Information Processing:Information Processing:
Moderate Risk Driving EnvironmentModerate Risk Driving Environment
Topic 1 ...
Processing InformationProcessing Information
T – 5.1
Topic 1 Lesson 1
Basic Requirements for DrivingBasic Requirements for...
Processing InformationProcessing Information
T – 5.2
Topic 1 Lesson 1
• SEARCHSEARCH for objects orfor objects or
conditio...
Field of VisionField of Vision
T – 5.3
Topic 1 Lesson 2
90 percent of driving decisions are based90 percent of driving dec...
Search PracticesSearch Practices
Topic 1 Lesson 2Topic 1 Lesson 2
Where to searchWhere to search involves identifyinginvol...
SearchingSearching
Position of VehiclePosition of Vehicle
Speed of VehicleSpeed of Vehicle
T – 5.5
Topic 1 Lesson 2
Lookin...
Managing Visual SearchesManaging Visual Searches
Topic 1 Lesson 2
T – 5.6
Search far ahead to identify potential conflicts...
Managing Visual SearchesManaging Visual Searches
Topic 1 Lesson 2
T – 5.6a
Search for Closed or Changing Path of Travel
Id...
Managing Visual SearchesManaging Visual Searches
4- to 8-Second Search Area4- to 8-Second Search Area
• Immediate Path of ...
Determining Following IntervalsDetermining Following Intervals
Two secondTwo second following intervalfollowing interval a...
• Traffic ControlsTraffic Controls
• Motor VehiclesMotor Vehicles
• Non-Motorized UsersNon-Motorized Users
• RoadsRoads
Vi...
IntersectionsIntersections
Processing Highway ConditionsProcessing Highway Conditions
RoadwayRoadway
StructureStructure
•W...
Processing TRAFFIC CONTROL DevicesProcessing TRAFFIC CONTROL Devices
SignsSigns
•Regulatory
•Warning
•Guide
•RR
SignalsSig...
Motor VehiclesMotor Vehicles
Road HandlingRoad Handling
CharacteristicsCharacteristics
TypeType
•AutomobileAutomobile
•SUV...
Non-MotorizedNon-Motorized Users…Users…
• KIND AND SIZE
• NUMBERS
• AGE OF RIDER
• ACTIVITY
• RIDER ABILITY
In-Line Skates...
Positioning the VehiclePositioning the Vehicle
Topic 1 Lesson 4Topic 1 Lesson 4
T – 5.14T – 5.14
Vehicle Placement is Crit...
Maintaining Space/Visibility to the FrontMaintaining Space/Visibility to the Front
T – 5.14a
Topic 1 Lesson 4
Three ways t...
Lane PositionLane Position
Create Space and Improve Visibility by AdjustingCreate Space and Improve Visibility by Adjustin...
Staggered StopsStaggered Stops
StopStop your vehicleyour vehicle
(RED car)(RED car) behindbehind
the white stop barthe whi...
Intersection Search PatternsIntersection Search Patterns
Topic 2 Lesson 1
T – 5.17
Step 1 (Search)
Step 2 (Evaluate)
Step ...
Understanding Lane MarkingsUnderstanding Lane Markings
Shared Left Turn LaneShared Left Turn Lane Reversible LanesReversib...
Special Lane Markings
Topic 2 Lesson 1Topic 2 Lesson 1
T – 5.18aT – 5.18a
Shared Left Turn LaneShared Left Turn Lane
Drive...
Limited Line of Sight Through CurvesLimited Line of Sight Through Curves
T – 5.19
Topic 2 Lesson 2
LOS/POT CurvesLOS/POT Curves
T – 5.20
Topic 2 Lesson 2
Entering a Curve to the Right
• Determine Line of Sight / Path of T...
LOS/POT Curves
T – 5.21
Topic 2 Lesson 2
Begin in Lane
Position 3
Lane Position
2 Apex Point
Exit in
Lane
Position 1
Path ...
Line of Sight Over HillLine of Sight Over Hill
 Determine the BestDetermine the Best
Line of Sight andLine of Sight and
P...
Determining Passing Time/Space NeedsDetermining Passing Time/Space Needs
T – 5.23
Topic 3 Lesson 1
To pass another vehicle...
Identifying a Safe and Legal Passing ZoneIdentifying a Safe and Legal Passing Zone
Determining Passing Time/Space NeedsDet...
Determining Passing Time/Space NeedsDetermining Passing Time/Space Needs
T – 5.24
Topic 3 Lesson 1
2 Second Space 60
fps X...
Determining Passing Time/Space NeedsDetermining Passing Time/Space Needs
Topic 3 Lesson 1
T – 5.24a
To estimate the time a...
13 seconds / 780 ft. 13 seconds / 780 ft.
Space
Cushion
200 ft
TOTAL distance required to pass safely is 1760 ft (30 secon...
Passing Considerations —Passing Considerations — Larger VehiclesLarger Vehicles
T – 5.25
Topic 3 Lesson 1
Passing a 90-foo...
Passing ProceduresPassing Procedures
T – 5.26
Topic 3 Lesson 1
2 – 3 Seconds
Prepare to Pass:Prepare to Pass:
• Position v...
§ 46.2-838 — Passing when overtaking a vehicle§ 46.2-838 — Passing when overtaking a vehicle
The driver of any vehicle ove...
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Module 05 2004

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Module 05 2004

  1. 1. Information Processing:Information Processing: Moderate Risk Driving EnvironmentModerate Risk Driving Environment Topic 1 --Topic 1 -- Processing InformationProcessing Information Topic 2 --Topic 2 -- Intersections, Curves, and HillsIntersections, Curves, and Hills Topic 3 --Topic 3 -- PassingPassing Module Five TransparenciesModule Five Transparencies VirginiaVirginia Department of EducationDepartment of Education Provided in cooperation with the Virginia Department of Motor VehiclesProvided in cooperation with the Virginia Department of Motor Vehicles
  2. 2. Processing InformationProcessing Information T – 5.1 Topic 1 Lesson 1 Basic Requirements for DrivingBasic Requirements for Driving VISIBILITY... SPACE... TIME... SPACE... TRACTIONVISIBILITY... SPACE... TIME... SPACE... TRACTION DRIVER REQUIREMENTS VEHICLE REQUIREMENTS TO MANEUVERTO MANEUVER SAFELYSAFELY DriversDrivers need visibility,need visibility, space, and timespace, and time ANDAND VehiclesVehicles require time,require time, space, and tractionspace, and traction
  3. 3. Processing InformationProcessing Information T – 5.2 Topic 1 Lesson 1 • SEARCHSEARCH for objects orfor objects or conditions;conditions; • EVALUTEEVALUTE the path ahead forthe path ahead for alternate paths of travel; andalternate paths of travel; and • EXECUTEEXECUTE any neededany needed adjustments in speed oradjustments in speed or positionposition in Timein Time Visibility is critical to theVisibility is critical to the SEEiTSEEiT Space Management SystemSpace Management System More detailed information on SEEiT system may beMore detailed information on SEEiT system may be reviewed in Module 4.reviewed in Module 4. The driver must:The driver must:
  4. 4. Field of VisionField of Vision T – 5.3 Topic 1 Lesson 2 90 percent of driving decisions are based90 percent of driving decisions are based on information gathered with the eyes.on information gathered with the eyes. Area a Driver Can See While Looking Straight AheadArea a Driver Can See While Looking Straight Ahead PeripheralPeripheral VisionVision Central VisionCentral Vision Focus VisionFocus Vision Motion & ColorMotion & Color ChangesChanges TargetingTargeting (Reading Signs)(Reading Signs) Viewing Path of TravelViewing Path of Travel
  5. 5. Search PracticesSearch Practices Topic 1 Lesson 2Topic 1 Lesson 2 Where to searchWhere to search involves identifyinginvolves identifying objects or conditions that increase yourobjects or conditions that increase your level of risk and adjusting your speed orlevel of risk and adjusting your speed or vehicle position in time to minimizevehicle position in time to minimize these risksthese risks.. When to searchWhen to search involves systematicallyinvolves systematically scanning the driving environment. Thescanning the driving environment. The defensive driver constantly monitors thedefensive driver constantly monitors the conditions around the vehicle, especiallyconditions around the vehicle, especially before initiating any maneuverbefore initiating any maneuver How to searchHow to search involves looking in ainvolves looking in a pattern that goes from 20 – 30 secondspattern that goes from 20 – 30 seconds ahead of the vehicle to the dashboard, asahead of the vehicle to the dashboard, as well as to the left, right, and to the rear ofwell as to the left, right, and to the rear of the vehicle.the vehicle. T – 5.4T – 5.4
  6. 6. SearchingSearching Position of VehiclePosition of Vehicle Speed of VehicleSpeed of Vehicle T – 5.5 Topic 1 Lesson 2 Looking for Clues from Other DriversLooking for Clues from Other Drivers Actions of the DriverActions of the Driver DistractionsDistractions •Cell PhoneCell Phone •PassengersPassengers LostLost ImpairedImpaired Vehicle SignalsVehicle Signals •TurningTurning •BackingBacking •Hazard LightsHazard Lights •Hand SignalsHand Signals HeadlightsHeadlights HornHorn Brake LightsBrake Lights
  7. 7. Managing Visual SearchesManaging Visual Searches Topic 1 Lesson 2 T – 5.6 Search far ahead to identify potential conflictsSearch far ahead to identify potential conflicts • Objects in Path of Travel • Limitations to Line of Sight 20- to 30-Second Search Area20- to 30-Second Search Area TargetTarget AreaArea 20- to20- to 30-sec.30-sec. 12- to12- to 15-sec.15-sec. 4- to 8-4- to 8- sec.sec.
  8. 8. Managing Visual SearchesManaging Visual Searches Topic 1 Lesson 2 T – 5.6a Search for Closed or Changing Path of Travel Identify an Alternate Path of Travel or a Safe Stopping Zone Evaluate Open Zones to the Sides and Rear 12- to 15-Second Search Area12- to 15-Second Search Area 20- to20- to 30-sec.30-sec. 12- to12- to 15-sec.15-sec. 4- to 8-4- to 8- sec.sec.
  9. 9. Managing Visual SearchesManaging Visual Searches 4- to 8-Second Search Area4- to 8-Second Search Area • Immediate Path of Travel • Direct Response Area • Stopping Zone and Following Interval T – 5.7 Topic 1 Lesson 2 20- to20- to 30-sec.30-sec. 12- to12- to 15-sec.15-sec. 4- to4- to 8-sec.8-sec.
  10. 10. Determining Following IntervalsDetermining Following Intervals Two secondTwo second following intervalfollowing interval at speeds less than 35 mph •allows the driver time to steer out of problem areas on dry surfaces •designed for use if there is an alternate path of travel T – 5.8 Topic 1 Lesson 2 Four secondFour second following interval at speeds up to 65 mphfollowing interval at speeds up to 65 mph •allows the driver time to steer out of problem areas on dry surfacesallows the driver time to steer out of problem areas on dry surfaces •allows the driver time to stop before problem areas on dry surfacesallows the driver time to stop before problem areas on dry surfaces Alternate Path of TravelAlternate Path of Travel
  11. 11. • Traffic ControlsTraffic Controls • Motor VehiclesMotor Vehicles • Non-Motorized UsersNon-Motorized Users • RoadsRoads Visual Search CategoriesVisual Search Categories T – 5.9 Topic 1 Lesson 3
  12. 12. IntersectionsIntersections Processing Highway ConditionsProcessing Highway Conditions RoadwayRoadway StructureStructure •Width •Curbing •Curves •Slopes RoadwayRoadway SurfaceSurface •Roughness •Slick •Wet Leaves •Mud •Sand Roadway FeaturesRoadway Features •Shoulders •Affixed Objects •Adjacent Buildings AtmosphereAtmosphere •Illumination •Glare •Precipitation •Wind/Noise T – 5.10 Topic 1 Lesson 3 HighwayHighway ConditionsConditions
  13. 13. Processing TRAFFIC CONTROL DevicesProcessing TRAFFIC CONTROL Devices SignsSigns •Regulatory •Warning •Guide •RR SignalsSignals •Stop/Go •Lane Usage •Flashing T – 5.11 Topic 1 Lesson 3 InterchangesInterchanges RoadwayRoadway MarkingsMarkings •Passing •Traffic Flow •Crosswalks UnmarkedUnmarked IntersectionsIntersections SensorySensory Input to theInput to the BrainBrain
  14. 14. Motor VehiclesMotor Vehicles Road HandlingRoad Handling CharacteristicsCharacteristics TypeType •AutomobileAutomobile •SUVSUV •CamperCamper •Pick-upPick-up •Motor HomeMotor Home •MotorcycleMotorcycle •Farm MachinesFarm Machines •Tractor-TrailerTractor-Trailer T – 5.12 Topic 1 Lesson 3 Drivers mustDrivers must understand theunderstand the handlinghandling characteristics ofcharacteristics of other motor vehiclesother motor vehicles sharing the roadway.sharing the roadway.
  15. 15. Non-MotorizedNon-Motorized Users…Users… • KIND AND SIZE • NUMBERS • AGE OF RIDER • ACTIVITY • RIDER ABILITY In-Line Skates, Skateboards Pedestrians Bicycles T – 5.13 Topic 1 Lesson 3 present special processing challengespresent special processing challenges Animals
  16. 16. Positioning the VehiclePositioning the Vehicle Topic 1 Lesson 4Topic 1 Lesson 4 T – 5.14T – 5.14 Vehicle Placement is Critical for EstablishingVehicle Placement is Critical for Establishing a Good Visual Fielda Good Visual Field Controlling Space to the FrontControlling Space to the Front Lane PositionLane Position Staggered StopsStaggered Stops
  17. 17. Maintaining Space/Visibility to the FrontMaintaining Space/Visibility to the Front T – 5.14a Topic 1 Lesson 4 Three ways to control space in front of the vehicle:Three ways to control space in front of the vehicle: 1.1. Time your Arrival –Time your Arrival – adjust speed early to avoidadjust speed early to avoid unnecessary braking, stops, and to conserve fuelunnecessary braking, stops, and to conserve fuel 2.2. Forward Placement at an Intersection –Forward Placement at an Intersection – maintain amaintain a position that allows you to monitor the intersectionposition that allows you to monitor the intersection 3.3. Following Interval --Following Interval -- control space while in motioncontrol space while in motion to establish a space cushion and open line of sightto establish a space cushion and open line of sight
  18. 18. Lane PositionLane Position Create Space and Improve Visibility by AdjustingCreate Space and Improve Visibility by Adjusting the Position of the Vehicle in the Lanethe Position of the Vehicle in the Lane Lane Positions –Lane Positions – 1, 2, 3, 4, and 51, 2, 3, 4, and 5 T – 5.15 Within LaneWithin Lane PositionsPositions Straddle Lane PositionsStraddle Lane Positions Topic 1 Lesson 4 LP 3 LP 2 LP 4 LP 5 LP 1
  19. 19. Staggered StopsStaggered Stops StopStop your vehicleyour vehicle (RED car)(RED car) behindbehind the white stop barthe white stop bar SelectSelect LaneLane Position 3 toPosition 3 to give the truckgive the truck as much spaceas much space as possibleas possible T – 5.16 Topic 1 Lesson 4 Improving Visibility and Creating SpaceImproving Visibility and Creating Space for a Truck Making a Left Turnfor a Truck Making a Left Turn
  20. 20. Intersection Search PatternsIntersection Search Patterns Topic 2 Lesson 1 T – 5.17 Step 1 (Search) Step 2 (Evaluate) Step 3 (Execute) Intersection Approach:Intersection Approach:  Identify intersection  Identify controls  Check rear areas  Search for intersection problems  Scan path of travel 1st  Scan all other areas  Look for closed or changing frontal areas  Adjust speed  Maintain lane position  Stop behind crosswalk, or  Proceed through open space area iinn TTimeime
  21. 21. Understanding Lane MarkingsUnderstanding Lane Markings Shared Left Turn LaneShared Left Turn Lane Reversible LanesReversible Lanes T – 5.18 Topic 2 Lesson 1
  22. 22. Special Lane Markings Topic 2 Lesson 1Topic 2 Lesson 1 T – 5.18aT – 5.18a Shared Left Turn LaneShared Left Turn Lane Drivers traveling in eitherDrivers traveling in either direction may use thisdirection may use this lane for making left turns.lane for making left turns. Drivers may not travelDrivers may not travel further than 150 feet infurther than 150 feet in this shared lane.this shared lane. Driver may use the sharedDriver may use the shared left turn lane to enter aleft turn lane to enter a street from a driveway.street from a driveway. Reversible LanesReversible Lanes Traffic in these lanes moves inTraffic in these lanes moves in one direction during certainone direction during certain periods of the day and in theperiods of the day and in the opposite direction duringopposite direction during other times of the day.other times of the day. Often found in areas with aOften found in areas with a large volume of traffic cominglarge volume of traffic coming in a city during the morningin a city during the morning hours and going out duringhours and going out during the afternoon hours.the afternoon hours.
  23. 23. Limited Line of Sight Through CurvesLimited Line of Sight Through Curves T – 5.19 Topic 2 Lesson 2
  24. 24. LOS/POT CurvesLOS/POT Curves T – 5.20 Topic 2 Lesson 2 Entering a Curve to the Right • Determine Line of Sight / Path of Travel • LP2 provides the best visibility • Check traffic to the rear Path of Travel Line of Sight Begin in Lane Position 2 Lane Position 3 Apex Point Exiting the Curve • Adjust speed and position for best visibility and space cushion Moving Through the Curve • Determine target area • LP3 provides best space cushion Exit in Lane Position 1
  25. 25. LOS/POT Curves T – 5.21 Topic 2 Lesson 2 Begin in Lane Position 3 Lane Position 2 Apex Point Exit in Lane Position 1 Path of Travel Line of Sight Entering a Curve to the LeftEntering a Curve to the Left •Determine Line of Sight/Path of TravelDetermine Line of Sight/Path of Travel •LP 3 provides the best visibilityLP 3 provides the best visibility •Check traffic to the rearCheck traffic to the rear Moving Through the CurveMoving Through the Curve •Determine target areaDetermine target area •Determine ApexDetermine Apex Exiting the CurveExiting the Curve Adjust speed andAdjust speed and position for bestposition for best visibility and spacevisibility and space cushioncushion
  26. 26. Line of Sight Over HillLine of Sight Over Hill  Determine the BestDetermine the Best Line of Sight andLine of Sight and Path of TravelPath of Travel  Lane position 3Lane position 3 provides the bestprovides the best space cushionspace cushion  Line of Sight isLine of Sight is Restricted Up andRestricted Up and Down HillDown Hill T – 5.22 Topic 2 Lesson 2
  27. 27. Determining Passing Time/Space NeedsDetermining Passing Time/Space Needs T – 5.23 Topic 3 Lesson 1 To pass another vehicle safelyTo pass another vehicle safely you must:you must: • identify a safe and legal passingidentify a safe and legal passing zone;zone; • judge the time and space needed tojudge the time and space needed to pass;pass; • judge the relative speed andjudge the relative speed and distance of other vehicles; anddistance of other vehicles; and • apply proper passing skills andapply proper passing skills and complete the maneuver safely.complete the maneuver safely.
  28. 28. Identifying a Safe and Legal Passing ZoneIdentifying a Safe and Legal Passing Zone Determining Passing Time/Space NeedsDetermining Passing Time/Space Needs Topic 3 Lesson 1 T – 5.23a 2. the timetime you will need to pass safely 3.3. thethe spacespace you will need to safely pass the other vehicle Before you pass, you must determine:Before you pass, you must determine: TRAVEL TIME = SPACE Formula – Speed + ½ speed = feet per second (fps) traveled 60 mph -- 60 + 30 = 90 fps 1.1. if you are in a legal passing zoneif you are in a legal passing zone • broken line = pass withbroken line = pass with cautioncaution • solid line = no passingsolid line = no passing • list other areas where passinglist other areas where passing is prohibitedis prohibited
  29. 29. Determining Passing Time/Space NeedsDetermining Passing Time/Space Needs T – 5.24 Topic 3 Lesson 1 2 Second Space 60 fps X 2 = 120 ft. Total distance traveled: 13 sec. X 60 fps. = 780 ft. 2 sec. following distance = 120 ft. 1 car length = 15 ft. 1 sec. gap = 60 ft Total additional distance traveled = 195 ft. Time needed to pass: 195 ft. /15 ft. = 13 sec. Total distance traveled: 13 sec. X 60 fps. = 780 ft. Distance traveled = speed + ½ speed in feet per second Time to pass = distance traveled to complete pass, divided by difference in distance traveled per second by each vehicle RED car traveling 40 mph = 60 fps (40 mph X 1.5 fps = 60 fps) BLUE car traveling 30 mph = 45 fps (30 mph X 1.5 fps = 45 fps) 60 ft - 45 ft = 15 ft. Red car is traveling 15 fps faster than Blue car Judging Time and Space Needed to Pass SafelyJudging Time and Space Needed to Pass Safely 1 car length = 15 feet 1 Second Space 60 fps x 1 = 60 ft
  30. 30. Determining Passing Time/Space NeedsDetermining Passing Time/Space Needs Topic 3 Lesson 1 T – 5.24a To estimate the time and distance of an oncoming vehicle, begin counting when the vehicle is first seen: 1000 and 1; 1000 and 2; etc. Continue the count until the approaching vehicle is opposite your vehicle. Practicing this technique will help you develop the ability to judge speed and distance. 1000 and 20 COUNT ---COUNT --- 1000 and 1 = 1 second1000 and 1 = 1 second 1000 and 2 1000 and 1 Judging the Relative Speed and Distance of Other VehiclesJudging the Relative Speed and Distance of Other Vehicles
  31. 31. 13 seconds / 780 ft. 13 seconds / 780 ft. Space Cushion 200 ft TOTAL distance required to pass safely is 1760 ft (30 seconds). To complete a pass safely you must take ALL factors into accountTo complete a pass safely you must take ALL factors into account Judging the Relative Speed and Distance of Oncoming VehiclesJudging the Relative Speed and Distance of Oncoming Vehicles Passing Time/Space Needs —Passing Time/Space Needs — Oncoming VehiclesOncoming Vehicles Topic 3 Lesson 1 T –5.24 bT –5.24 b The example below is based on the approaching vehicleThe example below is based on the approaching vehicle traveling at 40 mph.traveling at 40 mph. RedRed vehicle will need 780 feet to complete the passvehicle will need 780 feet to complete the pass BrownBrown vehicle will travel 780 feetvehicle will travel 780 feet Allows a minimum 200 ft. space cushionAllows a minimum 200 ft. space cushion
  32. 32. Passing Considerations —Passing Considerations — Larger VehiclesLarger Vehicles T – 5.25 Topic 3 Lesson 1 Passing a 90-foot tractor trailerPassing a 90-foot tractor trailer • Would require an additional 5 secondsWould require an additional 5 seconds for thefor the RedRed vehiclevehicle 90-foot truck + 15-foot car = 75 feet additional90-foot truck + 15-foot car = 75 feet additional distance traveled = 5 secondsdistance traveled = 5 seconds • 18 seconds x 60 fps = 1080 feet18 seconds x 60 fps = 1080 feet needed byneeded by RedRed vehiclevehicle If there is an oncoming vehicleIf there is an oncoming vehicle traveling 40 mph, the total cleartraveling 40 mph, the total clear distance needed to pass safelydistance needed to pass safely becomes 1360 feet (23 seconds)becomes 1360 feet (23 seconds) 1080 + 1080 + 200 (space cushion)1080 + 1080 + 200 (space cushion) DaylightDaylight Headlight UseHeadlight Use Enhances SafetyEnhances Safety • an approaching vehicle without headlights becomes visible at about 2,200 to 2,500 feet • an approaching vehicle with headlights becomes visible at distances up to 4500 feet Passing on Multi-lane Roadways • safer than on two lane roadways • head-on crashes are rare • will not feel rushed into returning to the lane • can safely pass larger vehicles that require more time and space to pass
  33. 33. Passing ProceduresPassing Procedures T – 5.26 Topic 3 Lesson 1 2 – 3 Seconds Prepare to Pass:Prepare to Pass: • Position vehicle two to three seconds behind the vehicle to be passed. • Check mirrors, blind spot and oncoming traffic. • Check ahead for safe passing distance. • Signal intention. Overtake the OngoingOvertake the Ongoing Vehicle:Vehicle: • Accelerate into passing lane. • Accelerate quickly to a legal appropriate speed. • Monitor the path ahead. • Check the mirror for following vehicles. Return to Lane:Return to Lane: • Check rear-view mirror for the front of the vehicle being passed. • Signal intention. • Change lanes and maintain speed. • Cancel turn signal.
  34. 34. § 46.2-838 — Passing when overtaking a vehicle§ 46.2-838 — Passing when overtaking a vehicle The driver of any vehicle overtaking another vehicle proceeding in the same direction shall pass at least two feet to the left of the overtaken vehicle and shall not again drive to the right side of the highway until safely clear of such overtaken vehicle. In approaching or passing a person riding a bicycle or moped, the driver of a motor vehicle shall pass at a safe distance and at a reasonable speed. § 46.2-841 — When overtaking vehicle may pass on right§ 46.2-841 — When overtaking vehicle may pass on right § 46.2-839 — Passing bicycle or moped§ 46.2-839 — Passing bicycle or moped A. The driver of a vehicle may overtake and pass to the right of another vehicle only: 1. When the overtaken vehicle is making or about to make a left turn, and its driver has given the required signal 2. On a highway with unobstructed pavement, not occupied by parked vehicles, of sufficient width for two or more lines of moving vehicles in each direction; or 3. On a one-way street or on any one-way roadway when the roadway is free from obstructions and of sufficient width for two or more lines of moving vehicles. B. The driver of a vehicle may overtake and pass another vehicle on the right only under conditions permitting such movement in safety. Except where driving on paved shoulders is permitted by lawfully placed signs, no such movement shall be made by driving on the shoulder of the highway or off the pavement or main traveled portion of the roadway T – 5.27 Virginia LawVirginia Law Topic 3 Lesson 1 § 46.2-842 — Driver to give way to overtaking vehicle§ 46.2-842 — Driver to give way to overtaking vehicle Except when overtaking and passing on the right is permitted, the driver of an overtaken vehicle shall give way to the right in favor of the overtaking vehicle on audible signal and shall not increase the speed of his vehicle until completely passed by the overtaking vehicle. Any over-width, or slow-moving vehicle shall be removed from the roadway at the nearest suitable location when necessary to allow traffic to pass.

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