audiences for this essay are health care professionals who perform forensic rape exams. The perception of male rape is unbelievable, but for a female, it is much more socially acceptable.
  3. 3. LITERATURE REVIEW 3 Etiology and Global Belief Systems According to my historical discoveries on rape, In the 1700s, women were treated as property, which made them useless if raped. There were no laws to protect victims of rape during this time. Men that raped other men were seen as homosexual rather than victims of circumstance. The Latin root raptus (Et tu roma) referred to the abduction of a woman against the will of whatever male controlled her life. What the abductor did to her was secondary (Eichelberger, 2012). The etiology of rape also extended to eras that believed that men and women who are slaves were considered property. Men were abused as well as women because of the property laws of the era. White slave masters raped African Americans females in the 1800s. These acts of aggression were beyond repair within the slave community. Most of the slave rapes occurred during the adolescent years (Marshall, 2002). Some of the slave owners raped men as well. Most men during this time could overtake their master, but some slave masters threaten to sell their wives and children if they did not comply with the master’s sexual demands. The men had no choice but to submit to the desires of the slave master. Rape by society standards are acts of violence only against women. On the contrary, historical research presents that men were also targets of rape for their master’s pleasures (NCFM, 2011). There were many male rapes committed against men in our past history, but one attempted rape is still talked about today in the holy word. This attempted rape occurred in the land of Sodom and Gomorrah. In the book of Genesis chapter 19: 4-5, “But before they lay down, the men of the city, even the men of Sodom, compass the house both old and young, all the people from every quarter: 5.And they called unto Lot, and said unto him,
  4. 4. LITERATURE REVIEW 4 Where are the men who came in to thee this night? Bring them unto us, that we may know them (Gen 19:4-5, KJV).” The examples that were given are illustrations of how rapes can occur with either sex and at any time. Culture of Rape Society views male rape as an act of consensual sex between two homosexual men. These acts are never consensual when sexual aggressive energy produces physical injuries such anal tears, proliferated colons, and the objective signs of force trauma exhibited by the victims. Some male rape victim will not come forward to the police for fear of the police arresting them for letting the rape happen. Many male rapes in the Congo and in other African states go unreported because of the stigma of becoming the neighborhood weak man or homosexual (Abdullah-Khan, 2008). Men who come forward are questioned regarding their sexuality and teased for the events that lead them to be raped. As health care providers, we must become sensitive to their needs by placing our feet in our patient’s shoes. Healthcare workers must understand that the history of rape does not only happen to women but also to strong men. Society views rape as an act that was initiated by an invitation. For example, how a man may carry himself my pose an idea that he is gay, which in fact he may not be a homosexual. Another example, in the prison system, rape is used as a form of protection from other inmates or a claim to property. This ideology extends back to the history of rape Et tu roma. Male rapes according to culture may pose a threat on the victim’s future relationships with immediate family members and friends.
  5. 5. LITERATURE REVIEW 5 There are many agencies that render care to rape victims, but for male victims they are restricted. Medical and counseling services should be offered to all victims regardless of sex (, 2012). Research has shown that males suffer the same aftermath of trauma and humiliation as women, but they are more reluctant to admit that they have been assaulted and to seek help (Collins, 2014). Male victims need to be supported for getting the help that is needed to heal. Male victims tend to keep negative emotions inside may cause physical diseases to manifest. Rape trauma is an acute illness that may manifest into an acute stress disorder, and it is the same for both sides (Collins, 2014). In healthcare and ministry professions, turning patients away can have a devastating turn for the worse because people instill trust in the health and ministry professions. Exam and Teaching Approaches When examining patients, healthcare professionals must address each issue with accurate information and provide sensitivity in their care plans. The chart below will illustrate the stages of healing with rape victims. According to the abuse, rape, and domestic violence aid, and resource collection website, victims of rape tend to go through the cycle of emotions before healing can begin. Shock This is the initial reaction to rape Denial This is the stage in which the patient does a question and answer session. (e.g. why and how) Blaming The patients will begin to blame self and other people for the sexual assault.
  6. 6. LITERATURE REVIEW 6 Pain The patient will begin to grieve causing physical and emotions pain Anger The patient will began to become feel anger with the perpetrator and with their inner self for the incident. Acceptance The patient will begin to accept the incident and move toward recovery This chart illustrates the need for qualified services to aid the patient through his or her wellness journey (AARDVARC, 2011). Counseling and other services such as HIV testing and supportive medical services should be offered to the patient immediately (Collins, 2014). During the healing processes, patients should address the spiritual ramifications of rape as an opportunity to find forgiveness in their hearts. When a person is raped, the victim often feels empty, shamed, and degraded (Bowman, 2013). Counseling services for male rape victims may be awkward for some counselors who give a generic approach to every patient. Male patients may question their masculinity after a rape (Daniels, 2011). The male patients may be reluctant to seek health care services because of self-judgment. Counselors must comfort male rape victims as men and not as female patients. Services for rape victims are never considered a one-size fits all. Healthcare workers must address the spirit, the emotions, and the physical rehabilitation within the teaching plan.
  7. 7. LITERATURE REVIEW 7 Conclusion Male rapes are more frequent in our society that than female rapes (Abdullah-Khan, 2008). Rape has not been a crime only for woman and children but for adult men as well. Services for the male victims are limited in the United States and in other countries around the globe. According to the recent research, male rapes are more prominent in Africa and Great Britain that in any other country on the planet (Abdullah-Khan, 2008). The reason for the shift is that the rapes are being reported the authorities. Most men do not report the rape for fear of labels and retaliation from the government. Male rape victims tend to seek help for their stress when they can no longer handle the pain of being raped. Male rape victims in African nations are seeking help for their stress, but government leaders are refusing to render aid to the victims. Educating the community will ensure that males are aware of the dangers of rape. Most men believe that rape cannot happen to them, but it can! Healthcare professionals need to address the spiritual and emotional injuries during the assessment phase of discovery. Education is the key to stopping violent acts against male victims. According to research, rape in juvenile jails is lower than in male prisons (Sapien, 2013). This may be due to a large staff of workers. Recommendations My recommendations are that healthcare workers give male rape victims that same medical-counseling services that female victims receive after a rape. Advocates must educate the community regarding male rape. Male rape is a real crime, and there must be set standards to protect these male victims from exclusion from society. Counselor and
  8. 8. LITERATURE REVIEW 8 social workers must address major issues regarding masculinity, disease transmission, and the aftermath of rape. A person may never forget the event that happened, but they may heal from spiritual and physical hurts.
  9. 9. LITERATURE REVIEW 9 References AARDVARC. (2011). Stages of healing process. Retrieved from Stages of Healing : Abdullah-Khan, N. (2008). Male rape: The emergence of social and legal issue. Basingstoke, Hampshire, GBR: Palgrave Macmillan. (2011). Unreported horrors - Male rape. Retrieved from ProQuest : (2012). Male rape survivors demand equal services. Retrieved from Proquest: Boffard, R. (2012). Victory for male rape . Retrieved from : Bowman, T. (2013). Shame, guilt, and christian counseling: An attachment-based perspective. Retrieved from American Association of Christian Counselors : attachment-based-perspective/ Braiden, O. (1995). Male victims of rape. Retrieved from Proquest: Collins, G. (2014). Counseling male rape victims. Retrieved from ProQuest: Daniels, A. (2011). Men get raped too. Retrieved from Revolutionary Paideia : DeAngelis, T. (2013). Rape take global toll on women's lives. Study Finds (44) , p 1. Dysert, G. (2012). Rape and spiritual death . Feminist Theology, Sage Publishers, 209-10.
  10. 10. LITERATURE REVIEW 10 Eichelberger, E. (2012). Men defining rape: A history . Retrieved from Jacobs, E. M. (2012). Group Counseling: Strategies and skills 7th Edition . Belmont, CA: Brooks/Coles Cengage Learning. Marshall, G. (2002). Failing our black children: Statutory rape laws. Moral Reform and Hypocrisy of Denial. NCFM. (2011). Rape victims - Male . Retrieved from National Coalition for Men : Sapien, J. (2013). Rape and other sexual viloence prevalent in juvenile justice system . Retrieved from Pro publica: sexual-violence-prevalent-in-juvenile-justice-system Turchik, J. E. (2012). Myths about male rape: A literature review. Psychology of Men and Masculinity (13) 2, pp. 211-226.