0
Mod 8Mod 8
Adverse Conditions
Extreme Weather Conditions
Protecting Occupants
Roadway & Vehicle Technology
Traction L...
Headlight Alignment and SpeedHeadlight Alignment and Speed
Properly alignedProperly aligned LOW BEAMLOW BEAM headlightshea...
Headlight Alignment and SpeedHeadlight Alignment and Speed
OverdrivingOverdriving your headlightsyour headlights
Your veh...
Other driver with high beams onOther driver with high beams on::
• Where do we look?
• Down and to the right edge of the r...
Mirror Blind Spot and Glare Elimination (BGE)Mirror Blind Spot and Glare Elimination (BGE)
BGE LEFT SIDE MIRROR VIEW
BGE R...
Alleviate glare in the rear view mirrorAlleviate glare in the rear view mirror
at night?at night?
Flip the day/night leve...
Visibility Limitations in FogVisibility Limitations in Fog
Reduce speedReduce speed
Make sure your headlights are onMake s...
Visibility Limitations in FogVisibility Limitations in Fog
 Reduce speed, but NEVER stop in aReduce speed, but NEVER stop...
Strong winds will cause:
• Buffeting
• Can cause total loss
of control
What should you do?What should you do?
Clean ALL of the snow off the vehicle!
Turn on windshield wipersTurn on windshield wipers
Be alert for vehicles stopped on the roadwayBe alert for vehicles stopp...
Precautions in Bad WeatherPrecautions in Bad Weather
In severe snow conditions, look for exit from highway and turn onIn s...
Low Water CrossingsLow Water Crossings
Slow down, try to learnSlow down, try to learn
depth & cross in thedepth & cross in...
HydroplaningHydroplaning
• Water builds between
the tires & the road
• Total loss of traction
• No control
• Will take off...
How can you determine water depth?How can you determine water depth?
1) Fire hydrants
2) Road signs
3) Fences
4) Cars
5) B...
How do youHow do you
dry the brakes?dry the brakes?
• Keep slight pressure
on the accelerator &
the brake at the
same time...
Minimize glareMinimize glare
• Clean windshield
• Wear sunglasses
Dusty or sandy areas?Dusty or sandy areas?
• Change oil
• Oil filter
• Air filter
Underinflation?Underinflation?
• Risk of a blowout
• Bad handling
Tips for snow & iceTips for snow & ice
1. Accel gently
2. Extra room to stop
3. Slow down
4. Big follow distance
5. Stay i...
Wind?Wind?
• Headwind –
accelerate to
maintain speed
• Tailwind – Brake to
maintain speed
Safety Restraints for AdultsSafety Restraints for Adults
Your number one defense to prevent severeYour number one defense ...
Wear Lap BeltWear Lap Belt
low and snug across hips (pelvis) tolow and snug across hips (pelvis) to
avoid unnecessary inte...
If you are traveling 65 MPHIf you are traveling 65 MPH
 Your body is moving
at 65 MPH
 Car hits tree & stops
immediately...
Safety Restraints for YouthSafety Restraints for Youth
Belt and Seat Restraint UseBelt and Seat Restraint Use
 Safest if ...
Adjustable
Shoulder-Belt Mount
Head Restraint
(middle of head)
Air Bag
Crash
Sensors
Gases Vent
Opening
Occupant Protectio...
Safety Restraints for AdultsSafety Restraints for Adults
Air Bag in Steering WheelAir Bag in Steering Wheel
• Raise seat o...
Safety Restraints for AdultsSafety Restraints for Adults
 No passenger under 12 years ofNo passenger under 12 years of
ag...
Types of Belt-Locking SystemsTypes of Belt-Locking Systems
Normal ConditionsNormal Conditions
Seat Belt Seat Belt
Ratchet ...
Secondary collision?Secondary collision?
• Bodies in a vehicle collide with the interior
of the vehicle
• Wheel, windows, ...
Movement of Belted OccupantMovement of Belted Occupant
Head = 1.9 ft.Head = 1.9 ft.
Chest = 1.3 ft.Chest = 1.3 ft.
Pelvis ...
ResponsesResponses
Low speeds – most fatal crashes occur at
less than 45 MPH (125 lbs @ 30MPH =
force of 3750)
Thrown cl...
 Rumble strips
Occupant Protection HighwayOccupant Protection Highway
Design Features IncludeDesign Features Include
High...
SafestSafest
place toplace to
stop ifstop if
youyou
have tohave to
pull offpull off
the roadthe road
 Anti-Lock BrakesAnti-Lock Brakes
 Crush ZonesCrush Zones
 Traction Control DevicesTraction Control Devices
 Electroni...
Traction –Traction – grip between the tires & the road.grip between the tires & the road.
Allows vehicle to start stops & ...
7 road conditions =7 road conditions =
loss of tractionloss of traction
1. Rain
2. Snow
3. Ice
4. Gravel
5. Uneven
6. Sand...
Worst traction first 10-15 minWorst traction first 10-15 min
after rain starts?after rain starts?
• Water, dirt, oil &
rub...
Causes ofCauses of Traction LossTraction Loss
Brakes unevenly adjusted
Brakes pulling in one direction or the other can ca...
Weight Moves to the Front of the Car CausingWeight Moves to the Front of the Car Causing
– a noticeable drop of the hood
–...
Weight Moves to the Rear of the Car CausingWeight Moves to the Rear of the Car Causing
– a noticeable rise of the hood
– a...
 Weight Moves to the Opposite Side of the CarWeight Moves to the Opposite Side of the Car
 Weight Movement Causes:Weight...
Traction Loss to Front TiresTraction Loss to Front Tires
If A Vehicle Keeps Moving Straight Ahead in Spite of Steering
Eff...
To Correct Understeer Traction LossTo Correct Understeer Traction Loss
Targeted Path of TravelTargeted Path of Travel
Lift...
Traction Loss to Rear TiresTraction Loss to Rear Tires
• Identified by driver when front of vehicle moves to the left orId...
• Direct Vision to Targeted Path of TravelDirect Vision to Targeted Path of Travel
Oversteer Traction Loss CorrectionOvers...
TractionTraction
• ABS helps with
understeer traction
loss
• Traction control
helps with
oversteer traction
loss
Off-Road RecoveryOff-Road Recovery
• Do not panic and steer too abruptlyDo not panic and steer too abruptly
• Ease off acc...
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Module 8 2009

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Transcript of "Module 8 2009"

  1. 1. Mod 8Mod 8 Adverse Conditions Extreme Weather Conditions Protecting Occupants Roadway & Vehicle Technology Traction Loss Concerns
  2. 2. Headlight Alignment and SpeedHeadlight Alignment and Speed Properly alignedProperly aligned LOW BEAMLOW BEAM headlightsheadlights lighted area above road 300 to 500 feet illuminated roadway 100 to 150 feet The Code of Virginia requiresThe Code of Virginia requires that you use your headlights from sunset to sunrise and during inclement weather, such as rain, fog, snow, or when you use your windshield wipers. At twilight, when the sun light begins to fade, turn your headlights ON. This will make your vehicle more visible to others. beam hits roadway 100 to 150 feet ahead illuminates area above road 300 to 500 feet ahead load, load distribution, and vehicle height affect light beam distance a maximum safe speed of 40 to 45 mph is based on your ability to stop within the lighted area
  3. 3. Headlight Alignment and SpeedHeadlight Alignment and Speed OverdrivingOverdriving your headlightsyour headlights Your vehicle’s stopping distance is greater than the distance lighted by your headlights.  To determine if you are overdriving your headlights, select an object the moment the headlights pick it up, and count off six seconds.  The posted speed limits are calculated for daylight driving and are often too fast for nighttime conditions.  Dirty headlights and improper headlight alignment will add to this traffic safety problem. Fixed Object1000 and 1 1 second 1000 and 6 6 second 1000 and 6 6 second Speed is Safe Speed is too FAST  If the object is still ahead of your vehicle, you are driving at a safe speed.  If you have passed it, you are driving too fast.
  4. 4. Other driver with high beams onOther driver with high beams on:: • Where do we look? • Down and to the right edge of the roadway making brief glances forward
  5. 5. Mirror Blind Spot and Glare Elimination (BGE)Mirror Blind Spot and Glare Elimination (BGE) BGE LEFT SIDE MIRROR VIEW BGE RIGHT SIDE MIRROR VIEW REAR MIRROR VIEW Reference: Blindzone & Glare Elimination (BGE) Mirror Settings (G. Platzer, 1996)Reference: Blindzone & Glare Elimination (BGE) Mirror Settings (G. Platzer, 1996) Adjusting the side mirror setting 15 degree outwardAdjusting the side mirror setting 15 degree outward (BGE) helps to reflect light away from the driver(BGE) helps to reflect light away from the driver •Peripheral Vision Area Peripheral Vision Area
  6. 6. Alleviate glare in the rear view mirrorAlleviate glare in the rear view mirror at night?at night? Flip the day/night lever on the bottom of the rear view mirror Tilts mirror 15 degrees
  7. 7. Visibility Limitations in FogVisibility Limitations in Fog Reduce speedReduce speed Make sure your headlights are onMake sure your headlights are on low beamlow beam (aimed at the road surface) to reduce the(aimed at the road surface) to reduce the amount of light/glare reflected back at youamount of light/glare reflected back at you Turn on your windshield wipersTurn on your windshield wipers If necessary, turn on the defroster or airIf necessary, turn on the defroster or air conditioner (thatconditioner (that dehumidifies the airdehumidifies the air)) Driving inDriving in Drifting FogDrifting Fog
  8. 8. Visibility Limitations in FogVisibility Limitations in Fog  Reduce speed, but NEVER stop in aReduce speed, but NEVER stop in a travel lanetravel lane  Turn on emergency flashersTurn on emergency flashers  Look for an exit from the highwayLook for an exit from the highway stop beyond end of guard rail back up to outboard of the guard rail turn off all lights wait for the fog to lift Driving inDriving in Heavy FogHeavy Fog If impossible to leave highway
  9. 9. Strong winds will cause: • Buffeting • Can cause total loss of control
  10. 10. What should you do?What should you do? Clean ALL of the snow off the vehicle!
  11. 11. Turn on windshield wipersTurn on windshield wipers Be alert for vehicles stopped on the roadwayBe alert for vehicles stopped on the roadway Be prepared for effects of gusting or strong steady crosswindsBe prepared for effects of gusting or strong steady crosswinds Make all steering, accelerating, and braking actions gently andMake all steering, accelerating, and braking actions gently and smoothlysmoothly Precautions in Bad WeatherPrecautions in Bad Weather
  12. 12. Precautions in Bad WeatherPrecautions in Bad Weather In severe snow conditions, look for exit from highway and turn onIn severe snow conditions, look for exit from highway and turn on the radio for a weather reportthe radio for a weather report If impossible to leave highway, stop beyond the outboard end ofIf impossible to leave highway, stop beyond the outboard end of guard railguard rail Use cell phone to check conditionsUse cell phone to check conditions Smoke, ice, fog, and snow oftenSmoke, ice, fog, and snow often require use of windshield washerrequire use of windshield washer
  13. 13. Low Water CrossingsLow Water Crossings Slow down, try to learnSlow down, try to learn depth & cross in thedepth & cross in the middle (shallowest)middle (shallowest) Nearly 50% of flashNearly 50% of flash flood fatalities areflood fatalities are vehicle relatedvehicle related Most vehicles will floatMost vehicles will float in 2 feet of waterin 2 feet of water Very little water on theVery little water on the road surface canroad surface can cause loss of controlcause loss of control
  14. 14. HydroplaningHydroplaning • Water builds between the tires & the road • Total loss of traction • No control • Will take off like a plane!
  15. 15. How can you determine water depth?How can you determine water depth? 1) Fire hydrants 2) Road signs 3) Fences 4) Cars 5) Buildings
  16. 16. How do youHow do you dry the brakes?dry the brakes? • Keep slight pressure on the accelerator & the brake at the same time. • Creates friction or heat
  17. 17. Minimize glareMinimize glare • Clean windshield • Wear sunglasses
  18. 18. Dusty or sandy areas?Dusty or sandy areas? • Change oil • Oil filter • Air filter
  19. 19. Underinflation?Underinflation? • Risk of a blowout • Bad handling
  20. 20. Tips for snow & iceTips for snow & ice 1. Accel gently 2. Extra room to stop 3. Slow down 4. Big follow distance 5. Stay in tire tracks 6. NO cruise control
  21. 21. Wind?Wind? • Headwind – accelerate to maintain speed • Tailwind – Brake to maintain speed
  22. 22. Safety Restraints for AdultsSafety Restraints for Adults Your number one defense to prevent severeYour number one defense to prevent severe injuries is to wear your safety belt.injuries is to wear your safety belt. • Adjust the seat, place your lower back firmly against theAdjust the seat, place your lower back firmly against the seat and sit up straight.seat and sit up straight. • If your vehicle is equipped with an adjustable center postIf your vehicle is equipped with an adjustable center post mounting for shoulder belt height, adjust it to the propermounting for shoulder belt height, adjust it to the proper height setting so the belt does not rub against your neck.height setting so the belt does not rub against your neck. • The shoulder belt should go over the shoulder and acrossThe shoulder belt should go over the shoulder and across the chest and rest against the bodythe chest and rest against the body. If a crash occurs and a person has not taken the slack out of the shoulder belt, the extra forward movement of the body will increase the chance of injury. • The lap part of the belt should be worn low and snug on theThe lap part of the belt should be worn low and snug on the hips, barely touching the thighs.hips, barely touching the thighs. If a crash were to occur, the force would then be applied to the strong pelvic bones and not the abdomen, reducing the chance of serious internal injuries. • Check frequently for snug fit across the sternum & hips (bones)!
  23. 23. Wear Lap BeltWear Lap Belt low and snug across hips (pelvis) tolow and snug across hips (pelvis) to avoid unnecessary internal injuriesavoid unnecessary internal injuries Adjusting Belts for Proper FitAdjusting Belts for Proper Fit Wear Shoulder BeltWear Shoulder Belt over collar bone and chestover collar bone and chest (sternum) to avoid(sternum) to avoid shouldershoulder dislocation and ribdislocation and rib cagecage damagedamage Seat belts should be worn over the strongest skeletal bones
  24. 24. If you are traveling 65 MPHIf you are traveling 65 MPH  Your body is moving at 65 MPH  Car hits tree & stops immediately, your body is still moving…  65 MPH  What stops it if no seatbelt? Wheel, tree
  25. 25. Safety Restraints for YouthSafety Restraints for Youth Belt and Seat Restraint UseBelt and Seat Restraint Use  Safest if seated in back center seat  Infant seats/rear facing/birth to 20 lbs.  Use child seats up to 40 lbs.  Use booster seats up to 60 lbs. & at least 8 years old. Infant Car Bed Rear Facing Infant Seat Forward Facing Child Restraints Booster Seats
  26. 26. Adjustable Shoulder-Belt Mount Head Restraint (middle of head) Air Bag Crash Sensors Gases Vent Opening Occupant ProtectionOccupant Protection Air bags work with seatbelts, not in place of them!Air bags work with seatbelts, not in place of them!
  27. 27. Safety Restraints for AdultsSafety Restraints for Adults Air Bag in Steering WheelAir Bag in Steering Wheel • Raise seat or adjust steering wheel toRaise seat or adjust steering wheel to direct air bag toward chestdirect air bag toward chest and not atand not at the facial areathe facial area • Adjust seat for a minimumAdjust seat for a minimum 10-inch10-inch clearance between chest and steeringclearance between chest and steering wheelwheel • Hand position should be atHand position should be at 8 and 48 and 4 • Avoid 10 and 2 hand position to preventAvoid 10 and 2 hand position to prevent blow hole burns to hands and armsblow hole burns to hands and arms 10 inches
  28. 28. Safety Restraints for AdultsSafety Restraints for Adults  No passenger under 12 years ofNo passenger under 12 years of age should sit in the front seatage should sit in the front seat  Protect driver or passengers fromProtect driver or passengers from sustaining severe head and chest injuriessustaining severe head and chest injuries  The speed of bag inflation is critical toThe speed of bag inflation is critical to prevent body contact with the steeringprevent body contact with the steering wheelwheel Air Bags in Dash or Steering WheelAir Bags in Dash or Steering Wheel The air bag inflates in the blink of an eye, at speeds as high as 200 miles per hour.
  29. 29. Types of Belt-Locking SystemsTypes of Belt-Locking Systems Normal ConditionsNormal Conditions Seat Belt Seat Belt Ratchet Mechanism Ratchet Mechanism Pendulum Pendulum Bar Bar Sudden Car MovementSudden Car Movement Emergency ConditionsEmergency Conditions
  30. 30. Secondary collision?Secondary collision? • Bodies in a vehicle collide with the interior of the vehicle • Wheel, windows, dash, floor board
  31. 31. Movement of Belted OccupantMovement of Belted Occupant Head = 1.9 ft.Head = 1.9 ft. Chest = 1.3 ft.Chest = 1.3 ft. Pelvis = 1.2 ft.Pelvis = 1.2 ft. 31 MPH Crash31 MPH Crash
  32. 32. ResponsesResponses Low speeds – most fatal crashes occur at less than 45 MPH (125 lbs @ 30MPH = force of 3750) Thrown clear – must remain in seat Short tips – most fatal crashes within 25 miles of home. Most crashes within 5!
  33. 33.  Rumble strips Occupant Protection HighwayOccupant Protection Highway Design Features IncludeDesign Features Include Highway Safety Design FeaturesHighway Safety Design Features  Crash attenuators such as vinyl liquid or sand filled drums  New design guard rails with ends angled away from roadway and buried
  34. 34. SafestSafest place toplace to stop ifstop if youyou have tohave to pull offpull off the roadthe road
  35. 35.  Anti-Lock BrakesAnti-Lock Brakes  Crush ZonesCrush Zones  Traction Control DevicesTraction Control Devices  Electronic Stability Program (ESP)Electronic Stability Program (ESP)  Suspension Control DevicesSuspension Control Devices  Door LatchesDoor Latches  GlassGlass  HeadlightsHeadlights Automotive TechnologyAutomotive Technology
  36. 36. Traction –Traction – grip between the tires & the road.grip between the tires & the road. Allows vehicle to start stops & turnAllows vehicle to start stops & turn 1) Static – veh not moving. Max traction 2) Rolling – veh moving. Traction depends on surface 3) Sliding – Veh moving but tires not rolling. Lost traction (control)
  37. 37. 7 road conditions =7 road conditions = loss of tractionloss of traction 1. Rain 2. Snow 3. Ice 4. Gravel 5. Uneven 6. Sand 7. Dirt
  38. 38. Worst traction first 10-15 minWorst traction first 10-15 min after rain starts?after rain starts? • Water, dirt, oil & rubber combine • Roads extremely slick during this time
  39. 39. Causes ofCauses of Traction LossTraction Loss Brakes unevenly adjusted Brakes pulling in one direction or the other can cause a skid--as can wheels out of alignment when brakes are applied Tires with unevenly worn tread - The size of the front and rear tires do not matched - Tires cannot channel water! Condition of the VehicleCondition of the Vehicle Different tire pressure on opposite sides of the vehicle has a similar effect to uneven brake adjustment since one tire will drag more than others
  40. 40. Weight Moves to the Front of the Car CausingWeight Moves to the Front of the Car Causing – a noticeable drop of the hood – a noticeable rise of the rear deck – forward movement of driver and passengers Traction Loss ConsiderationsTraction Loss Considerations WhenWhen BrakesBrakes are Applied Too Hard or Quicklyare Applied Too Hard or Quickly Direction of Travel Force or Weight Movement RearRear LIFTSLIFTS Front DROPSFront DROPS
  41. 41. Weight Moves to the Rear of the Car CausingWeight Moves to the Rear of the Car Causing – a noticeable rise of the hood – a noticeable drop of the rear deck – rearward movement of driver and passengers Traction Loss ConsiderationTraction Loss Consideration WhenWhen AccelerationAcceleration is Applied Too Hard or Quicklyis Applied Too Hard or Quickly Direction of Travel Front LIFTSFront LIFTS Force or Weight Movement RearRear DROPSDROPS
  42. 42.  Weight Moves to the Opposite Side of the CarWeight Moves to the Opposite Side of the Car  Weight Movement Causes:Weight Movement Causes: – a noticeable drop and tilt of the hood – a noticeable rise and tilt of the rear deck – driver and passenger movement towards the car’s corner Traction Loss ConsiderationTraction Loss Consideration WhenWhen SteeringSteering is Applied Too Hard or Quicklyis Applied Too Hard or Quickly Force or Weight MovementFront DROPSFront DROPS RearRear LIFTSLIFTS Direction of TravelDirection of Travel
  43. 43. Traction Loss to Front TiresTraction Loss to Front Tires If A Vehicle Keeps Moving Straight Ahead in Spite of Steering Efforts To the Contrary, It Means Front Traction Has Been Lost The Technical Term is Called “Understeer” Actual PathActual Path of Travelof Travel Intended PathIntended Path of Travelof Travel front tiresfront tires SLIDESLIDE rear tiresrear tires PUSHPUSH The Driver Will First Visually Identify Unusual Forward Sliding Movement Caused by the Vehicle’s Weight Pushing the Front Wheels Straight Ahead Regardless of Any Steering Input
  44. 44. To Correct Understeer Traction LossTo Correct Understeer Traction Loss Targeted Path of TravelTargeted Path of Travel Lift Eyes toLift Eyes to TargetedTargeted Path of TravelPath of Travel Intended Path of TravelIntended Path of Travel Actual PathActual Path of Travelof Travel • Direct Vision to Targeted Path of TravelDirect Vision to Targeted Path of Travel • Activate ABS, if Vehicle is EquippedActivate ABS, if Vehicle is Equipped – Ease off Conventional Brake System – Reestablish Rolling Traction • Ease off Steering InputsEase off Steering Inputs – Abrupt Steering Can Create Traction Loss – Allows Tire Tread to Point Toward Path of Travel • Jab/Stab Brake to Move Weight Forward if ABS is not AvailableJab/Stab Brake to Move Weight Forward if ABS is not Available (ABS performs this function automatically)(ABS performs this function automatically)
  45. 45. Traction Loss to Rear TiresTraction Loss to Rear Tires • Identified by driver when front of vehicle moves to the left orIdentified by driver when front of vehicle moves to the left or right of travel path without steering input in that directionright of travel path without steering input in that direction • Technical term is “Technical term is “OversteerOversteer”” Intended Path of TravelIntended Path of Travel Actual PathActual Path of Travelof Travel • Vehicle’s Weight Tends to Push RearVehicle’s Weight Tends to Push Rear Wheels Left or Right Without Steering InputWheels Left or Right Without Steering Input • Vehicle Begins To YawVehicle Begins To Yaw front tiresfront tires ROLLROLL rear tiresrear tires SLIDESLIDE
  46. 46. • Direct Vision to Targeted Path of TravelDirect Vision to Targeted Path of Travel Oversteer Traction Loss CorrectionOversteer Traction Loss Correction On Targeted Path On Targeted Path Off TargetedOff Targeted PathPath • Steer Toward Targeted Path of TravelSteer Toward Targeted Path of Travel • Adjust Steering Input as Needed to Maintain Targeted Path ofAdjust Steering Input as Needed to Maintain Targeted Path of TravelTravel • Apply Light Progressive Acceleration (2 mph is goal) to Move theApply Light Progressive Acceleration (2 mph is goal) to Move the Weight to the Rear. (The Traction Control System will adjust theWeight to the Rear. (The Traction Control System will adjust the speed and brakes automatically when activated)speed and brakes automatically when activated) • Activate Traction ControlActivate Traction Control System, if Equipped:System, if Equipped: – Ease off brake or accelerator – Reestablish rolling traction IntendedIntended Path ofPath of TravelTravel Rear Tire Movement Rear Tire Movement
  47. 47. TractionTraction • ABS helps with understeer traction loss • Traction control helps with oversteer traction loss
  48. 48. Off-Road RecoveryOff-Road Recovery • Do not panic and steer too abruptlyDo not panic and steer too abruptly • Ease off acceleratorEase off accelerator • DO NOT BRAKEDO NOT BRAKE • Get both wheels off the pavement & STOP!Get both wheels off the pavement & STOP! • Steer the vehicle parallel to the roadwaySteer the vehicle parallel to the roadway • If clear, ease back on to the roadway one wheel atIf clear, ease back on to the roadway one wheel at a timea time • Limit steering inputs to less than 1/8 of a turn ofLimit steering inputs to less than 1/8 of a turn of the wheelthe wheel • Use even less input when the edge of road is highUse even less input when the edge of road is high • Target the center of the adjacent lane to avoid aTarget the center of the adjacent lane to avoid a “Slingshot” maneuver into oncoming traffic“Slingshot” maneuver into oncoming traffic
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