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NUST Institute of Civil Engineering/Engr Sajjad Ahmad<br />1<br />
Engineering Hydrology(CE- 235)<br />CHAPTER - 3<br />2<br />Runoff & Hydrographs<br /><ul><li>NUST Institute of Civil Engi...
Classification of runoff
Factors affecting runoff
Losses from precipitation
Evaporation
Infiltration</li></ul>3<br />Engineering Hydrology(CE- 235)<br /><ul><li>NUST Institute of Civil Engineering/Engr Sajjad A...
The portion of water which travel across the ground surface to the nearest stream
Interflow
The flow through the permeable layer of earth surface
NUST Institute of Civil Engineering/Engr Sajjad Ahmad</li></li></ul><li>6<br />Engineering Hydrology(CE- 235)<br />Factors...
Shape and size of the catchment
Topography
Geological characteristics
Meteorological characteristics
Character of the catchment surface
Storage characteristics
NUST Institute of Civil Engineering/Engr Sajjad Ahmad</li></li></ul><li>7<br />Engineering Hydrology(CE- 235)<br />Precipi...
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Runoff and Hydrograph

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Transcript of "Runoff and Hydrograph"

  1. 1. NUST Institute of Civil Engineering/Engr Sajjad Ahmad<br />1<br />
  2. 2. Engineering Hydrology(CE- 235)<br />CHAPTER - 3<br />2<br />Runoff & Hydrographs<br /><ul><li>NUST Institute of Civil Engineering/Engr Sajjad Ahmad</li></li></ul><li>Runoff & hydrograph - Outline<br /><ul><li>Basic definitions
  3. 3. Classification of runoff
  4. 4. Factors affecting runoff
  5. 5. Losses from precipitation
  6. 6. Evaporation
  7. 7. Infiltration</li></ul>3<br />Engineering Hydrology(CE- 235)<br /><ul><li>NUST Institute of Civil Engineering/Engr Sajjad Ahmad</li></li></ul><li>Runoff & hydrograph - Outline<br /><ul><li>Computation of runoff by various methods</li></ul>Characteristics of hydrograph<br />Components of a hydrograph<br />Hydrograph separation<br />Unit Hydrograph<br />S-curve<br />4<br />Engineering Hydrology(CE- 235)<br /><ul><li>NUST Institute of Civil Engineering/Engr Sajjad Ahmad</li></li></ul><li>5<br />Engineering Hydrology(CE- 235)<br />Classification of runoff<br /><ul><li>Over land flow
  8. 8. The portion of water which travel across the ground surface to the nearest stream
  9. 9. Interflow
  10. 10. The flow through the permeable layer of earth surface
  11. 11. NUST Institute of Civil Engineering/Engr Sajjad Ahmad</li></li></ul><li>6<br />Engineering Hydrology(CE- 235)<br />Factors affecting runoff<br /><ul><li>Precipitation characteristics
  12. 12. Shape and size of the catchment
  13. 13. Topography
  14. 14. Geological characteristics
  15. 15. Meteorological characteristics
  16. 16. Character of the catchment surface
  17. 17. Storage characteristics
  18. 18. NUST Institute of Civil Engineering/Engr Sajjad Ahmad</li></li></ul><li>7<br />Engineering Hydrology(CE- 235)<br />Precipitation characteristics<br /><ul><li>Type and duration of storm
  19. 19. Intensity and extent of rainfall
  20. 20. Type of precipitation
  21. 21. Season
  22. 22. Arial extent or distribution
  23. 23. Direction of storm movement
  24. 24. NUST Institute of Civil Engineering/Engr Sajjad Ahmad</li></li></ul><li>8<br />Engineering Hydrology(CE- 235)<br />Shape and size of catchment<br /><ul><li>NUST Institute of Civil Engineering/Engr Sajjad Ahmad</li></li></ul><li>9<br />Engineering Hydrology(CE- 235)<br />Shape and size of catchment<br /><ul><li>Large catchment less runoff
  25. 25. Less number of streams less runoff
  26. 26. Lesser stream slope less runoff
  27. 27. Fan shaped catchment produce higher peak at outlet
  28. 28. NUST Institute of Civil Engineering/Engr Sajjad Ahmad</li></li></ul><li>10<br />Engineering Hydrology(CE- 235)<br />Topography<br /><ul><li>Type of earth surface
  29. 29. Smooth or rugged
  30. 30. Type of land
  31. 31. Slope of ground
  32. 32. NUST Institute of Civil Engineering/Engr Sajjad Ahmad</li></li></ul><li>11<br />Engineering Hydrology(CE- 235)<br />Geological characteristics<br /><ul><li>Type of soil surface and subsoil
  33. 33. Type of rock and their permeability
  34. 34. Seepage and absorption capacity
  35. 35. NUST Institute of Civil Engineering/Engr Sajjad Ahmad</li></li></ul><li>12<br />Engineering Hydrology(CE- 235)<br />Meteorological characteristics<br /><ul><li>Temperature
  36. 36. Wind
  37. 37. Humidity
  38. 38. Storm movement
  39. 39. NUST Institute of Civil Engineering/Engr Sajjad Ahmad</li></li></ul><li>13<br />Engineering Hydrology(CE- 235)<br />Character of the catchment surface<br /><ul><li>Natural or cultivated
  40. 40. Barren or covered with vegetation</li></ul>Storage characteristics of the catchment<br /><ul><li>Presence or absence of artificial or natural storage
  41. 41. NUST Institute of Civil Engineering/Engr Sajjad Ahmad</li></li></ul><li>14<br />Engineering Hydrology(CE- 235)<br />Losses from precipitation<br /><ul><li>The precipitation losses are due to followings
  42. 42. Evaporation from ground as well as from water body
  43. 43. Infiltration (absorption of water in to ground)
  44. 44. NUST Institute of Civil Engineering/Engr Sajjad Ahmad</li></li></ul><li>15<br />Engineering Hydrology(CE- 235)<br /><ul><li>Vaporization
  45. 45. Physical process
  46. 46. The change of liquid in to gaseous stat without boiling
  47. 47. Evaporation
  48. 48. Water loss due to vaporization is called evaporation
  49. 49. Transpiration
  50. 50. Evaporation from plant leaves
  51. 51. NUST Institute of Civil Engineering/Engr Sajjad Ahmad</li></li></ul><li>16<br />Engineering Hydrology(CE- 235)<br />Evapotranspiration <br /><ul><li>Combined evaporation and transpiration
  52. 52. Total water loss from earth surface and from trees and plants
  53. 53. Rate of evapotranspiration varies as the availability of water changes
  54. 54. NUST Institute of Civil Engineering/Engr Sajjad Ahmad</li></li></ul><li>17<br />Engineering Hydrology(CE- 235)<br />Factors affecting evaporation<br /><ul><li>Temperature
  55. 55. Surface area of water body
  56. 56. Humidity
  57. 57. Wind speed
  58. 58. Solar radiation
  59. 59. Atmospheric temperature
  60. 60. Depth of water
  61. 61. NUST Institute of Civil Engineering/Engr Sajjad Ahmad</li></li></ul><li>NUST Institute of Civil Engineering/Engr Sajjad Ahmad<br />18<br />

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