2011 Foundation Wine Course 2: The Wines of France

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PCC Wine Circle
Foundation Wine Course # 2
France

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  • 1. Foundation Wine Course: II
    30 March 2011
    The Wines of France
    Copyright © Brian Jamieson
  • 2. Revision 1: Winemaking
    White
    Red
  • 3.
  • 4.
  • 5.
  • 6.
  • 7. Revision 2: What is wine?
    Water 85%
    Alcohol
    Ethyl alcohol 12%
    Glycerol 1%
    Everything else 1 – 1.5%
  • 8. Revision 3: Range and diversity
    Grape variety
    Environment; French Terroir
    Climate
    Soil
    Husbandry – pruning, training, spraying
    Harvest – timing and weather
    Winemaking processes
    Storing/ageing
  • 9. Revision 4: Tasting
    Eyes
    Nose
    Mouth
    Front
    Sides
    Back
  • 10. Aroma Exercise 1
    Grapefruit
    2
    Pear
    10
    Liquorice
    36
  • 11. Aroma Exercise 2
    Aroma 29
    Violet
    Aroma 15
    Blackcurrant
    Aroma 50
    Hazelnut
  • 12. World wine production
    1 Italy 4,609,554
    2 France 4,198,632
    3 Spain 3,591,300
    4 United States 2,250,000
    5 China 1,500,000
    6 Argentina 1,467,764
    7 Australia 1,244,780
    8 South Africa 1,026,100
    9 Germany 1,000,100
    10 Chile 824,642
    Tonnes (2008)
    11 Portugal 562,000
    12 Romania 554,182
    13 Russia 503,483
    14 Greece 400,409
    15 Brazil 368,300
    16 Hungary 325,000
    17 Austria 299,372
    18 Bulgaria 230,046
    19 Ukraine 210,500
    20 New Zealand 205,200
    21 Serbia 154,224
    22 Moldova 138,522
    23 Uruguay 109,001
    24 Macedonia 108,100
    25 Switzerland 107,447
  • 13. France
    Overview I
    Wine producing areas
  • 14. France
    Overview II
    AOC quality wines
  • 15. Burgundy monoculture
  • 16. Sparkling wine
    Getting the CO2 in!
    Natural sparkle (petillance)
    La pompebicyclette (carbonated)
    Cuvée close or Tank method (2ary fermentation in tank) - Prosecco
    MéthodeChampenoise (2ary fermentation in bottle)
    MéthodeTraditionelle (outside Champagne)
    Cava, Cap Classique, Sekt, Limoux, Spumante
  • 17. Champagne
    Vineyards on chalk
    Nth French Climate marginal for winemaking
    Makes poor still wine (highly acidic), but good champagne
    Blend of three permitted grapes
    Chardonnay (Blanc de Blancs); Pinot Noir & Pinot Meunier
    Pinot Noir and Pinot Meunier often exceed 70%
  • 18.
  • 19.
  • 20. Champagne tasting
    Jacquart , Brut Tradition, NV
    Traditional Champagne blend of Chardonnay, (30%) Pinot Noir (45%) & Pinot Meunier (25%)
    Appearance
    Nose
    Mousse – size and length
    Taste
  • 21. Visit a Champagne House
  • 22.
  • 23. Some (useless?) Champagne facts
    12,500 separate brands!
    19,000 small growers own 88% of vineyards, but sell only 29% of champagne.
    Champagne houses own 12% of vineyards but produce 71% of wine.
    250 million bubbles in a bottle
    Who counted?
    Same Chalk as in North & South Downs of SE England
  • 24. 2: Les Cascadelles, Pouilly-FuméAOC 2007
    Sauvignon blanc 100%
    Compare with New World Sauvignon blanc
    Acidity?
    Fruit?
    Mineral/Vegetal/Fruit on palate?
    Predominant aroma?
  • 25.
  • 26.
  • 27. The Wines of France
    Some necessary, but possibly boring, stuff!
  • 28. French wine making
    Greek/Roman Origins: first vineyards near Aix -en-Provence in the South.
    Highly regulated industry.
    A mixed blessing as it:
    ensures minimum quality standards,
    but discourages experimentation, innovation and development.
    At lowest level, grapes treated as just another agricultural commodity, producing basic table wine.
  • 29. Production
    Now world’s second largest wine producer
    Big fall in home consumption, esp. cheaper wines
    20 % fall in production in last ten years
    10% increase in exports during same period
    UK and Germany are biggest customers
    But, UK now imports more Australian wine than French
    Historic classifications and reputations still ensure stratospheric prices for the best wines
  • 30.
  • 31. National Quality Classification
    Appellation d’Origine Contrôllé470 (59%)
    Grape variety
    Viticulture
    Harvest and yield
    Min. alcohol level
    Vinification
    Tasting (nominal)
    Restricting, discourages innovation
    VDQS33 (1%)
    Second division
    Staging post
    Vin de Pays 153 ( 31%)
    Since 1973
    Superior table wines
    Less regulation
    Grape variety
    Vinification
    Fewer rules encourages innovation
    Some of the best modern wines
    Vin de table(10%)
    The lowest rung
    Domestic consumption
  • 32.
  • 33. Vin de Pays: Regional groupings
    Vin de Pays d’Oc
    Roussillon/Langedoc
    Vin de Pays du Jardin de la France
    Loire
    Vin de Pays de ComtéTolosan
    SW France
    Vin de Pays du ComtésRhodaniens
    Rhone
    Vin de Pays de Méditerranée
    Provence/Corsica
  • 34. 2008 Reforms
    Reduce regulation
    Simplify main categories
    In line with EU regulation
    Make more competitive internationally
    Encourage grape variety on label
  • 35. New categories
    New
    Vignobles de France (Wines of France)
    Indication Géographique Protégée (IGP)
    Appellation d’Origine Protégée (AOP)
    Replacing
    Vin de Table
    Vin de Pays
    Appellation d’OrigineContrôllé (AOC)
  • 36. 3. The Society’s Exhibition Morgon, 2005 AOC
    Morgon: one of 10 Beaujolais Crus – quality wines.
    Gamay grape producing light fruity wines.
    Carbonic maceration initiates fermentation.
    Aroma?
    Palate
  • 37. Beaujolais10 Crus Beaujolais Villages Beaujolais Beaujolais Nouveau
  • 38. Jancis Robinson
    ‘Grapes and Gas’
    Champagne production
    Protection of the name
    Moet & Chandon’s diversification in Spain, USA & Australia
    28 minutes
  • 39. 4. Domaine de Valmoissine, Pinot Noir, Louis Latour,Vin de Pays des Coteaux du Verdon 2009
    Maison Louis Latour: Producers in Burgundy since 17th Century
    In 1989 pioneered the production of the Pinot Noir grape in Provence by buying 30 ha (75 acres) of land in the Verdon.
    In mountains (500m) 70 km N of St Tropez.
    Burgundianvinification in wood
    Light-fruity wine, that lacks the earthiness of Red Burgundy. cf New World.
    Characteristic aroma?
    .
  • 40.
  • 41. 6. Domaine Lucien Barrot et Fils, Chateauneuf-du-Pape , AOC, 2007
    Small, but famous, appellation in SthRhone
    13 grape varieties permitted
    80% Grenache, 10% Syrah and 10% Cinsault/Mourvedre.
    A big wine!
    Complex, herby nose and palate.
    Predominant aroma?
  • 42.
  • 43.
  • 44. Bordeaux wines
    Reds are blends of:
    Cabernet Sauvignon
    Merlot
    Cabernet Franc
    Petit verdot
    Whites largely:
    Sauvignon blanc, with additions of Semillon and Muscadelle
  • 45. St Emilion
    Pomerol
    Bourg
    Blaye
    Medoc
    Graves
    Margaux
    Sauternes
    Entre-deux-Mers
  • 46.
  • 47. Libournais
    St Emilion
    2 Premier Grand Cru Classeé A
    11 Premier Grand Cru Classeé B
    84 Grand Cru Classeé
    Pomerol
    Ch. Petrus
    Merlot dominant (60%+)
  • 48. Gironde 1855 Classification (Red)
    Premiers Crus
    Ch. Lafite
    Ch. Margaux
    Ch. Latour
    Ch. Haut-Brion
    Ch. Mouton-Rothschild (1973)
    DeuxièmesCrus
    Ch. Ducru-Beaucaillou
    Ch. Léoville-Lascase
    Etc
    TroisièmesCrus
    Ch Lagrange
    Ch. Palmer
    etc
    QuatrièmesCrus
    Ch. Talbot
    Ch. Cantenac
    Etc
    CinquièmesCrus
    Ch. Batailley
    Ch. Grand-Puy-Lacoste
    etc
    Crus Bourgeois (2000)
    Exceptionels 9
    Supérieurs 87
    Bourgeois 151
  • 49. 5:Chateau Gloria 2001 St Julien AOC
    AOC St Julien in the Medoc
    Cru bourgeois
    Cabernet Sauvignon (65%) Merlot (25%), with 5% each of Cabernet Franc and Petit Verdot
    Colour
    Predominant aroma
    Palate
    Tannin
    Fruit
  • 50.
  • 51. Wine Critic (May 2004)
    Chateau Gloria (St Julien) 2001:
    Closed on the nose. Full, sweet, less impact than the 2000. Doesn't have the same texture. Plenty of tannin though. Showing very little on this tasting but has potential. Needs six years. 15+/20 (May 2004)
  • 52. Wine Society: 30 March 2011
    2001: A delicious vintage to enjoy now!
    Overshadowed by the much-lauded millennium vintage which preceded it, 2001 proved to be a great year for merlot and the right bank, and, although slightly more challenging on the left bank, it has turned out to be a lovely Claret vintage, and the wines are already delicious.
  • 53. 7. The Society’s Exhibition Sauternes, 2007 AOC
    A distinctive appellation 40km SE of Bordeaux.
    Semillon 80%, Sauvignon Blanc 15%, & Muscadelle.
    Autumns characterised by misty mornings and sunny days, encouraging Botrytis mould, or Noble rot, which concentrates juice.
    Elegant, sweet, honeyed, full-bodied with a long life-expectancy.
    Complex fruity and floral nose and palate.
    Low yields, labour intensive harvest = expensive wine!
    Chateau d’Yquem: £500 a bottle for recent vintages!
  • 54. Botrytis mould
    ‘Noble rot’
  • 55. Summing-up
    Three groups of French wine makers:
    In favoured areas unchanged traditional production of quality wines - Champagne, Bordeaux, Burgundy, Rhone & Loire. Mixture of excellent, good and complacent. Expensive products. All AOC.
    Outside favoured (AOC) areas:
    Traditional (peasant) production – little or no innovation. Moderate-poor quality. A dying race. Vin de Table or distillery. Grants for grubbing-up vines.
    But also enterprising producers elsewhere; experimenting unconventional varieties, modern vinification, imported technology and know-how; flying winemakers. Best Vin de Pays wines.
  • 56. Today’s wines
    Champagne Jacquart, Tradition, NVBrut £18.00 *
    Pouilly-Fume, Les Cascadelles, 2009 AOC £10.99 *
    The Society’s Exhibition Morgon, 2005 AOC £8.00 WS
    Domaine de Valmoissine, Pinot Noir, Louis Latour,
    Vin de Pays des Coteaux du Verdon 2009 £8.99 *
    Domaine Lucien Barrot et Fils, Chateauneuf-du-Pape , AOC 2007 £22.00 *
    Chateau Gloria, St Julien, 2001, AOC £10.00 L
    The Society’s Exhibition Sauternes, 2007 AOC £20.00 WS
    * Majestic WS Wine Society L Laytons
  • 57. Aroma test
    Which of today’s wines is this?
    Think of characteristic aromas!
  • 58. Best value
    Which of today’s range offers best value?
  • 59. Next session
    Wednesday 13 April 2011
    at 2.30pm
    Wines of Iberia, Italy, etc