Cellular Respiration<br />
Key Concepts we will cover today. . . <br />Respiration is the release of energy by combining oxygen with digested food (g...
Cellular Energy<br />Most of the foods we eat contain energy stored in proteins, carbohydrates, and fats.<br />Before our ...
Cellular Energy<br /><ul><li>Oxygen in the air you breath makes the production of ATP more efficient. Some ATP is made wit...
Cellular Energy: Respiration<br />The energy-producing process in living things is called respiration.<br />Respiration is...
Stages of Cellular Respiration<br />Cellular respiration is the process cells use to extract the energy in organic compoun...
Stage 1: Breakdown of Glucose<br />The primary fuel for cellular respiration is glucose which is formed when carbohydrates...
Stage 1: Breakdown of Glucose: Glycolysis<br />Glycolysis can be summarized in 4 steps<br />Step 1:<br /> in a series of t...
Stage 1: Breakdown of Glucose: Glycolysis<br />Glycolysis can be summarized in 4 steps<br />Step 2: <br />In two reactions...
Stage 1: Breakdown of Glucose: Glycolysis<br />Glycolysis can be summarized in 4 steps<br />Step 3: <br />Two NADH molecul...
Stage 1: Breakdown of Glucose: Glycolysis<br />Glycolysis can be summarized in 4 steps<br />Step 4:<br />In a series of 4 ...
Stage 1: Breakdown of Glucose: Glycolysis<br />Summary: In this 4 step process:<br />Glycolysis uses two ATP molecules <br...
Stage 2: Production of ATP<br />When oxygen is present, pyruvate produced during glycolysis enters a mitochondrion and is ...
Stage 2: Production of ATP<br />Acetyl-CoA enters a series of enzyme-assisted reactions called the Krebs Cycle.<br />The K...
Stage 2: Production of ATP<br />Step 1: <br />Acetyl-CoA combines with a 4 carbon compound, forming a six carbon compound ...
Stage 2: Production of ATP<br />Step 2: <br />Carbon Dioxide (CO2)<br />     is released from the six-carbon compound, for...
Stage 2: Production of ATP<br />Step 3:<br />Carbon dioxide is released from the five-carbon compound, resulting in a four...
Stage 2: Production of ATP<br />Step 4:<br />The existing four-carbon compound is then converted to a new four-carbon comp...
Stage 2: Production of ATP<br />After the Krebs Cycle, NADH and FADH2 now contain much of the energy that was previously s...
Electron Transfer Chain<br />In aerobic respiration, electrons donated by NADH and FADH2 pass through an electron transpor...
Electron Transfer Chain<br />Step 2: At the end of the chain, electrons and hydrogen ions combine with oxygen, forming wat...
Electron Transfer Chain<br />Step 3: ATP is produced as hydrogen ions diffuse into the inner compartment through a channel...
Electron Transfer Chain<br />Hydrogen ions diffuse back into the inner compartment through a carrier protein that adds a p...
Respiration in the Absence of Oxygen<br />What happens when there is not enough oxygen for aerobic respiration to occur?<b...
Respiration in the Absence of Oxygen<br />Two important types of fermentation are lactic acid fermentation and alcoholic f...
Lactic Acid Fermentation<br />Lactate is the ion of an organic acid called lactic acid. For example, during exercise, pyru...
Alcoholic Fermentation<br />Alcoholic fermentation is a two-step process.<br />First, pyruvate is converted to a two-carbo...
Alcoholic Fermentation<br />Alcoholic fermentation by yeast, a fungus, has been used in the preparation of many foods and ...
Production of ATP: Summary<br />The total amount of ATP that a cell is able to harvest from each glucose molecule that ent...
Production of ATP: Summary<br />Most of a cell’s ATP is made during aerobic respiration. (requiring oxygen) <br />For each...
Key Concepts: Review  . . . <br />Cellular respiration has two stages. First glucose is broken down to pyruvate during gly...
Computer Lab Activities<br />Go to the following Web-based activities and watch and complete both activities including the...
Cellular respiration in detail
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Cellular respiration in detail

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  1. 1. Cellular Respiration<br />
  2. 2. Key Concepts we will cover today. . . <br />Respiration is the release of energy by combining oxygen with digested food (glucose).<br />Carbon dioxide and waterare also produced as byproducts. They are the waste products of respiration.<br />Cellular respiration has two stages. First glucose is broken down to pyruvate during glycolysis, making some ATP.<br />The second stage involving the Krebs cycle is a series of reactions that produce energy-storing molecules during anaerobic respiration.<br />During aerobic respiration, large amounts of ATP are made in an electron transport chain.<br />When oxygen is not present, fermentation follows glycolysis, regenerating NAD+ needed for glycolysis to continue<br />
  3. 3. Cellular Energy<br />Most of the foods we eat contain energy stored in proteins, carbohydrates, and fats.<br />Before our cells can use this energy it must be transferred to ATP within the cells.<br />Cells transfer the energy in organic compounds to ATP through a process called cellular respiration.<br />Process cellular respiration<br />
  4. 4. Cellular Energy<br /><ul><li>Oxygen in the air you breath makes the production of ATP more efficient. Some ATP is made without this oxygen however.</li></ul>Metabolic processes that require oxygen are called aerobic processes.<br />Metabolic processes that require NO oxygen are called anaerobic processes.<br />
  5. 5. Cellular Energy: Respiration<br />The energy-producing process in living things is called respiration.<br />Respiration is the release of energy by combining oxygen with digested food (glucose).<br />Carbon dioxide and water are also produced as byproducts. They are the waste products of respiration.<br />A simple formula to show respiration looks like this:<br />Glucose + oxygen  carbon dioxide (waste) + water (waste) + energy<br />
  6. 6. Stages of Cellular Respiration<br />Cellular respiration is the process cells use to extract the energy in organic compounds, particularly glucose.<br />Cellular respiration occurs in three major stages<br />Stage 1:glucose is converted to pyruvateproducing a small amount of ATP and NADH<br />Stage 2:Aerobic respiration occurs: this is when oxygen is present, pyruvate and NADH make more ATP.<br />Stage 3: In an electron transfer chain, continuing reactions create a large amount of ATP from the materials from stage 2.<br />
  7. 7. Stage 1: Breakdown of Glucose<br />The primary fuel for cellular respiration is glucose which is formed when carbohydrates such as starch and sucrose are broken down.<br />In the First stage of cellular respiration, glucose is broken down in the cytoplasm during a process called glycolysis.<br />Glycolysis is an enzyme-assisted anaerobic process that<br />breaks down one six carbon molecule of glucose <br />to two three-carbon pyruvate ions<br />1<br />
  8. 8. Stage 1: Breakdown of Glucose: Glycolysis<br />Glycolysis can be summarized in 4 steps<br />Step 1:<br /> in a series of three reactions, <br />phosphate groups from two ATP molecules <br />are transferred to a glucose molecule<br />
  9. 9. Stage 1: Breakdown of Glucose: Glycolysis<br />Glycolysis can be summarized in 4 steps<br />Step 2: <br />In two reactions, <br />the resulting six-carbon molecule is broken down to <br />two three-carbon compounds,<br />each with a phosphate group<br />
  10. 10. Stage 1: Breakdown of Glucose: Glycolysis<br />Glycolysis can be summarized in 4 steps<br />Step 3: <br />Two NADH molecules are produced, <br />and one more phosphate group is transferred<br /> to each three-carbon compound.<br />
  11. 11. Stage 1: Breakdown of Glucose: Glycolysis<br />Glycolysis can be summarized in 4 steps<br />Step 4:<br />In a series of 4 reactions,<br /> each three carbon compound is converted to <br />a three-carbon pyruvate,<br />producing 4 ATP molecules in the process<br />
  12. 12. Stage 1: Breakdown of Glucose: Glycolysis<br />Summary: In this 4 step process:<br />Glycolysis uses two ATP molecules <br />but produces four ATP molecules in return.<br />Thus, we gain two ATP molecules for a gain ratio of 2 to 1.<br />Glycolysis is followed by another set of reactions that uses the energy temporarily stored in NADH to make more ATP.<br />
  13. 13. Stage 2: Production of ATP<br />When oxygen is present, pyruvate produced during glycolysis enters a mitochondrion and is converted to a two-carbon compound.<br />This reaction produces one carbon dioxidemolecule, one NADH molecule, and one two-carbon acetyl group<br />The acetyl group is attached to a molecule called coenzyme Aforming a compound called acetyl-CoA.<br />
  14. 14. Stage 2: Production of ATP<br />Acetyl-CoA enters a series of enzyme-assisted reactions called the Krebs Cycle.<br />The Krebs Cycle has several steps we will be breaking down.<br />
  15. 15. Stage 2: Production of ATP<br />Step 1: <br />Acetyl-CoA combines with a 4 carbon compound, forming a six carbon compound and releasing “coenzyme A”<br />
  16. 16. Stage 2: Production of ATP<br />Step 2: <br />Carbon Dioxide (CO2)<br /> is released from the six-carbon compound, forming a five-carbon compound. <br />Electrons are transferred to NAD+, making a molecule of NADH.<br />
  17. 17. Stage 2: Production of ATP<br />Step 3:<br />Carbon dioxide is released from the five-carbon compound, resulting in a four-carbon compound. <br />A molecule of ATP is made, and a molecule of NADH is produced.<br />
  18. 18. Stage 2: Production of ATP<br />Step 4:<br />The existing four-carbon compound is then converted to a new four-carbon compound.<br /> Electrons are transferred to an electron acceptor called FAD, making a molecule of FADH2.<br />FADH2 is another type of electron carrier.<br />
  19. 19. Stage 2: Production of ATP<br />After the Krebs Cycle, NADH and FADH2 now contain much of the energy that was previously stored in glucose and pyruvate. <br />When the Krebs Cycle is completed, the four-carbon compound that began the cycle has been recycled, and acetyl-CoA can enter the cycle again.<br />
  20. 20. Electron Transfer Chain<br />In aerobic respiration, electrons donated by NADH and FADH2 pass through an electron transport chain.<br />Step 1: The electron transfer chain pumps hydrogen ions out of the inner compartment<br />
  21. 21. Electron Transfer Chain<br />Step 2: At the end of the chain, electrons and hydrogen ions combine with oxygen, forming water (H2O).<br />
  22. 22. Electron Transfer Chain<br />Step 3: ATP is produced as hydrogen ions diffuse into the inner compartment through a channel protein.<br />
  23. 23. Electron Transfer Chain<br />Hydrogen ions diffuse back into the inner compartment through a carrier protein that adds a phosphate group to ADP, making ATP.<br />At the end of the electron chain, hydrogen ions and spent electrons combine with oxygen molecules (O2) forming water molecules (H20)<br />
  24. 24. Respiration in the Absence of Oxygen<br />What happens when there is not enough oxygen for aerobic respiration to occur?<br />When oxygen is not present, NAD+ is recycled in another way<br />Under anaerobic conditions, electrons carried by NADH are transferred to pyruvate produced during glycolysis.<br />This process recycles NAD+ needed to continue making ATP through glycolysis.<br />This recycling of NAD+ using an organic hydrogen acceptor is called fermentation.<br />
  25. 25. Respiration in the Absence of Oxygen<br />Two important types of fermentation are lactic acid fermentation and alcoholic fermentation.<br />Lactic acid fermentation by some prokaryotes and fungi is used in the production of foods such as yogurt and some cheeses.<br />
  26. 26. Lactic Acid Fermentation<br />Lactate is the ion of an organic acid called lactic acid. For example, during exercise, pyruvate in muscles is converted to lactate when muscles must operate without enough oxygen.<br />Fermentation enables glycolysis to continue producing ATP in muscles as long as the glucose supply lasts. Blood removes excess lactate from muscles.<br />Lactate can build up in muscle cells if it is not removed quickly enough, sometimes causing muscle soreness.<br />
  27. 27. Alcoholic Fermentation<br />Alcoholic fermentation is a two-step process.<br />First, pyruvate is converted to a two-carbon compound, releasing carbon dioxide.<br />Second, electrons are transferred from a molecule of NADH to the two-carbon compound, producing ethanol.<br />
  28. 28. Alcoholic Fermentation<br />Alcoholic fermentation by yeast, a fungus, has been used in the preparation of many foods and beverages. <br /> Wine and beer contain ethanol made during alcoholic fermentation by yeast.<br />Carbon dioxide released by the yeast causes the rising of bread dough and the carbonation of some alcoholic beverages, such as beer. <br />Ethanol is actually toxic to yeast. At a concentration of about 12%, ethanol kills yeast. <br />Thus, naturally fermented wine contains about 12% ethanol.<br />
  29. 29. Production of ATP: Summary<br />The total amount of ATP that a cell is able to harvest from each glucose molecule that enters glycolysis depends on the presence or absence of oxygen.<br />Cells use energy most efficiently when oxygen is present. <br />In the first stage of cellular respiration, glucose is broken down to pyruvate during glycolysis. Glycolysis is an anaerobic process (no oxygen required), and it results in a gain of two ATP molecules.<br />In the second stage of cellular respiration, the pyruvate passes through either aerobic respiration (requires oxygen) or fermentation. When oxygen is not present, fermentation occurs instead.<br />
  30. 30. Production of ATP: Summary<br />Most of a cell’s ATP is made during aerobic respiration. (requiring oxygen) <br />For each molecule of glucose that is broken down, as many as two ATP molecules are made directly during the Krebs cycle,<br /> and up to 34 ATP molecules are produced later by the electron transport chain.<br />
  31. 31. Key Concepts: Review . . . <br />Cellular respiration has two stages. First glucose is broken down to pyruvate during glycolysis, making some ATP.<br />The Krebs cycle is a series of reactions that produce energy-storing molecules during anaerobic respiration<br />During aerobic respiration, large amounts of ATP are made in an electron transport chain.<br />When oxygen is not present, fermentation follows glycolysis, regenerating NAD+ needed for glycolysis to continue<br />
  32. 32. Computer Lab Activities<br />Go to the following Web-based activities and watch and complete both activities including the quiz at the end of the second site<br />video 1 cellular respiration<br />Aerobic respiration UK version<br />Aerobic Respiration<br />
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