Making a Difference Mandated Reporter Instructor Guide
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Making a Difference Mandated Reporter Instructor Guide Document Transcript

  • 1.   MAKING A DIFFERENCE: Mandate to Report, Responsibility to Prevent Child Abuse & Neglect TRAIN-THE-TRAINER AGENDA 9:30 a.m. – 3:30 p.m. • Welcome • Purpose / Overview / Outcomes • Active Learning • Quiz - Child Maltreatment Reporting and Prevention • About Abuse and Neglect Module • Responsibility to Prevent Module • Lunch • Small Group Practice • Next Steps / Wrap-Up      
  • 2. TABLE OF CONTENTSTab 1:Making a Difference Train-the-Trainer Overview“Imagine” Ice Breaker ExerciseTrain-the-Trainer AgendaMaking a Difference Train-the-Trainer Session Purpose and OutcomesTab 2:Welcome/Icebreaker Instructor ModuleTab 3:Purpose/Outcomes Instructor ModuleSuggested Agenda: Making a Difference Local WorkshopParticipant Handout – Local Workshop Learning OutcomesParticipant Handout – Making a Difference PowerPoint SlidesChild Maltreatment Reporting and Prevention – Quiz and Answer KeyTab 4:About Abuse and Neglect Instructor ModuleParticipant Handout – Parental and Family Factors that May Lead to MaltreatmentParticipant Handout – Indicators of Possible Child MaltreatmentParticipant Handout – Links to Additional InformationTab 5:Who Must Report Instructor ModuleParticipant Handout – Who Must ReportTab 6:Disclosure Instructor ModuleMandated Reporter Disclosure Job AidParticipant Handout – Types of DisclosuresParticipant Handout – What to do When a Child or Adult DisclosesParticipant Handout – What NOT to Say when Someone Discloses to YouTab 7:What Happens When You Make a Report Instructor ModuleParticipant Handout – What Happens When You Make a ReportReporting Suspected Abuse or Neglect in WV – Flow chartTab 8:Responsibility to Prevent Instructor ModuleParticipant Handout – Circles of Caring / Protective Factors that Prevent Child MaltreatmentTab 9:Reaching Out Instructor ModuleTab 10:Action Plan/Close Instructor ModuleMaking a Difference Evaluation FormTraining Session Feedback Form
  • 3. TAB 1Making a Difference: Mandate to Report, Responsibility to Prevent Child Abuse & Neglect-Participant Materials
  • 4. OverviewThank  you  very  much  for  doing  your  part  to  prevent  child  abuse  and  neglect.    Through  your  efforts,  more  children  will  grow  up  in  nurturing  homes  and  communities  that  support  their  healthy  development,  which  helps  all  of  us  succeed.  Making  a  Difference:  Mandate  to  Report,  Responsibility  to  Prevent  Child  Abuse  &  Neglect  is  a  comprehensive  training  session  for  mandated  reporters  of  suspected  child  abuse  and  neglect  including  child  care  workers,  educators,  law  enforcement,  clergy,  medical  professionals  and  others  who  are  legally  mandated  to  report  suspected  abuse  or  neglect.  Other  concerned  citizens,  while  not  always  mandated  to  report,  are  interested  in  learning  of  child  maltreatment  prevention  and  reporting  measures.  Many  mandated  reporters  understand  the  importance  of  reporting  and  preventing  child  maltreatment,  but  may  feel  they  do  not  have  the  knowledge  to  do  so.  This  training  is  designed  to  provide  participants  with  the  information  needed  to  recognize,  report  and  prevent  child  maltreatment.  Child  maltreatment  is  a  devastating  social  problem  affecting  millions  of  children  and  families  each  year  in  the  United  States.  Tens  of  thousands  of  reports  are  made  to  child  protective  services  (CPS)  each  year.  Young  children  are  particularly  vulnerable.  It  is  estimated  that  the  direct  and  indirect  cost  of  child  maltreatment  in  the  United  States  exceeds  $103  billion  annually.    The  effects  of  child  maltreatment  upon  the  social,  cognitive  and  emotional  development  of  children  can  be  far-­‐reaching  and,  in  many  cases,  irreparable.    Child  maltreatment  is  not  caused  by  a  single  factor,  but  by  multiple  factors  related  to  the  individual,  family,  community,  and  greater  society.  Neighborhood  and  community  factors,  including  societal  values  and  beliefs,  influence  the  incidence  of  child  maltreatment.  Neighborhoods  characterized  by  residential  turnover,  poverty,  significant  unemployment,  violence,  lack  of  accessible  and  effective  community  resources,  and  lack  of  social  relationships  and  trust  between  neighbors  can  create  high-­‐risk  environments  for  families  who  are  already  experiencing  a  number  of  stressors  and  risk  factors.  Additionally,  cultural  values  and  beliefs,  including  societal  tolerance  and  promotion  of  violence,  acceptance  of  corporal  punishment,  and  the  lack  of  social  and  economic  support  for  children  and  families,  may  impair  parental  ability  to  adequately  nurture  and  protect  their  children.  This  training  is  also  intended  to  reinforce  the  Strengthening  Families  approach  developed  by  the  Center  for  the  Study  of  Social  Policy  and  can  help  individuals  to  know  when  and  how  to  facilitate  a  familys  linkage  to  assistance  and  support  before  child  maltreatment  occurs.  Child  maltreatment  is  not  inevitable;  it  is  preventable.  This  training  is  made  possible  with  financial  support  from  the  West  Virginia  Children’s  Trust  Fund,  the  West  Virginia  Department  of  Health  &  Human  Resources,  and  the  Claude  Worthington  Benedum  Foundation.    Their  generous  support  is  greatly  appreciated.  The  training  curriculum  is  also  adapted  from  a  similar  curriculum,  FACES  of  Prevention  Promises  to  Keep:  The  Mandate  to  Report,  The  Opportunity  to  Prevent,  developed  by  Prevent  Child  Abuse  Georgia,  who  designed  the  original  concept  and  graciously  allowed  us  to  use  their  materials  in  West  Virginia.    
  • 5. "Imagine" By James A. Mercy, NCIPC, Centers for Disease Control (CDC)Imagine if today.... the Surgeon General announced that a newly diagnoseddisease is attacking our countrys children.He predicts that if the disease is allowed to spread unchecked, it will sooninfect almost 3 million children a year, making it more widespread than anyother health problem for children.If a vaccine cannot be developed, he says, the country will have to spendbillions of dollars each year in treatment efforts to combat the effects of thedisease.Many children will carry the scars of the disease for the rest of their lives,and may well pass the infections on to their own children.If the Surgeon General made this announcement today, wouldnt weimmediately assign the best minds in our country to research ways ofpreventing the spread of such a devastating disease?And, if someone discovered an effective vaccine, wouldnt we be willing tospend whatever it cost to vaccinate every child in our society?Isnt that just what we did when polio was first diagnosed?There is such a problem attacking our countrys children: Its name is childabuse and we have a responsibility, for the sake of our children to protectthem from it.Thats why we are here today! To talk about what we can do toprevent child abuse before it happens!Making a Difference: Mandate to Report, Responsibility to Prevent Child Abuse & Neglect-Participant Materials
  • 6. Making a Difference Train-the-Trainer Session Purpose andOutcomesPurposeThis program will prepare participants to conduct training sessions for mandatedreporters of child abuse & neglect using the "Making a Difference" curriculum developedby Prevent Child Abuse WV, in conjunction with the WV Department of Health &Human Resources.OutcomesBy the end of the program, participants will be able to: • Demonstrate knowledge of issues related to child maltreatment reporting and prevention, • Demonstrate knowledge and application of adult learning methods to enhance participant application of training program content, • Demonstrate familiarity with the Making a Difference curriculum.Starter Questions • What has brought you to this training? • What strengths do you possess that will help you train others in how to report and prevent child maltreatment?Action Plan Question • What additional steps do you need to take to prepare yourself for facilitating Making a Difference training sessions?Making a Difference: Mandate to Report, Responsibility to Prevent Child Abuse & Neglect-Participant Materials
  • 7. TAB 2Making a Difference: Mandate to Report, Responsibility to Prevent Child Abuse & Neglect-Participant Materials
  • 8. Welcome/Icebreaker ModuleGoals • To create an inviting training atmosphere. • To encourage initial discussion of program content. • To facilitate a sense of community among participants.Group size Large group for the welcome, then small groups (3-5 participants) for the icebreakerTime 4 minutes for the welcome, 10-11 minutes for the icebreaker.Materials Slide 2Process 1. Welcome participants with a brief opening (no longer than 4 minutes): Use the following verbiage or some variation: “On behalf of Prevent Child Abuse West Virginia thank you for attending this training. As mandated reporters of suspected child abuse and neglect, you have a special role to ensure that children grow up safe. In addition, you may be in the best position to prevent abuse or neglect from happening in the first place. While there is a legal mandate to report suspected abuse or neglect, we have a moral responsibility to prevent it whenever possible. People sometimes ask, ‘Is it really possible to prevent child abuse?’ This workshop will answer this question by exploring ways that all of us as individuals, groups and communities can prevent child maltreatment by building protective factors or ‘Circles of Caring’ that support optimal child development, which research shows is essential.” 2. After your introductory remarks, ask participants to break into small groups. Use the following verbiage or some variation: “I want you to begin working together to answer a few introductory questions about our topic. Please break into groups of 3 to 5, working with folks sitting close to you.”Making a Difference: Mandate to Report, Responsibility to Prevent Child Abuse & Neglect –Instructor Materials
  • 9. 3. Once participants are in their small groups, ask them to discuss the following questions (advance to icebreaker slide): • What do you hope to learn in today’s session? • What concerns do you have? • Where does your commitment to children stem from? 4. Allow participants to discuss the questions for approximately 5 minutes. After 5 minutes have expired, politely interrupt their discussion and express your interest in hearing what they learned in their brief conversations. Ask the first icebreaker question and solicit answers from participants. After hearing 5 to 6 answers, move to the second question and ask participants for what they said (or heard) in their small groups about concerns related to the training. 5. Tell participants that during the session you will answer as many of their questions and address as many of their concerns as possible. Let them know that they can call Prevent Child Abuse West Virginia and the Department of Health and Human Resources with questions after the session.Making a Difference: Mandate to Report, Responsibility to Prevent Child Abuse & Neglect –Instructor Materials
  • 10. TAB 3Making a Difference: Mandate to Report, Responsibility to Prevent Child Abuse & Neglect-Participant Materials
  • 11. Purpose/Outcomes ModuleGoals • To provide an overview of the training session. • To establish expectations for participant learning.Group size Large groupTime 5 minutesMaterials Slides 3 and 4 Handout Page 1Process 1. Tell participants that you want to share a “roadmap” of the session. 2. Display Slide #3, give participants a moment to read it, and then verbally share its contents. 3. Display Slide #4 and follow the same procedure. 4. Let participants know that their participation will be key to the accomplishment of the session’s purpose and outcomes.Making a Difference: Mandate to Report, Responsibility to Prevent Child Abuse & Neglect –Instructor Materials
  • 12. Suggested Agenda—Making a Difference Local Workshop  0:00—0:15 Welcome/icebreaker0:15—0:20 Purpose/outcomes0:20—0:40 About Abuse & Neglect • Section 1 video segment • Slides • Group exercise—Signs and indicators0:40—0:45 All About Reporting— Who Must Report • Section 2 video segment • Who must report • Common questions0:45—0:55 Disclosure • Review of job aid0:55—1:00 Break1:00—1:10 What Happens When You Make a Report • Textra activity o How do you make a report? o What happens when you make a report?1:10—1:20 Responsibility to Prevent • Introductory slides • Section 3 video segment1:20—1:50 Reaching Out • Section 4 video vignettes with large group discussion1:50—2:00 Action plan/closeMaking a Difference: Mandate to Report, Responsibility to Prevent Child Abuse & Neglect-Participant Materials
  • 13. Making a Difference Local Workshop Learning OutcomesWorkshop Purpose This workshop will explore how to identify and report suspected abuse andneglect, and examine ways to build protective factors that prevent child abuse andneglect.Learning Objectives Participants will be able to: o Demonstrate knowledge of signs of child abuse and neglect. o Demonstrate understanding how to report suspected child abuse and neglect. o Identify research-based protective factors that prevent child maltreatment.Learning Process This workshop will use a combination of brief lecture, small group work anddiscussion of DVD footage with examples of various real-life scenarios.Making a Difference: Mandate to Report, Responsibility to Prevent Child Abuse & Neglect-Participant Materials
  • 14. MAKING A DIFFERENCE Mandate to Report, Responsibility to Prevent Child Abuse & Neglect 1   Let’s get started… What do you hope to learn in today’s session? What concerns do you have? Where does your commitment to children stem from? 2   Overview This workshop will explore how to identify and report suspected abuse and neglect, and examine ways to build protective factors that prevent child abuse and neglect. 3   1  
  • 15. Learning Objectives Demonstrate knowledge of signs of child abuse and neglect. Demonstrate understanding how to report suspected child abuse and neglect. Identify research-based protective factors that prevent child maltreatment. 4   About Child Abuse and Neglect Section 1. About Abuse & Neglect 5   2  
  • 16. Facts about Child Maltreatment 130 years since first recognition of child abuse in U.S. Child maltreatment remains a serious problem in U.S. 7   Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) have long-term effects.Increased risk for: Alcoholism  Heart disease Depression  Liver disease Domestic  School Drop Out violence  Smoking Drug abuse  Suicide attempts 8   Facts about Child Maltreatment The estimated costs of treating the effects of child maltreatment are over $103 billion per year. (Source: Prevent Child Abuse America) 9   3  
  • 17. Facts about Child MaltreatmentIn the nation (2010) 3.3 million CPS referrals of child maltreatment. 695,000 child victims. Over 75% of all substantiated maltreatment is neglect Over 80% of perpetrators are parents Nearly 80% of deaths are < 4 years old. 10   Facts about Child MaltreatmentIn West Virginia (2010) 32,244 CPS referrals. 4,133 substantiated cases. 3,961 child victims. 8 children died. 11   Child Abuse is Declining in WV Total  Vic(ms   9,000   8,158   8,000   7,213   7,000   6,143   6,000   5,300   #  of  Vic(ms   5,000   4,978   4,000   3,961   3,000   2,000   1,000   0   2005   2006   2007   2008   2009   2010   12   4  
  • 18. What are some potentialwarning signs and indicators? 13   Mandate to Report Section 2. All About Reporting 14   5  
  • 19. Who Must Report WV Code §49-6A-6  school teachers and other   law enforcement officials school personnel   circuit court judges, family  social service workers court judges, or  child care or foster care magistrates workers   humane officers  medical, dental or mental   members of the clergy health professionals   Christian Science  emergency medical practitioners services personnel   religious healers 16   New Mandated Reporters Who Must Report Per SB 161 (effective June 8, 2012) youth camp administrator or counselor employee, coach or volunteer of an entity that provides organized activities for children commercial film or photographic print processor 17   Additional Requirements Regarding Child Sexual Abuse Reporting Per SB 161 (effective June 8, 2012) Any person over 18 who receives a disclosure from a credible witness or observes any sexual abuse or sexual assault of a child shall report the circumstances or cause a report to be made to the Department or the State Police or other law-enforcement agency having jurisdiction. Reports shall be made immediately and not more than 48 hours after receiving such a disclosure or observing the sexual abuse. 18   6  
  • 20. Additional Requirements Regarding Child Sexual Abuse Reporting Per SB 161 (effective June 8, 2012)  If the reporter feels that reporting the alleged sexual abuse will expose themselves, the child, the reporters children or other children in the subjects household to an increased threat of serious bodily injury, the individual may delay making the report while he or she undertakes measures to remove themselves or the affected children from the perceived threat of additional harm.  The individual must make the report as soon as practical after the threat of harm has been reduced. 19  What should you do when aparent or child discloses? 20   How do you make a report? You should contact CPS whenever you reasonably suspect a child has been abused or neglected or is subject to conditions where abuse or neglect is likely to occur. CPS will accept your report and determine “Is the child safe or does the child need protected?” 21   7  
  • 21. To Whom Do You Report?WV Child Abuse and Neglect Hotline 1-800-352-6513 24 hours a day - 7 days a weekFor serious physical abuse and sexual abuse, also contact the state police and local law enforcement. 22   Responsibility to Prevent “No epidemic has ever been resolved by paying attention to the treatment of the affected individual.” -- George W. Albee, Ph.D. 23   Protective Factors: A New Prevention Framework Suitable for universal, positive approach to families (no “risk” factors or deficit approach) Easily communicated to all audiences Based on hard evidence 24   8  
  • 22. Responsibility to Prevent Section 3.What Child Abuse Prevention Looks Like 25  Responsibility to Prevent Section 4. Reaching Out 27   9  
  • 23. “A Bad Day…”  Possible concerns?  Is Mom abusive?  Family strengths?  How is Marcus feeling? Mom? Caregiver?  What do you think of the caregiver’s approach?  Other approaches?  Which Protective Factor(s) or “Circles of Caring” are being or could be strengthened here? 10  
  • 24. “The Grocery Store…”  What are some possible concerns?  Can you identify some family strengths?  How is the Dad feeling?  How is the little girl feeling?  How is the bystander feeling?  What did you think of the bystander’s approach?  What would be some other approaches?  Which Protective Factor(s) or “Circles of Caring” are being or could be strengthened here? “Forgotten Again…”  Is the grandparent abusive? Neglectful?  Can you identify some family strengths?  How is the grandmother feeling?  How is the boy feeling?  How is the Coach feeling?  What did you think of the Coach’s approach?  What would be some other approaches?  Which Protective Factor(s) or “Circles of Caring” are being or could be strengthened here? 11  
  • 25. “Something’s Wrong…”  Possible concerns?  How is the mom feeling?  How is the caregiver feeling?  What did you think of the caregiver’s approach?  What would be some possible next steps?  What would be some other approaches?  Which Protective Factor(s) or “Circles of Caring” are being or could be strengthened here? 12  
  • 26. “Our Mission…”  What is the Pastor’s goal?  Can you identify some family strengths?  How are the parents feeling?  How is the Pastor feeling?  What did you think of the Pastor’s approach?  What would be some possible next steps?  What would be some other approaches?  Which Protective Factor(s) or “Circles of Caring” are being or could be strengthened here? “Doctor’s Visit…”  What are some possible concerns?  Can you identify some family strengths?  What do you think of the doctor’s response?  What would be some possible next steps?  What would be some other approaches?  Which Protective Factor(s) or “Circles of Caring” are being or could be strengthened here? 13  
  • 27. Action Plan With whom will you share the knowledge gained from this session? How will you demonstrate your commitment to children by reporting and preventing child maltreatment? 40   For More Information Contact: The TEAM for West Virginia Children 1-866-4KIDSWV 304-523-9587 Email: team@teamwv.org Twitter: @TEAM4WVChildren http://slideshare.net/PCAWV http://www.preventchildabusewv.org 41   14  
  • 28. Child Maltreatment Reporting and Prevention—A Quiz 1. The acronym “ACE” stands for a. Allowable Care Environment b. Adverse Childhood Experience c. Attainable, Concrete Effectiveness d. Affection, Care, and Encouragement 2. What is the estimated monetary cost of treating the effects of child maltreatment? a. $107 million per year b. $650 million per year c. $75 billion per year d. $103 billion per year 3. The majority of child maltreatment cases involve physical abuse. a. True b. False 4. What percentage of child maltreatment perpetrators are parents? a. 35% b. 50% c. 67% d. Over 80% 5. Child abuse in West Virginia is declining. a. True b. False 6. Which of the following should you not say when someone discloses to you about child maltreatment: a. “Why didn’t you stop him or her?” b. “Are you sure?” c. “Let me know if it happens again.” d. All of the above
  • 29. 7. Of the following occupational groups, which are required to report abuse and neglect (circle all that apply): a. Medical, dental, and mental health professionals b. Retail store employees c. Emergency medical services personnel d. School personnel e. Restaurant staff8. Due to changes in the process used by the Department of Health and Human Resources, your initial report to Child Protective Services will take longer than it has in the past. a. True b. False9. Which of the following factors contribute to successful prevention efforts (circle all that apply): a. Knowledge of parenting and child development b. Parental resilience c. Social connections d. Social and emotional development of children e. Concrete support in times of need10. The West Virginia Child Abuse and Neglect Hotline operates 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. a. True b. False
  • 30. Child Maltreatment Reporting and Prevention—A QuizANSWER KEY 1. The acronym “ACE” stands for b. Adverse Childhood Experience 2. What is the estimated monetary cost of treating the effects of child maltreatment? d. $103 billion per year 3. The majority of child maltreatment cases involve physical abuse. b. False 4. What percentage of child maltreatment perpetrators are parents? d. Over 80% 5. Child abuse in West Virginia is declining. a. True 6. Which of the following should you not say when someone discloses to you about child maltreatment: d. All of the above 7. Of the following occupational groups, which are required to report abuse and neglect (circle all that apply): a. Medical, dental, and mental health professionals c. Emergency medical services personnel d. School personnel 8. Due to changes in the process used by the Department of Health and Human Resources, your initial report to Child Protective Services will take longer than it has in the past. a. True 9. Which of the following factors contribute to successful prevention efforts (circle all that apply): a. Knowledge of parenting and child development b. Parental resilience c. Social connections d. Social and emotional development of children e. Concrete support in times of need 10. The West Virginia Child Abuse and Neglect Hotline operates 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. a. True
  • 31. TAB 4Making a Difference: Mandate to Report, Responsibility to Prevent Child Abuse & Neglect-Participant Materials
  • 32. About Abuse and Neglect ModuleGoals • To provide introductory, background information on the subject of child abuse and neglect. • To share statistics about the problems associated with child maltreatment. • To build participant motivation to become committed to reporting and preventing child maltreatment. • To generate discussion among participants on the warning signs and indicators of child abuse and neglect.Group size Begin with the large group and then divide participants into small groups of 4-5Time 20 minutesMaterials Slides 5-13 Video (or DVD) Section 1 segmentNote:Option 1 for better video quality is a computer that can play both thePowerPoint and DVD via a computer LCD projector. Press ALT + TABto switch between the PowerPoint and DVD.Option 2 is to use the PowerPoint presentation with embedded videosas noted in the File Name on the USB Flash Drive.Process 1. Tell participants that they will now learn some key information on the nature of child abuse and neglect. 2. Tell them that you are going to show them a brief video segment and then share some additional information by way of a few slides. 3. Play Section 1 video segment 4. When the video segment ends, display Slides 6 - 12. Cover the information, but avoid detailed explanations of the data on the slides. 5. After showing Slide 12, ask participants, “Were you surprised by any of the information contained in the video or on the slides? What surprised you?” Allow participants a few moments to share their reactions to the information you have shared.Making a Difference: Mandate to Report, Responsibility to Prevent Child Abuse & Neglect –Instructor Materials
  • 33. 6. Next, ask participants to form small groups of 4-6. Display Slide 13 and ask participants to take five minutes to share answers to the question “What are some potential warning signs and indicators of child abuse or neglect?” 7. After 5 minutes, politely interrupt the groups. Ask each small group to share with the larger group what they learned during their discussions. 8. Contribute additional information on any major warning signs or indicators that the groups did not identify. Refer participants to Tab 4 Handouts for more detailed information on warning signs and indicators.Making a Difference: Mandate to Report, Responsibility to Prevent Child Abuse & Neglect –Instructor Materials
  • 34. Parental & Family Factors That May Lead to Maltreatment1Parental / Caregiver ImmaturityVery young and or inexperienced parents/caregivers may not understand a childsbehaviors and needs and may not know what to expect at each stage of the childsdevelopment.Unrealistic ExpectationsExpectations of the child are beyond what he/she is developmentally capable ofperforming.Social IsolationA lack of friends or family to help with the demands of parenting or to provide adultcompanionship and support for the parent/caregiver.Unmet Emotional NeedsParents who are not relating well to other adults may turn to their child to satisfy theirneed for love, acceptance, and self-esteem.Frequent CrisisFinancial, job, marital and, legal stresses/problems as well as major illness, etc., maycontribute to abuse or neglect of children.Poor Childhood ExperiencesMany abusive adults were mistreated as children and may not have learned ordeveloped the ability to relate to children in an appropriate, nonviolent manner.Drug or Alcohol ProblemsSuch problems impair parental ability to care properly for children and may expose thechildren to danger.Mental IllnessUntreated and/or chronic mental illness could lead to abuse and neglect.Poor Family BoundariesFailure to protect a child from harm can include: unlimited access to the home by manyoutsiders, access to medications, dangerous objects and animals, lack of adequatesupervision, etc.Dangerous Home EnvironmentAccess to medications, the presence of dangerous objects and/or animals, lack ofadequate supervision, etc.                                                                                                                        1  Adapted  from  Promises  to  Keep:  The  Mandate  to  Report,  The  Opportunity  to  Prevent,  Prevent  Child  Abuse  Georgia  Making a Difference: Mandate to Report, Responsibility to Prevent Child Abuse & Neglect-Participant Materials
  • 35. Indicators of Possible Child MaltreatmentA combination or pattern of indicators should alert you to the possibility of childmaltreatment. You may notice physical and behavioral indicators by observing the child,and you may become aware of indicators that relate to the parent or caregiver.Type  of  Abuse   Physical  Indicators   Child  Behavioral   Caregiver   Indicators   Characteristics  Physical  Abuse   Questionable  bruises   • uncomfortable  with   • history  of  abuse     and  welts:   physical  contact.   as  a  child.  The  non-­‐accidental   • on  face,  lips,  mouth.   • wary  of  adult   • uses  harsh  physical  injury  of  a   • on  torso,  back,   contacts.   discipline  child.   buttocks,  thighs,   • apprehensive  when   inappropriate  to   arms.   other  children  cry.   child’s  age,     • in  various  stages  of   • behavioral  extremes   transgression,  and     condition.   healing.  (In  the  first   (aggressiveness  or     stage,  the  bruise  is   withdrawal).   • offers  illogical,     reddish-­‐blue.  In  the   • frightened  of   unconvincing,  or     second  stage,  the   parents.   contradictory     bruise  is  purplish   • afraid  to  go  home.   explanations  of     black.  In  the  third   • reports  injury  by   child’s  injury,  or     stage,  the  bruise   parent  or  caregiver.   offers  no     turns  yellowish-­‐ • complains  of   explanation.     green.)   soreness  or  moves   • significantly     • clustered,  forming   uncomfortably.   misperceives  child     regular  patterns.   • wears  clothing   (for  example,  sees   • reflecting  shape  of   inappropriate  to   child  as  “bad”,     article  used  to  inflict   weather  to  cover   “stupid”,     “different”,  etc.).   injury  (electric  cord,   body.     belt  buckle).   • psychotic  or   • reluctance  to  change     • on  several  different   psychopathic   or  take  off  clothes     surface  areas.   personality.   • (attempt  to  hide     • regularly  appearing   injuries,  bruises,   • misuses  alcohol  or     after  absence,   etc.).   other  drugs.     weekend,  or   • self  destructive.   • attempts  to     vacation.   conceal  child’s     • human  bite  mark.   injury  or  to     • bald  spots.   protect  identity  of       person   Questionable  burns:   responsible.     • cigar  or  cigarette   • unrealistic     burns,  especially  on   expectations  of     soles,  palms,  back   child,  beyond     or  buttocks.   child’s  age  or     • immersion  burns   ability.     (sock-­‐like  or  glove-­‐   like,  or  doughnut     shaped  on  buttocks  Making a Difference: Mandate to Report, Responsibility to Prevent Child Abuse & Neglect-Participant Materials
  • 36. Type  of  Abuse   Physical  Indicators   Child  Behavioral   Caregiver   Indicators   Characteristics  Physical  Abuse  (con’t)   or  genitalia).   • patterned  like   electric  burner,  iron,   cigarette  lighter,   etc.   • rope  burns  on  arms,   legs,  neck,  or  torso.   • singed  hair.     Questionable  fractures:   • to  skull,  nose,  facial   structure.   • in  various  stages  of   healing.   • multiple  or  spiral   fractures.     Questionable   lacerations  or  abrasions:   • to  mouth,  lips,   gums,  eyes.   • to  external  genitalia.  Making a Difference: Mandate to Report, Responsibility to Prevent Child Abuse & Neglect-Participant Materials
  • 37.  Type  of  Abuse   Physical  Indicators   Child  Behavioral   Caregiver   Indicators   Characteristics  Neglect  is  the  most   • consistent  hunger,   • begging,  stealing  food.   • misuses  alcohol  common  form  of  child   poor  hygiene,   • constant  fatigue,   or  other  drugs.  maltreatment.   inappropriate  dress.   listlessness,  or  falling   • maintains     • consistent  lack  of   asleep.   chaotic  home.  Neglect  is  failure  to   supervision,   • alcohol  or  drug  abuse.   • evidence  of   especially  in   • states  there  is  no   apathy  or  provide  for  a  child’s   dangerous  activities   caregiver.   hopelessness.  physical  survival   of  long  periods.   • frequently  absent.   • mentally  ill  or  needs  to  the  extent   unattended  physical   diminished   • • shunned  by  peers.  that  there  is  harm  or   problems  or  medical   intelligence.   • self  destructive.  risk  of  harm  to  the   needs,  including   • history  of  child’s  health  or   vision  and  hearing   neglect  as  a  safety.     difficulties.   child.     • continuous  lice  or   • consistent  Physical  neglect  may   scabies,  distended   failure  to  keep  include,  but  is  not   stomach,   appointments.  limited  to:   emaciated.   • leaving  child  • abandonment.   • required   unattended  in   immunizations   vehicle.  • lack  of   neglected.   supervision.   • abandonment.  • lack  of  adequate   bathing  and  good   hygiene.  • lack  of  adequate   nutrition.  • lack  of  adequate   shelter.  • lack  of  medical  or   dental  care.  • lack  of  required   school  enrollment   or  attendance.      NOTE: A child is neglected under West Virginia law [WV Code §49-1-3] when thefailure, refusal, or inability to provide for the child is not due primarily to a lack offinancial means on the part of the parent, guardian or custodian.Making a Difference: Mandate to Report, Responsibility to Prevent Child Abuse & Neglect-Participant Materials
  • 38. Type  of  Abuse   Physical  Indicators   Child  Behavioral   Caregiver   Indicators   Characteristics  Sexual  abuse  is   • difficulty  in  walking   • unwilling  to  change  or   • extremely  defined  as  acts  of   or  sitting.   take  off  clothes.   protective  or  sexual  assault,  sexual   • torn,  stained  or   • withdrawal,  chronic   jealous  of  child.  abuse,  and  sexual   bloody   depression  or  phobias.   • encourages  child  exploitation  of   underclothing  or   • overly  compliant,   to  engage  in   diaper.   passive,  undemanding   prostitution.  minors.     • pain,  discomfort,   behavior  aimed  at   • encourages  child     bleeding  or  itching   maintaining  a  low   to  engage  in  Sexual  abuse   in  genital  area.   profile.   sexual  acts  in  encompasses  a  broad   • bruises  or  bleeding   • hostility  or  aggression.   presence  of  range  of  behavior  and   in  external  genitalia,   • bizarre  or  unusual   caregiver.  may  consist  of  many   vaginal  or  anal   sexual  behavior  or   • sexually  abused  acts  over  a  long   areas.   knowledge.   as  a  child.  period  of  time  or  a   • venereal  disease.   • detailed  and  age-­‐ • misuses  alcohol  single  incident.     • frequent  urinary  or   inappropriate   or  other  drugs.     yeast  infections.   understanding  of   • non-­‐abusing  Victims  are  both  boys   • encopresis  (fecal   sexual  behavior.   caregiver/spousand  girls,  and  range  in   soiling).   • unusually  seductive   e  is  frequently  age  from  less  than   • massive  weight   behaviors  with  peers   absent   change.   and  adults.   • from  the  home,  one  year  through   • excessive   permitting  adolescence.   masturbation.   access  to  child   • poor  peer  relations.   by  abusing   • reports  sexual  abuse.   caregiver/   • threatened  by  physical   spouse.   contact.   • suicide  attempt.   • role  reversal,  overly   concerned  for  siblings.   • unexplained  money  or   “gifts”.   • poor  self  esteem,  self   devaluation,  lack  of   confidence.   • regression  in   developmental   milestones,  and  lags  in   development.   • sleep  disturbances,   including  severe   nightmares.   • excessive  bathing  or   poor  hygiene.   • drawings  with  strong,   bizarre  sexual  theme.  Making a Difference: Mandate to Report, Responsibility to Prevent Child Abuse & Neglect-Participant Materials
  • 39.  Type  of  Abuse   Physical  Indicators   Child  Behavioral   Caregiver   Indicators   Characteristics  Emotional   • speech  disorders.   • conduct  disorders   • Not  meeting  a  maltreatment  can   • lags  in  physical   (antisocial,   child’s  include  patterns  of:   development.   destructive).   educational  • verbal  assaults,   • failure  to  thrive.   • neurotic  traits  (sleep   needs  such  as   disorders,  inhibition  of   failing  to  enroll  a   including   play).   child  in  school,   screaming,   • behavior  extremes:   refusing   intimidating,   recommended   compliant,  passive,   rejecting,   undemanding,   remedial   ridiculing,   aggressive,   services  without   threatening,   demanding,  rageful.   good  reason,  or   blaming,  sarcasm.   • overly  adaptive   repeatedly  • ignoring  and   behavior:  “Parents”   keeping  a  child   indifference.   other  children   out  of  school  • constant  family   inappropriately.   without  good   inappropriately   reason.   conflict.   • infantile  or   • blames  or     emotionally  needy.   belittles  child.  Cases  of  emotional   • self-­‐destructive,   • ignores  or  abuse  are  extremely   rejects.   attempted  suicide.  difficult  to  prove.  A   • withholds  love.  cause  and  effect   • treats  siblings  relationship  between   unequally.  the  parent  or   • seems  caregiver’s  acts  and   unconcerned  the  child’s  response   about  child’s  must  be  established.     problems.     • unreasonable   demands  or   impossible   expectations   without  regard   to  child’s   developmental   capacity.  Making a Difference: Mandate to Report, Responsibility to Prevent Child Abuse & Neglect-Participant Materials
  • 40. Links to Additional InformationAdverse Childhood Experiences (ACES)More information about the Adverse Childhood Experiences Study (ACES) is availableonline at http://www.acestudy.org/.Child Maltreatment StatisticsData cited in this training is from 2009 Child Maltreatment Annual Report published bythe U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, Dec. 2010,http://www.acf.hhs.gov/programs/cb/stats_research/.Community Based Child Abuse Awareness and Prevention in WVThe WV Department of Health and Human Resources, Bureau for Children andFamilies, oversees West Virginias community based child abuse awareness andprevention grants, which are administered according to the guidelines of the FederalCBCAP Program Instructions. West Virginia funds four program areas: FamilyLeadership First, In-Home Family Education, Partners in Prevention, and StartingPoints Centers. Information about these and other child abuse prevention efforts in WVis available online at http://www.wvdhhr.org/bcf/children_adult/cabuseprev/.Emerging Practices in the Prevention of Child Abuse and NeglectPublished 2003: Office of Child Abuse and Neglect, U.S. Department of Health andHuman Services. Published as a component of the Child Abuse Prevention Initiativeadministered by the Office on Child Abuse and Neglect, this study identifies bestpractices in the field of child abuse prevention. The report provides an overview of childabuse prevention and describes each of the selected programs.http://www.preventchildabusewv.org/docs/EmergingPractices.pdfPreventing Child Sexual Abuse Within Youth-Serving OrganizationsThe Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) offers a comprehensive websitewhich contains a variety of educational information about child maltreatment and itsprevention, http://www.cdc.gov.Protective FactorsThe protective factors were identified by The Center for the Study of Social Policy(CSSP), after a comprehensive analysis of child abuse prevention research inconjunction with a consortium of leading child abuse prevention experts andresearchers, http://www.cssp.org.Making a Difference: Mandate to Report, Responsibility to Prevent Child Abuse & Neglect –Participant Materials
  • 41. Reporting Child Abuse and Neglect in West VirginiaThe following booklets are available via the publications section of the Prevent ChildAbuse WV website, http://www.preventchildabusewv.org/publications.php. In a Child’s Best Interest: A Guide for West Virginia School Personnel in Recognizing and Reporting Child Abuse and Neglect. Revised 2007. http://www.preventchildabusewv.org/docs/childs_best_interest.pdf It Shouldn’t Hurt to Be a Child: A Guide for Early Childhood Providers in Recognizing and Reporting Child Abuse and Neglect. Revised 2007. http://www.preventchildabusewv.org/docs/It_Shouldnt_Hurt.pdf One Child at a Time: A Guide for Professionals in Recognizing and Reporting the Abuse and Neglect of Children with Disabilities. Revised 2007. http://www.preventchildabusewv.org/docs/One_Child_At_A_Time.pdf Child Abuse & Neglect: A Reporting Guide for Health Professionals, Oct. 2010.West Virginia Children’s Trust FundThe West Virginia Children’s Trust Fund funds community-based programs that helpchildren grow up free from abuse and neglect. Examples include programs for newparents, school-based programs, public awareness activities and other evidence-basedprevention efforts. Funds are received by individual donations including the WVCTFvoluntary check off on the WV State Income Tax Form. Additional information isavailable online at http://www.wvctf.org.Making a Difference: Mandate to Report, Responsibility to Prevent Child Abuse & Neglect –Participant Materials
  • 42. TAB 5Making a Difference: Mandate to Report, Responsibility to Prevent Child Abuse & Neglect –Participant Materials
  • 43. Who Must Report ModuleGoals • To explore common questions about the reporting of child abuse and neglect. • To provide information on who must report suspected child abuse and neglect.Group size Large groupTime 5 minutesMaterials Video Section 2 segment Slides 14-19 Participant Handout – Who Must ReportProcess 1. Tell participants that this section of the training covers fundamental information about the reporting of child abuse and neglect. 2. Play Section 2 video segment. 3. Display Slide 16, which identifies those who must report suspected child abuse and neglect. Remind participants that anyone may report suspected abuse or neglect. However, WV law requires certain persons to report suspected abuse or neglect. 4. Display Slides 17 – 19 explaining new reporting requirements following the passage of Senate Bill 161 during the 2012 Legislative Session. 5. Refer participants to Tab 5 Handout (Who Must Report), which answer common questions about reporting. 6. Conclude the module by saying: “We are now going to build on this introduction to reporting by examining guidelines for responding to disclosure and specific reporting requirements.”Making a Difference: Mandate to Report, Responsibility to Prevent Child Abuse & Neglect –Instructor Materials
  • 44. Who Must ReportAnyone may report suspected abuse or neglect; however, under West Virginia law [WVCode §49-6A-2], certain persons are required to report. These persons include: o medical, dental or mental health professionals o Christian Science practitioners o religious healers o school teachers and other school personnel o social service workers o child care or foster care workers o emergency medical services personnel o peace officers or law enforcement officials o members of the clergy o circuit court judges, family court judges, or magistrates o humane officers o youth camp administrator or counselor* o employee, coach or volunteer of an entity that provides organized activities for children* o commercial film or photographic print processor** New requirement effective June 8, 2012 as required by SB 161.Additional Requirements Regarding Child Sexual AbuseReporting Per SB161 (effective June 8, 2012)Any person over 18 who receives a disclosure from a credible witness or observes anysexual abuse or sexual assault of a child shall report the circumstances or cause a reportto be made to the Department or the State Police or other law-enforcement agencyhaving jurisdiction. Reports shall be made immediately and not more than 48 hoursafter receiving such a disclosure or observing the sexual abuse.If the reporter feels that reporting the alleged sexual abuse will expose themselves, thechild, the reporters children or other children in the subjects household to an increasedthreat of serious bodily injury, the individual may delay making the report while he orshe undertakes measures to remove themselves or the affected children from theperceived threat of additional harm. The individual must make the report as soon aspractical after the threat of harm has been reduced.Making a Difference: Mandate to Report, Responsibility to Prevent Child Abuse & Neglect –Participant Materials
  • 45. Am I Protected if I Report?West Virginia law provides immunity from civil or criminal liability for personsreporting abuse in good faith [WV Code §49-6A-6].To Whom Do You Report?When you suspect that a child is being abused or neglected you should report yourconcerns to the Child Protective Services (CPS) unit in the county office of theDepartment of Health and Human Resources where you live.Reports can also be made to the Child Abuse and Neglect Hotline (1-800-352-6513)seven days a week, 24 hours a day. For serious physical abuse and sexual abuse, alsocontact the state police and local law enforcement.What is the penalty for failing to report?In addition to a moral obligation for all adults to report, WV Code §49-6A-8establishes the following penalties for failure to report as required by WestVirginia law: §49-6A-8. Failure to report; penalty. Any person, official or institution required by this article to report a case involving a child known or suspected to be abused or neglected, or required by section five of this article to forward a copy of a report of serious injury, who knowingly fails to do so or knowingly prevents another person acting reasonably from doing so, is guilty of a misdemeanor and, upon conviction thereof, shall be confined in jail not more than thirty days or fined not more than $1,000, or both.Making a Difference: Mandate to Report, Responsibility to Prevent Child Abuse & Neglect –Participant Materials
  • 46. ENROLLED COMMITTEE SUBSTITUTE FOR Senate Bill No. 161 (SENATORS FOSTER, PALUMBO, KLEMPA, FANNING, UNGER, KESSLER (MR. PRESIDENT), JENKINS, BROWNING, KIRKENDOLL, WILLS, YOST, STOLLINGS AND MCCABE, original sponsors) ____________ [Passed March 10, 2012; in effect ninety days from passage.] ____________AN ACT to amend and reenact §49-6A-1, §49-6A-2, §49-6A-8 and §49-6A-10 of the Code of West Virginia, 1931, as amended, all relating to mandatory reporting of abuse and neglect of children; adding promoting adult responsibility and prevention to the purpose; adding certain persons to the mandatory reporting list for all abuse or neglect of children; creating a requirement that certain adults report sexual abuse of children when observed or when received credible reports; allowing for exceptions; requiring law enforcement who receive a report of sexual abuse to alert the Department of Health and Human Resources; encouraging law-enforcement agencies to coordi- nate in investigating a report; increasing the criminal penalties for failure to report; creating a crime and criminal penalties for all adults who fail to report sexual abuse of children; and requiring and amending certain educational programs and trainings.
  • 47. Enr. Com. Sub. for S. B. No. 161] 2Be it enacted by the Legislature of West Virginia: That §49-6A-1, §49-6A-2, §49-6A-8 and §49-6A-10 of the Codeof West Virginia, 1931, as amended, be amended and reenacted, allto read as follows:ARTICLE 6A. REPORTS OF CHILDREN SUSPECTED TO BE ABUSED OR NEGLECTED.§49-6A-1. Purpose. 1 It is the purpose of this article, through the complete 2 reporting of child abuse and neglect, to protect the best 3 interests of the child, to offer protective services in order to 4 prevent any further harm to the child or any other children 5 living in the home, to stabilize the home environment, to 6 preserve family life whenever possible, to promote adult 7 responsibility for protecting children and to encourage 8 cooperation among the states to prevent future incidents of 9 child abuse and neglect and in dealing with the problems of 10 child abuse and neglect.§49-6A-2. Persons mandated to report suspected abuse and ne- glect. 1 (a) Any medical, dental or mental health professional, 2 Christian Science practitioner, religious healer, school 3 teacher or other school personnel, social service worker, 4 child care or foster care worker, emergency medical services 5 personnel, peace officer or law-enforcement official, humane 6 officer, member of the clergy, circuit court judge, family 7 court judge, employee of the Division of Juvenile Services, 8 magistrate, youth camp administrator or counselor, em- 9 ployee, coach or volunteer of an entity that provides orga- 10 nized activities for children, or commercial film or photo- 11 graphic print processor who has reasonable cause to suspect 12 that a child is neglected or abused or observes the child 13 being subjected to conditions that are likely to result in 14 abuse or neglect shall immediately, and not more than 15 forty-eight hours after suspecting this abuse or neglect, 16 report the circumstances or cause a report to be made to the 17 Department of Health and Human Resources: Provided, That
  • 48. 3 [Enr. Com. Sub. for S. B. No. 16118 in any case where the reporter believes that the child19 suffered serious physical abuse or sexual abuse or sexual20 assault, the reporter shall also immediately report, or cause21 a report to be made, to the State Police and any law-en-22 forcement agency having jurisdiction to investigate the23 complaint: Provided, however, That any person required to24 report under this article who is a member of the staff or25 volunteer of a public or private institution, school, entity26 that provides organized activities for children, facility or27 agency shall also immediately notify the person in charge of28 the institution, school, entity that provides organized29 activities for children, facility or agency, or a designated30 agent thereof, who may supplement the report or cause an31 additional report to be made.32 (b) Any person over the age of eighteen who receives a33 disclosure from a credible witness or observes any sexual34 abuse or sexual assault of a child, shall immediately, and not35 more than forty-eight hours after receiving such a disclosure36 or observing the sexual abuse or sexual assault, report the37 circumstances or cause a report to be made to the Depart-38 ment of Health and Human Resources or the State Police or39 other law-enforcement agency having jurisdiction to investi-40 gate the report. In the event that the individual receiving the41 disclosure or observing the sexual abuse or sexual assault42 has a good faith belief that the reporting of the event to the43 police would expose either the reporter, the subject child, the44 reporter’s children or other children in the subject child’s45 household to an increased threat of serious bodily injury, the46 individual may delay making the report while he or she47 undertakes measures to remove themselves or the affected48 children from the perceived threat of additional harm:49 Provided, That the individual makes the report as soon as50 practicable after the threat of harm has been reduced. The51 law-enforcement agency that receives a report under this52 subsection shall report the allegations to the Department of53 Health and Human Resources and coordinate with any other54 law-enforcement agency, as necessary to investigate the55 report.
  • 49. Enr. Com. Sub. for S. B. No. 161] 4 56 (c) Nothing in this article is intended to prevent individ- 57 uals from reporting suspected abuse or neglect on their own 58 behalf. In addition to those persons and officials specifically 59 required to report situations involving suspected abuse or 60 neglect of children, any other person may make a report if 61 such person has reasonable cause to suspect that a child has 62 been abused or neglected in a home or institution or observes 63 the child being subjected to conditions or circumstances that 64 would reasonably result in abuse or neglect.§49-6A-8. Failure to report; penalty. 1 Any person, official or institution required by this article 2 to report a case involving a child known or suspected to be 3 abused or neglected, or required by section five of this article 4 to forward a copy of a report of serious injury, who know- 5 ingly fails to do so or knowingly prevents another person 6 acting reasonably from doing so, is guilty of a misdemeanor 7 and, upon conviction thereof, shall be confined in jail not 8 more than thirty days or fined not more than $1,000, or both.§49-6A-10. Educational programs. 1 Subject to appropriation in the budget bill, the state 2 department shall conduct educational and training programs 3 for persons required to report suspected abuse or neglect, 4 and the general public, as well as implement evidence-based 5 programs that reduce incidents of child maltreatment 6 including sexual abuse. Training for persons require to 7 report and the general public shall include indicators of 8 child abuse and neglect, tactics used by sexual abusers, how 9 and when to make a report, and protective factors that 10 prevent abuse and neglect in order to promote adult respon- 11 sibility for protecting children, encourage maximum report- 12 ing of child abuse and neglect, and to improve communica- 13 tion, cooperation and coordination among all agencies 14 involved in the identification, prevention and treatment of 15 the abuse and neglect of children.
  • 50. TAB 6Making a Difference: Mandate to Report, Responsibility to Prevent Child Abuse & Neglect –Participant Materials
  • 51. Disclosure ModuleGoals • To provide information on what to do when a parent or child discloses maltreatment. • To learn the things not to say when someone discloses. • To learn common types of disclosure patterns.Group size Large groupTime 10 minutesMaterials Slide 20 Mandated Reporter Disclosure Job Aid Handout – Types of Disclosures Handout – What to do When a Child or Adult Discloses Handout – What NOT to Say when Someone Discloses to YouProcess 1. Display Slide 20 and distribute Disclosure Job Aid cards to participants. Tell them that the card is intended to be an easily accessible job aid to guide them on what to do in situations when disclosure occurs. 2. Point out that the card provides steps to take when a parent or child discloses, the things not to say when someone discloses, and the common types of disclosure. 3. Ask participants to read the card and look for information that needs clarified. 4. When all participants have reviewed the information on the card, ask for questions or clarifications of any of the information contained on it. 5. Refer participants to Supplementary Handouts, which contain additional information on disclosure. 6. To wrap up the module, encourage participants to read the material in the Supplementary Handouts and to keep the card with them so that they will be prepared to use it when it’s needed.Making a Difference: Mandate to Report, Responsibility to Prevent Child Abuse & Neglect –Instructor Materials
  • 52. Mandated Reporter Disclosure Job Aid      What  to  do  when  a  child  or  adult  discloses   What  NOT  to  say  when  someone  discloses  suspected  child  abuse  or  neglect.   suspected  child  abuse  or  neglect.  1. Find  a  private  place  to  talk  with  the  person.   1. Don’t  ask  “why”  questions  such  as:  “Why  2. Reassure  the  person  making  the  disclosure   didnt  you  stop  him  or  her?”  “Why  are  you   ("I  believe  you.”)   telling  me  this?”  3. Listen  openly  and  calmly,  with  minimal   2. Dont  say  "Are  you  sure?"   interruptions.     3. Dont  ask  "Are  you  telling  the  truth?"  4. Write  down  the  facts  and  words  as  the   4. Dont  say  "Let  me  know  if  it  happens  again."   person  has  stated  them.  (Exact  words  are   5. Avoid  leading  questions  ("Did  your  uncle   important  to  investigators.)   touch  you  too?”  “Was  he  wearing  a  blue  5. Do  not  promise  not  to  tell,  but  respect  the   jacket?”)   person’s  confidentiality  by  not  telling  others   who  don’t  need  to  know.   WV  Child  Abuse  and  Neglect  Hotline  6. Tell  the  truth.  7. Be  specific.  Let  the  child  know  what  is  going   1-­800-­352-­6513   to  happen.     24  hours  a  day  -­‐  7  days  a  week  8. Assess  the  child’s  immediate  safety.    9. Be  supportive.     For  serious  physical  abuse  or  sexual  abuse,  also  10. Report  the  disclosure  immediately  and  no   contact  the  state  police  &  local  law  enforcement. later  than  48  hrs  to  CPS.        What  to  do  when  a  child  or  adult  discloses   What  NOT  to  say  when  someone  discloses  suspected  child  abuse  or  neglect.   suspected  child  abuse  or  neglect.  1. Find  a  private  place  to  talk  with  the  person.   1. Don’t  ask  “why”  questions  such  as:  “Why  2. Reassure  the  person  making  the  disclosure   didnt  you  stop  him  or  her?”  “Why  are  you   ("I  believe  you.”)   telling  me  this?”  3. Listen  openly  and  calmly,  with  minimal   2. Dont  say  "Are  you  sure?"   interruptions.     3. Dont  ask  "Are  you  telling  the  truth?"  4. Write  down  the  facts  and  words  as  the   4. Dont  say  "Let  me  know  if  it  happens  again."   person  has  stated  them.  (Exact  words  are   5. Avoid  leading  questions  ("Did  your  uncle   important  to  investigators.)   touch  you  too?”  “Was  he  wearing  a  blue  5. Do  not  promise  not  to  tell,  but  respect  the   jacket?”)   person’s  confidentiality  by  not  telling  others   who  don’t  need  to  know.   WV  Child  Abuse  and  Neglect  Hotline  6. Tell  the  truth.  7. Be  specific.  Let  the  child  know  what  is  going   1-­800-­352-­6513   to  happen.     24  hours  a  day  -­‐  7  days  a  week  8. Assess  the  child’s  immediate  safety.    9. Be  supportive.     For  serious  physical  abuse  or  sexual  abuse,  also  10. Report  the  disclosure  immediately  and  no   contact  the  state  police  &  local  law  enforcement.   later  than  48  hrs  to  CPS.    
  • 53. Types of Disclosures 1. Indirect Hints Examples ♦ "My brother wouldnt let me sleep last night." ♦ "Mr. Jones wears funny underwear." ♦ "My babysitter keeps bothering me." ♦ "I dont like it when my mother leaves me alone with my uncle." Explanation A child may talk in these terms because he or she hasnt learned more specific vocabulary, feels ashamed or embarrassed, has promised not to tell, or for a combination of those reasons. 2. Disguised Disclosure Examples ♦ "I know someone who is being touched in a bad way." ♦ "What would happen if a girl told someone she was being molested, but the person did not believe her?" Explanation A person may be talking about someone she or he knows, but is just as likely to be talking about himself or herself. Encourage the individual to tell you what he or she knows about the "other person." Then ask whether something like what is being said has ever happened to him or her. 3. Disclosures with Strings Attached Examples ♦ "I have a problem, but if I tell you, you have to promise not to tell." Explanation Many people believe something very negative will happen if they break the secret of maltreatment. The child may have been threatened by the offender to ensure his or her silence. Let the person know that there are some secrets that you just cant keep. Assure the individual that your job is to protect the child and keep him/her safe. Let the person know you will keep it as confidential as possible, but that you are required by law to make a report.Making a Difference: Mandate to Report, Responsibility to Prevent Child Abuse & Neglect –Participant Materials
  • 54. What to do When a Child or Adult Discloses 1. Find a private place to talk with the person. 2. Reassure the person making the disclosure. a. "I believe you." b. "I am glad you told me." c. "It is not your fault this happened," (if talking to the child). d. Affirm that maltreatment is wrong. 3. Listen openly and calmly, with minimal interruptions. Try to keep your own emotions and nonverbal cues neutral. 4. Write down the facts and words as the person has stated them. Use the child’s own vocabulary. 5. Do not promise not to tell. Know your limits. This is not a situation you can handle by yourself. However, do not discuss what the child told you with anyone who is not directly involved in helping the child. 6. Tell the truth. Don’t make promises you can’t keep, particularly relating to secrecy, court involvement, placement and social worker decisions. 7. Be specific. Let the child know exactly what is going to happen. Tell the child that you must report the abuse or neglect to Child Protective Services. Tell the child that a social worker who helps families with these kinds of problems may be coming to talk with the child. 8. Assess the child’s immediate safety. Is the child in immediate physical danger? Is it a crisis? Are there others in the home who can protect the child? 9. Be supportive. Remember why the child came to you. The child needs your help, support and guidance. Reassure the child that telling about the abuse or neglect was the right thing to do. It is the only way to make it stop. 10. Report the disclosure within 48 Hours to Child Protective Services. Call the toll-free CPS Hotline at 1- 800-352-6513. For serious physical abuse and sexual abuse, also contact the state police and local law enforcement.Making a Difference: Mandate to Report, Responsibility to Prevent Child Abuse & Neglect –Participant Materials
  • 55. What NOT to Say When Someone Discloses To You 1. Dont ask "why" questions such as • "Why didnt you stop him or her?" • "Why are you telling me this?" 2. Dont say "Are you sure this is happening?" 3. Dont ask "Are you telling the truth?" 4. Dont say "Let me know if it happens again." 5. Dont ask "What did you do to make this happen?"If someone does make a disclosure, dont try to get all the details.Listen attentively and ask him/her if he/she wants to say anything else. If she chooses tosay nothing more, then proceed to notify the designated official as soon as possible andfollow the steps outlined by your church/agency policy. Also, write down the actual wordsused in the disclosure and your interaction with the individual. This first statement madespontaneously has forensic significance to the investigators and the exact words can beimportant.Above all, MINIMIZE the number of questions you ask and avoid the use of leadingquestions (questions that suggest an answer) e.g., "Did your uncle touch you in theprivate area too? Was he wearing a blue jacket?"Making a Difference: Mandate to Report, Responsibility to Prevent Child Abuse & Neglect –Participant Materials
  • 56. Tab 7Making a Difference: Mandate to Report, Responsibility to Prevent Child Abuse & Neglect –Participant Materials
  • 57. What Happens When You Make a Report ModuleGoals • To provide information on: o What happens when you make a report; o The WV Child Abuse and Neglect hotline; o The role of Child Protective Services.Group size Large groupTime 10 minutesMaterials Slides 21-22 Handout - What Happens When You Make a Report Reporting Suspected Abuse or Neglect in WV – Flow chartProcess 1. Tell participants that this section of the training will provide information on the reporting process. 2. Quickly display Slides 21-22. Cover the information, but avoid detailed explanations of the data on the slides. 3. After showing Slide 22, ask participants to turn to “What Happens When You Make a Report” Handout. Ask them to read the information, marking with a pen, pencil, or highlighter those sections of the material that are unclear or that they have questions about. 4. After all participants have read the material, open the floor to questions by participants. 5. Emphasize that mandated reporters are legally required to report suspected abuse or neglect. CPS is responsible for investigating whether or not maltreatment occurred. Strive to maintain focus on reporting, which is the purpose of this training vs. the complexities of CPS response. 6. Tell participants that they can contact the Department of Health and Human Resources, Child Protective Services, or Prevent Child Abuse West Virginia if they have additional questions about the reporting process.NOTE: Participants will likely want to describe at length their experiences andfrustrations of interaction with CPS. Redirect back to the focus of this session onreporting and our role in preventing abuse before it occurs.Making a Difference: Mandate to Report, Responsibility to Prevent Child Abuse & Neglect –Instructor Materials
  • 58. What Happens When You Make a ReportYour job as a mandated reporter is to assure that CPS is contacted whenever youreasonably suspect that a child has been abused or neglected or subject to conditionswhere abuse or neglect is likely to occur. Even if your report does not result in a casebeing accepted for investigation, it is always best to err on the side of caution and reportyour concerns. Your report may provide a key piece of information that will be helpful toCPS during a future investigation.When making a report, the mandated reporter may be asked information concerning thefollowing:• Client – family demographics including name, age, gender, race and ethnicity for members of the household and their relationship to each other: the family’s address and phone number; the adults’ place of employment and child’s school or childcare, when applicable.• Alleged child abuse and/or neglect• Specific caregiver behavior indicative of child abuse and neglect• Events and circumstances associated with or accompanying the child abuse or neglect• Effects of child abuse or neglect; present danger and/or impending danger; caregiver behavior on child; child’s condition resulting from the child abuse or neglect; and/or family condition• Available information about the child(ren) including: o General condition and functioning o Location o State of mind/emotion; specific fear o Proximity of threat o Access to those who can help and protect• Available information about the caregiver(s) including: o General functioning o General parenting o General state of mind/emotion o Current location o Community relations o Employment o Use of substances o Mental health functioning o Attitudes toward/perceptions of child(ren) o Previous relevant history, including CPS history o Likely response to CPSMaking a Difference: Mandate to Report, Responsibility to Prevent Child Abuse & Neglect –Participant Materials
  • 59. • Available information about the family including: o Domestic violence, including power, control, entitlement o Living arrangements o Household composition o Household activity - including people in and out o Condition of residence• Description of any possible/likely emergency circumstances• Identification of protective adults who are or may be available.• The reporter’s name, relationship to the family, motivation and source of information, if possible; why the reporter is reporting now; and any actions that the reporter suggests should occur.• Information concerning the name and contact information for biological parents who are not subject of the report.• The names and contact information of other people with information regarding the child or family.Please be aware your initial report to CPS will take longer than it has in thepast, due to the implementation of the SAMS (Safety Assessment andManagement System) Model.Making a Difference: Mandate to Report, Responsibility to Prevent Child Abuse & Neglect –Participant Materials
  • 60. Reporting Suspected Abuse or Neglect in West Virginia Thorough Interview Report intake findings received by assessment conveyed to CPS DHHR occurs Supervisor Does information Assign to Case indicate abuse or Worker for Yes neglect or assessment likelihood of abuse or neglect? Refer family Is the child unsafe to Community or does child need Resources if No indicated and No protected? close the case for CPS Yes Implement an out of home safety plan by petitioning the courts to place the child in a Open Case for safe environment ongoing CPS No Conduct a Family Can the child be Assessment in order to Implement an determine what must safely kept in their in-home home with formal/ change for the child to safety plan be safe and not need informal supports? protected. Safety is continually Yes assessed to Ensure Develop and in-home safety plan implement controls the threat. treatment plan. If it doesnt, Then Ongoing Safety Out-of-Home Safety Management. Plan is requested. Case review to determine if parental conduct and behaviors Service provision have changed causing based upon the child to no longer treatment plan. need protection. Modify treatment Yes No plan if necessary. Transition the family to case Child Abuse & Neglect Hotline closure. 1-800-352-6513Making a Difference: Mandate to Report, Responsibility to Prevent Child Abuse & Neglect –Participant Materials
  • 61. TAB 8Making a Difference: Mandate to Report, Responsibility to Prevent Child Abuse & Neglect –Participant Materials
  • 62. Responsibility to Prevent ModuleGoals • To provide information on the protective factors that contribute to healthy families, effective parenting, and prevention of abuse and neglect.Group size Large groupTime 10 minutesMaterials Section 3 video segment Slides 23-25 Handout – “Circles of Caring” (Protective Factors that prevent child maltreatment)Process 1. Tell participants that this module will provide information on the protective factors that contribute to healthy families, effective parenting, and the prevention of child abuse and neglect. 2. Display Slides 23-25 as an introduction to the video segment. 3. Play DVD Section 3 (or embedded video segment). 4. Refer participants to Circles of Caring Handout for more information about Protective Factors that prevent child maltreatment. 5. Wrap up the session by telling participants: “In the next section we will explore how to incorporate the Five Circles of Caring in our prevention efforts.”Making a Difference: Mandate to Report, Responsibility to Prevent Child Abuse & Neglect –Instructor Materials
  • 63. Circles of Caring: Protective Factors that Prevent Child Abuse and Neglect !"About Protective Factors...The Center for the Study of Social Policy (CSSP) has completed a comprehensive researchanalysis, which identified the following five Protective Factors that are linked to the prevention ofchild abuse and neglect.These Protective Factors or “Circles of Caring” are conditions in families and communities that,when present, increase the health and well-being of children and families. These attributes alsoserve as buffers against risk factors for child maltreatment.Research confirms that children are shaped by the people, experiences and environment in whichthey live. By implementing strategies that build these Protective Factors, we can createcommunities that care for children, which will enhance the lives of children and their families andgreatly improve our common future.Knowledge of Parenting & Child Development.Crying babies, challenging children, and children with special needs are atthe highest risk of abuse and neglect.Parents need:• information to help them understand the reasons behind their child’s behavior,• techniques to manage those behaviors and guide development, and• perspective, to put their child’s behavior in the context of overall development (for example: intense infant crying is a phase that will pass; stubborn and independent behavior in toddlers is normal)Parents have teachable moments just like children do – usually when their child has presented themwith a new challenge or they are trying to tackle a new task like toilet training.Finally, parents need alternative ways of responding to their children than simply the ones theylearned from how they were parented (especially parents who were abused or neglected as children– but also for people who grew up in families that over-relied on physical punishment and spanking). Parental Resilience. Resilience is the ability to “bounce back” when life becomes stressful. Problems at work or challenges at home can make parenting even more difficult and ensure that children get the love and attention they need. We can build resilience by reaching out to one another and helping parents during the inevitable challenges of life. When parents feel stressed or frustrated, you have the opportunity to offer support and encouragement. Making a Difference: Mandate to Report, Responsibility to Prevent Child Abuse & Neglect – Participant Materials
  • 64. Social Connections.Having trusting relationships and being part of a social network goes a longway to decrease isolation – a major factor in child abuse and neglect. Whenparents have friends they can trust and confide in, they feel supported andare less likely to feel lonely.For preventing child abuse and neglect, it’s not just having socialconnections, but the quality of the connections:• Having someone to talk to and vent frustration, especially about parenting challenges.• Connections that help families to access resources – (e.g. a friend that will provide babysitting)• Opportunities to see other parents parenting – this allows parents to pick up some good techniques and perhaps also recognize some strategies that don’t work.• Social networks that include positive norms about parenting – conversations with other parents about the joys of raising children and sharing tips for positive things to do with children. Social and Emotional Development of Children. Supporting children’s social and emotional skills helps the communication between parents and their children and can reduce tensions within the family. When parents, caregivers and others help children express their feelings and needs effectively, children are less likely to resort to tantrums, biting or fighting. Over time, better communication about feelings helps cement the important bonds that children have with their parents and other adults.In addition, being able to talk about how they feel helps children be more likely to confide in a trustedadult about situations that make them feel uncomfortable or unsafe..Concrete Support in Times of Need.Providing concrete supports is an important way of intervening before acrisis happens. Parents that are struggling to meet basic needs for theirfamilies will not be able to focus on less-immediate concerns like positivediscipline and enhancing their child’s development.Concrete Support may include:• Response to a crisis such as food, shelter, and clothing,• Assistance with daily needs such as health care, education, or job opportunities,• Services for parents dealing with depression and other mental health issues, domestic violence, or substance abuse,• Specialized services for children.“Times of need” is not limited to families in poverty. All families have times of need, whether it’s at thebirth of a new child, health problems, etc. Mental illness, substance abuse and domestic violence canhappen in any family. For more information visit: http://www.preventchildabusewv.org TM Making a Difference: Mandate to Report, Responsibility to Prevent Child Abuse & Neglect – Participant Materials
  • 65. Tab 9Making a Difference: Mandate to Report, Responsibility to Prevent Child Abuse & Neglect –Participant Materials
  • 66. Reaching Out ModuleGoals • To provide practice in evaluating and preventing potential child maltreatment situations.Group size Large groupTime 30 minutesMaterials Video vignettes (DVD Section 4) or embedded videos in PowerPointProcess 1. Tell participants that you will now show them film clips of common situations that they may face as mandatory reporters. Ask them to watch the clips carefully and to be ready to respond to questions designed to help them analyze each situation. 2. Show as many clips as time allows. After each clip, use the following questions to generate discussion among participants. There are no right or wrong answers to the questions.Scenario 1. “A Bad Day…”  Possible concerns?  Is Mom abusive?  Family strengths?  How is Marcus feeling? Mom? Caregiver?  What do you think of the caregiver’s approach?  Other approaches?  Which Protective Factor(s) or “Circles of Caring” are being or could be strengthened here?Making a Difference: Mandate to Report, Responsibility to Prevent Child Abuse & Neglect –Instructor Materials
  • 67. Scenario 2. “The Grocery Store…”  What are some possible concerns?  Can you identify some family strengths?  How is the Dad feeling?  How is the little girl feeling?  How is the bystander feeling?  What did you think of the bystander’s approach?  What would be some other approaches?  Which Protective Factor(s) or “Circles of Caring” are being or could be strengthened here?NOTE: With Scenario 2, participants often focus on the issue of “StrangerDanger”- particularly because the bystander is male. It is important to remindthem that most abuse is perpetrated by a relative or someone the child knows.Scenario 3. “Forgotten Again…”  Is the grandparent abusive? Neglectful?  Can you identify some family strengths?  How is the grandmother feeling?  How is the boy feeling?  How is the Coach feeling?  What did you think of the Coach’s approach?  What would be some other approaches?  Which Protective Factor(s) or “Circles of Caring” are being or could be strengthened here?Scenario 4. “Something’s Wrong…”  Possible concerns?  How is the mom feeling?  How is the caregiver feeling?  What did you think of the caregiver’s approach?  What would be some possible next steps?  What would be some other approaches?  Which Protective Factor(s) or “Circles of Caring” are being or could be strengthened here?Scenario 5. “Our Mission…”  What is the Pastor’s goal?  Can you identify some family strengths?  How are the parents feeling?  How is the Pastor feeling?  What did you think of the Pastor’s approach?  What would be some possible next steps?  What would be some other approaches?  Which Protective Factor(s) or “Circles of Caring” are being or could be strengthened here?Making a Difference: Mandate to Report, Responsibility to Prevent Child Abuse & Neglect –Instructor Materials
  • 68. Scenario 6. “Doctor’s Visit…”  What are some possible concerns?  Can you identify some family strengths?  What do you think of the doctor’s response?  What would be some possible next steps?  What would be some other approaches?  Which Protective Factor(s) or “Circles of Caring” are being or could be strengthened here?Making a Difference: Mandate to Report, Responsibility to Prevent Child Abuse & Neglect –Instructor Materials
  • 69. TAB 10Making a Difference: Mandate to Report, Responsibility to Prevent Child Abuse & Neglect-Participant Materials
  • 70. Action Plan/Close ModuleGoals • To enhance participant motivation to share and use the knowledge and skills they learned during the program.Group size Large groupTime 10 minutesMaterials Slide 40Process 1. Tell participants: “Before we close, I would like for you to identify how you are going to use the knowledge and skill that you developed today. Please turn to a partner and share your answers to the following questions.” 2. Display Slide 40: • With whom will you share the knowledge gained from this session? • How will you demonstrate your commitment to children by reporting and preventing child maltreatment? 3. After approximately 4 minutes of discussion between paired participants, politely interrupt their conversations. Ask the group, “With whom will you share the knowledge gained from the session?” 4. After hearing 5 to 6 answers, ask, “How will you demonstrate your commitment to children by reporting and preventing child maltreatment?” 5. After hearing 5 to 6 answers, thank participants and tell them participants that you will now wrap up the session. Say: “On behalf of Prevent Child Abuse West Virginia, I would like to thank you for attending this training. Please feel free to contact them at the number listed on the cover of your handout for more information and assistance. Before you leave, please complete the program evaluation so that we can use your feedback to improve our instruction in the future. Thank you again for your attention and participation.”Making a Difference: Mandate to Report, Responsibility to Prevent Child Abuse & Neglect –Instructor Materials
  • 71. Making a Difference: Mandate to Report, Responsibility to Prevent Child Abuse & NeglectTrainer:Date: Location: Please circle the Strongly Agree Disagree Strongly appropriate number Agree Disagree I gained knowledge and/or 4 3 2 1 skills. The training met my 4 3 2 1 expectations. The materials were useful. 4 3 2 1 The trainer was engaging 4 3 2 1 and friendly. Participation and 4 3 2 1 interaction were encouraged. The trainer was 4 3 2 1 professional. What part of the training was MOST useful to you? What part of the training was LEAST useful to you? Additional Comments:
  • 72. Making a Difference: Mandate to Report, Responsibility to Prevent Child Abuse & Neglect Training Session Feedback FormTrainer’s Name:Trainer’s Organization:Phone: Email:Date of training: Number of participants:Training Location:Briefly describe the participants (agency staff, community members, educators, childcare staff, faith-based representatives, law enforcement, medical providers, etc.)?Were there any concerns with the training content and presentation?Other Comments: After each training that you provide with this curriculum, please complete thisbrief response sheet and send to pcawv@teamwv.com or by mail to Team For WestVirginia Children, P.O. Box 1653, Huntington, WV 25717, or fax to (304) 697-0320. Thank you for your assistance!
  • 73. ABOUT TEAM FOR WEST VIRGINIA CHILDRENTEAM stands for “Together Eliminating Abuse and Maltreatment.” TEAM for WestVirginia Children, a Huntington-based non-profit agency, formed in 1986, dedicated tothe prevention of child abuse and neglect. A small paid staff is helped by manyvolunteers to conduct programs including:• The Child Assault Prevention (CAP) project is presented in areaelementary schools to help children learn to identify and deal with potentiallydangerous situations. The CAP Project offers a workshop for school personnel andparents prior to the program with the children. All seek to empower children byproviding information, teaching assertiveness, reducing isolation and encouragingchildren to seek help.• The Court Appointed Special Advocate (CASA) project provides trainedcommunity volunteers (CASA), appointed by a Circuit Court judge, to advocate for thebest interests of an abused or neglected child who has been placed in state custody. TheCASA fully researches the situation and makes recommendations to the judge onservices needed and permanent placement for the child. The goal is a safe, permanenthome for the child.• Public awareness campaigns: The TEAM provides both speakers andmaterials to promote child abuse prevention. Specific materials are available to helpprevent Shaken Baby Syndrome and promoting safe infant sleep through the OurBabies: Safe & Sound Campaign. The TEAM has developed a series of booklets onidentifying and reporting child abuse for mandated reports.• The Healthy Families America project: This project provides voluntaryintensive home visitor services for first-time parents who face many challenges. Thegoal is to help the family get off to a good start by promoting parent-child bonds,providing child development information, and serving as a link to needed communityresources.• Prevent Child Abuse West Virginia (PCA-WV): This project is working tosupport safe and strong families through education, effective programs, and soundpublic policy. PCA-WV is a state chapter of Prevent Child Abuse America. Partners inPrevention is a statewide initiative of PCA-WV involving community teams around thestate who are working to promote the well-being of children on a community level.To contact TEAM for West Virginia Children:WEBSITES: http://www.teamwv.org http://www.preventchildabusewv.orgPHONE: (304) 523-9587 FAX: (304) 523-9595ADDRESS: P.O. Box 1653, Huntington, W.Va., 25717-1653E=MAIL: team@teamwv.orgTwitter: http://www.twitter.com/team4wvchildrenMaking a Difference: Mandate to Report, Responsibility to Prevent Child Abuse & Neglect –Participant Materials