2011 Foundation Wine Course 4: The New World


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2011 Foundation Wine Course 4: The New World

  1. 1. 1<br />Foundation Wine Course IV<br />The Wines of the New World<br />18 May 2011<br />Copyright © Brian Jamieson<br />
  2. 2. 2<br />Wines of the New World<br />Some generalisations:<br />More single varietals; fewer blends<br />Often a simplicity of nose, palate and label<br />Riper fruit, lower acids and softer tannins often make NW wines more accessible to <br />Younger generation likely to be introduced to wine via New World products<br />Since 1980s widely available in UK<br />In your face simplicity v. complexity and subtlety of Old World<br />
  3. 3. 3<br />‘New’ World wine timeline<br />1522 Mexico<br />1550 Chile<br />1655 Cape of Good Hope<br />1788 Australia (Botany Bay)<br />1819 New Zealand<br />
  4. 4. 4<br />Wine making<br />Climate advantages over Europe’s northern vineyards<br />Technical know-how frequently superior to European winemakers<br />Controlled cold fermentation, often in stainless steel, a necessity<br />Cultured yeasts, High-tech approach<br />Irrigation common<br />
  5. 5. 5<br />New technology<br />
  6. 6. 6<br />Irrigation<br />
  7. 7. 7<br />Mechanical harvesting<br />
  8. 8. 8<br />
  9. 9. 9<br />High-tch ‘cellars’<br />
  10. 10. 10<br />
  11. 11. 11<br />A lighter approach to marketing!<br />
  12. 12. 12<br />Regulation<br />Simpler than in Europe<br />More like trading standards approach to authenticity and integrity<br />Based on provenance of grapes and wine, not on methods of viticulture and viniculture<br />
  13. 13. 13<br />Wine 1<br />Neblina Cabernet Sauvignon Rosé, 2010<br />Central Valley, Chile<br />Cabernet Sauvignon<br />Brief skin contact after crushing<br />Cold, slow fermentation<br />Colour: Strong red<br />Aroma: red fruits, strawberries?<br />Palate: fresh, fruity<br />For summer drinking<br />
  14. 14. 14<br />The Americas<br />First vines thought to have been planted by Spanish in Mexico (1521)<br />Indigenous vines ( Vitis labrusca)found to be unsuitable for wine production : used European Vitis vinifera varieties<br />[But native rootstocks the saviour of European Vitis vinifera]<br />Migration down west side of both continents<br />East coast production more limited because of humidity and cold winters in North, but expansion in Uruguay and Brazil in South<br />
  15. 15. 15<br />South America<br />
  16. 16. 16<br />Argentina, Chile & Uruguay<br />Chile , Argentina & Uruguay<br />Long traditions brought by Italian and other Sth European immigrants<br />Geographical appellations and districts<br />Grape variety<br />
  17. 17. 17<br />Chile<br />No phylloxera<br />Limitless irrigation from Andean meltwater.<br />Cooling Pacific breezes; Leyda, San Antonio and Casablanca valleys<br />Low land and labour costs<br />Huge new investment from California, France and Spain<br />World’s tenth largest producer; 85% exported<br />Mainly single varietals, but Bordeaux blends very successful<br />Concha y Toro, Errazuriz, Cono Sur, Vina Leyda Montes, Emiliana are all reliable brands<br />
  18. 18. 18<br />Wine 2<br />Wine 3<br />Wine 1<br />
  19. 19. 19<br />Wine 1<br />Wine 3<br />
  20. 20. 20<br />Argentina<br />Sixth largest world producer<br />Traditional local markets; now exporting 65%<br />Quality therefore a major goal<br />Mendoza most successful vineyards; Malbec most typical grape variety with pedigree<br />White now improving with Spanish Torrontes showing individual character<br />Catena Zapata, Mendel, Weinert, Familia Zuccardi, Di Martino, Norton, Trapiche, Etchart are amongst leading producers<br />
  21. 21. 21<br />
  22. 22. 22<br />Bodegas Catena Zapata, Mendoza<br />
  23. 23. 23<br />
  24. 24. 24<br />
  25. 25. 25<br />
  26. 26. 26<br />Wine 2<br />Faldeos Nevados Torrentes, Salta, Argentina, 2010<br />Torrontes: <br /> Spanish grape introduced by Basque settlers<br />Cross of Muscat of Alexandria and Criolla Chica<br />Susana Balbo, one of Argentina’s top wine makers<br />Salta 5,000 ft on pre-Andes plains<br />Aroma: <br />Aromatic, floral, grapey (Muscat) nose<br />Palate: <br />Citrus, hint of peach<br />With food or on its own?<br />.<br />
  27. 27. 27<br />Wine 2<br />Wine 3<br />Wine 1<br />
  28. 28. 28<br />Wine 3<br />Matetic EQ Pinot Noir 2008 <br />DO San Antonio, Chile<br />Close to Pacific Ocean<br />Selected organic grapes from six vineyards<br />11 months in French barriques.<br />Aroma: <br />Roses, cherries, strawberries, marmalade.<br />Palate:<br />Smooth, silky. Cherries, some earthiness.<br />Compare with Californian Pinot Noir (Wine 4)<br />
  29. 29. 29<br />Wine 1<br />Wine 3<br />
  30. 30. 30<br />North America<br />United States (California) is world’s fourth largest producer<br />Wine made in Canada and Florida in 16C of local Vitis Labrusca vines <br />Phylloxera and Prohibition interrupt progress, only restored after WW2 with Approved Viticultural Areas (AVAs) introduced in 1978<br />AVA controls less stringent than European appellations, but Health Warnings are taken to ridiculous lengths!<br />AVAs require at least 75% ( 90% in Oregon) of grape varietal and 95% of vintage indicated on label<br />
  31. 31. Wine 4<br />Saintsbury Carneros Pinot Noir, Napa Valley, 2007<br />Cooler AVA to S of Napa and Sonoma; ideal for Pinot Noir<br />Grapes from several vineyards and blended after maturation in French oak<br />Colour: Dark, garnet, crimson<br />Aroma: Cherries, pomegranate, earthiness. <br />Palate: Soft tannins , complex fruits, spiciness, eathiness<br />31<br />
  32. 32. Californianwineregions<br />32<br />Wine 4<br />
  33. 33. 33<br />U S A<br />1978 Approved Viticultural Areas (AVAs)<br />First in Missouri!<br />Now 150<br />Typically 75% & 85% rules on named grapes and origin<br />Winery in every state (even Alaska)<br />Wine grapes grown almost all states, but California accounts for 90% of wine production<br />
  34. 34. 34<br />U S A<br />Outside California, fine wine most likely to be produced in Oregon, Washington and British Columbia<br />In California, finest wines come from Russian River, Sonoma, Napa, Mendocino counties<br />Stars producers include : Bonny Doon, Mondavi, Ironstone Ridge, Roederer, Drouhin, Quady, Kendall-Jackson, Stags’ Leap, Duckhorn, Beringer, Saintsbury, etc.<br />
  35. 35. Zinfandel<br />10% of Californian wine grapes<br />Equivalent to the Croatian grape Crljenak Kaštelanski, and also the Primitivovariety traditionally grown in Italy<br />The grapes typically produce a robust red wine<br />35<br />
  36. 36. 36<br />Jancis Robinson Interlude<br />Old world v. New world<br />Chardonnay<br />South Australia v Burgundy<br />
  37. 37. 37<br />South Africa<br />
  38. 38. 38<br />South Africa: history<br />Frost-free winters, reliable summers, cool breezes<br />Cape plantings : Dutch(1655), Huguenots (1680)<br />British arrival increases demand in 19C<br />Phylloxera cripples trade<br />Rise of Co-ops: KWV (1918)<br />Expansion discouraged by Govt.<br />WO introduced, but Apartheid sanctions inhibited growth<br />1990s: Reforms of WO following democratic elections allow world trade to develop<br />Now 8th largest producer in world (750 million litres)<br />
  39. 39. 39<br />Wine 5<br />
  40. 40. 40<br />South Africa<br />Sth Africa<br />Wine of Origin (WO): [e.g Coastal]<br />Wine Districts: [e.g Paarl]<br />Wine wards: [ e.g. Franschhoek Valley]<br />
  41. 41. 41<br />Wine 5<br />Buitenverwachting Buiten Blanc, Coastal Region, Western Cape, 2009<br />Grapes sourced from different vineyards<br />Winery at Constantia<br />85% Sauvignon Blanc and 15% Chenin Blanc<br />Slow, cold fermentation (16 degs) to preserve aromas and fruit<br />Aroma: Fresh, herbaceous, <br />Palate: Gooseberry acidity, citrus and tropical fruits<br />
  42. 42. Buitenverwachting, ConstantiaEst. 1796<br />42<br />
  43. 43. 43<br />Australia<br />
  44. 44. 44<br />
  45. 45. 45<br />
  46. 46. 46<br />Australia: history<br />Cape vines planted round Sydney Harbour/Botany Bay(1788)<br />More success in Hunter Valley (1820) with European rootstock<br />Mid 19c expansion into Victoria, Tasmania, SA, WA, Queensland<br />Influence of Silesian, Italian, Swiss, Greek, Baltic migrants<br />In 1930s exported mainly fortified /heavy reds to British Empire<br />Post-war immigration of Italians and Greeks encouraged still wines<br />Renaissance from 1960s with lower yields, stainless steel, barrique ageing, hygiene, honest labelling<br />Following agreement in 1994 with EU, aggressive marketing in UK, SE Asia and USA<br />Now seventh largest producer; exports more wine to UK than France!<br />
  47. 47. 47<br />Australia<br />Quality assurance<br /> Agricultural shows <br />Show reserve; rosettes etc<br />1991<br />Geographical Indications (GIs)<br />Zones, Regions and Sub-regions<br />
  48. 48. 48<br />
  49. 49. 49<br />Wine 6<br />
  50. 50. 50<br />Wine 6<br />
  51. 51. Wine 6<br />Turner’s Crossing, Shiraz, Bendigo, Victoria<br />16 acres; hand-picked, selected grapes<br />Fermentation in wooden (open) and stainless steel vats (closed)<br />Aromas: <br />Complex! Oak, spice (cinnamon?), chocolate, soft tannins<br />Palate: <br />Elements of red and black berries, chocolate. And spices. <br />A robust, complex wine; needs food; not for summer quaffing!<br />51<br />
  52. 52. 52<br />New Zealand<br />Earliest plantings near Auckland<br />Dalmation immigrants<br />1994 regulatory reform<br />Appellations and sub-regions<br />Iconic Cloudy Bay Sauvignon Blanc<br />Also Pinot Noir from Martinborough, Marlborough & Otago<br />
  53. 53. 53<br />Sauvignon Blanc- par excellence<br />
  54. 54. New Zealand<br />54<br />Wine 7<br />
  55. 55. Wine 7<br />Ned Noble Sauvignon Blanc , Marlborough, 2010<br />Waihopai River vineyard <br />Botrytised grapes have been specially selected <br />Lengthy 6 months fermentation extracts huge flavours from the shrivelled berries.<br />Aroma: Sweet, aromatic, citrus, tropical fruit<br />Palate: The wine is intensely sweet and balanced (acid/sweetness) with a mixture of crisp citrus and melon flavours<br />“An amazing match for blue cheeses or rich pâté”<br />55<br />
  56. 56. 56<br />Today’s wines<br />1.Neblina Cabernet Sauvignon Rosé, Central Valley, Chile, 2010 £4.99 *M<br />Faldeos Nevados Torrentes, Salta, Argentina, 2010 £6.95 WS<br />Matetic EG Pinot Noir, San Antonio, Chile, 2008 £22.00 M<br />4. Saintsbury Carneros Pinot Noir, Napa, California, 2007 £15.99 M<br />5. Buiten Blanc Buitenverwachting, Coastal Region, Sth Africa, 2009 £6.50 WS<br />6. Turners Crossing Shiraz/Viognier Bendigo, Victoria , 2006 £16.99 OZ<br />7. Ned Noble Sauvignon Blanc, Marlborough, NZ, 2010 £9.99 * M<br />--------------------------------<br />OZ OZ Wines WS Wine Society<br />MMajestic<br />
  57. 57. Identification<br />By aroma only, which of today’s wines is this?<br />
  58. 58. 58<br />Next session<br />Wednesday 20 July 2011 at 2.30pm<br />Riesling<br />