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How professional, networked learning may be supported

How professional, networked learning may be supported

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Sydney CoCo seminar Sydney CoCo seminar Presentation Transcript

  • Professional Networked Learning November 20, 2012, University Sydney CoCo seminar Peter B. SloepTuesday, November 20, 12
  • Overview 1. setting the scene 5 2. design issue 6 3. can peers help, how? 5 4. social networking tools 6 5. platforms 5 6. in conclusion 4Tuesday, November 20, 12
  • 1 setting the sceneTuesday, November 20, 12 View slide
  • Manuel Castells: network society, information society Castells, M. (1996). The information age: economy, society and culture, part 1: the rise of the network Alvin Toffler: society. Oxford: Blackwell. knowledge economy Marshall McLuhan: Toffler, A. (1980). The Third Wave. Morrow, New Jersey. Global Village McLuhan, M.. (1964). Understanding Media, the extensions of man. Toronto, Toronto University Press. Drucker, P. F. (1993). The post- capitalist society. Oxford: Butterworth Heinemann. Peter Drucker: knowledge workerTuesday, November 20, 12 View slide
  • Knowledge workers in todays workforce are individuals who are valued for their ability to act and communicate with knowledge within a specific subject area. ... Fueled by their expertise and insight, they work to solve those problems, in an effort to influence company decisions, priorities and strategies. What differentiates knowledge work from other forms of work is its primary task of “non-routine” problem solving that requires a combination of convergent, divergent, and creative thinking. Reinhardt, W., Schmidt, B., Sloep, P. B., & Drachsler, H. (2011). Knowledge Worker Roles and Actions - Results of Two Empirical Studies. Knowledge and Process Management, 18(3), 150-174.Tuesday, November 20, 12
  • [Knowledge workers] require new work styles ... find themselves operating in distributed, dynamically- changing and technologically-mediated ... ill-defined, non- hierarchical environments within expanding geographical and time horizons; developing and maintaining networks with peers and expert communities and collaborating in culturally diverse and geographically distributed teams ... (learning) goals are emergent ... there is no longer any one authority that can tell you what you need to learn and when ... the ability to self-regulate one’s learningMargaryan, A., Milligan, C., & Littlejohn, A. (2009). Self-regulated learning and knowledge sharing in the workplace : Differencesand similarities between experts and novices. Proceedings of 2009 Researching Work and Learning (RWL) Conference,Roskilde, Denmark (Vol. 68). Roskilde, Denmark.Tuesday, November 20, 12
  • http:// www.ted.co m/talks/ Dan Pink complex, authentic, ill-defined, ‘wicked’ problemsTuesday, November 20, 12
  • http:// www.ted.co m/talks/ Dan Pink complex, authentic, ill-defined, ‘wicked’ problemsTuesday, November 20, 12
  • http:// www.ted.co m/talks/ Dan Pink complex, authentic, ill-defined, ‘wicked’ problemsTuesday, November 20, 12
  • examples of prof. networkswww.biekbracht.nlwww.handover.ou.nl/Tuesday, November 20, 12
  • 2 design issueTuesday, November 20, 12
  • How would you design for learning to solve complex, wicked, ill- defined problems?Tuesday, November 20, 12
  • designing learner for performs 0, 1 learning 1..* learning activities learning 0..* 1 learning opportunity has outcome learning environment fellow staff (admin, artefacts learners teacher)Tuesday, November 20, 12
  • criteria learner for student 0, 1 perceptions performs attractiveness successful 1..* learning designs activities realized vs intended effectiveness outcome learning 0..* 1 learning opportunity has outcome efficiency effort to achieve learning outcome environment productive fellow learners staff (admin, teacher) artefacts learningTuesday, November 20, 12
  • Design methodology: e.g. 4C/ID • based on whole tasks (activities) • classes of equally difficult tasks • within a class, less teacher support • just-in-time information availableVan Merriënboer, J. (1997). Training complex cognitive skills Englewood Cliffs,NJ: Educational Technology Publications.Tuesday, November 20, 12
  • wicked problems can’t be designed for • problem space is open, solution requires creativity • how would you develop tasks, task classes, teacher support, j-i-t information for such problems?Tuesday, November 20, 12
  • how about self- regulation? • how about doing it yourself as a learner? • expert can do that, they’ve learnt to • novices cannot, they need to be helped to acquire those skillsTuesday, November 20, 12
  • can peers help? 3 if so how?Tuesday, November 20, 12
  • interaction equivalence theorem • Terry Anderson (2003) • Three kinds of interactions: student- teacher, student-content, student-student • deep learning is possible if one is maximisedAnderson, T. (2003). Getting the Mix Right Again: An Updated andTheoretical Rationale for Interaction. International Review of Research in Openand Distance Learning.Tuesday, November 20, 12
  • professionals: peer support iswide-spread • Margaryan et al. (2009) • experts and novices both seek recourse to peers • (experts, but not peers engage in deliberate systematic self-reflection)Margaryan, A., Milligan, C., & Littlejohn, A. (2009). Self-regulated learning and knowledge sharing in theworkplace : Differences and similarities between experts and novices. Proceedings of 2009 ResearchingWork and Learning (RWL) Conference, Roskilde, Denmark (Vol. 68). Roskilde, Denmark.Tuesday, November 20, 12
  • peer support works! • Van Rosmalen et al. (2008) • peers (students) are happy to help each other • the quality of their help is okVan Rosmalen, P., Sloep, P. B., Brouns, F., Kester, L., Berlanga, A., Bitter, M., & Koper,R. (2008). A model for online learner support based on selecting appropriatepeer tutors. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 24(6), 483–493.Tuesday, November 20, 12
  • mechanism behind networked peer help • Mark Granovetter (1973), weak links become strong links, cf. Haythornthwaite (2002) & Jones et al. (2008) • but: there is an upper limit of 100-150 to the number of strongly linked people we can maintain Robin Dunbar (1993)Granovetter, M. S. (1973). The strength of weak ties. American journal of sociology, 78(6), 1360–1380.Dunbar, R. I. M. (1993). Co-Evolution Of Neocortex Size, Group Size And Language In Humans.Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 16, 681–735.Tuesday, November 20, 12
  • the network predicament • the bigger a network the better the chances the right peer hides somewhere • the bigger the network the harder it is to find that peer • solution: dedicated tools that help you search, that filter, that recommendTuesday, November 20, 12
  • social networking 4 toolsTuesday, November 20, 12
  • peer support using LSAVan Rosmalen, P., Sloep, P., Brouns, F., Kester, L., Koné, M., & Koper, R. (2006). Knowledgematchmaking in Learning Networks: Alleviating the tutor load by mutually connectinglearning network users. British Journal of Educational Technology, 37(6), 881–895.Tuesday, November 20, 12
  • Collaborative filteringFazeli, S., Drachsler, H. & Sloep, P. B. (submitted). Towards a trust-based recommendersystem for teachers.Tuesday, November 20, 12
  • Awareness supportReinhardt, W. (2012). Awareness Support for Knowledge Workers in Research Networks.Open Universiteit.Tuesday, November 20, 12
  • Coalitions in co- operation networksSie, R. (2012, October). Coalitions in Cooperation Networks (COCOON); Social NetworkAnalysis and Game Theory to Enhance Cooperation Networks. Open Universiteit.Tuesday, November 20, 12
  • TrustWorthiness ANtecents Schema • Communality (psychological) • Ability (professional) • Benevolence/courtesy (personal) • Internalised norms (ethics)Rusman, E. (2011). The Mind’s Eye on Personal Profiles; How to inform trustworthinessassessment in virtual project teams. Open Universiteit.Tuesday, November 20, 12
  • How about existing social network sites? • not dedicated to professional learning • (about getting your data for ads) • privacy-issues, certainly for companies • used and useful, thoughTuesday, November 20, 12
  • 5 platformsTuesday, November 20, 12
  • • commercial social network tools combine a website with services (tools) • but: custom-built ones also need a user interface, a means to interact with them • (APIs are needed to, that’s for tools to interact with each other)Tuesday, November 20, 12
  • two social intranetsTuesday, November 20, 12
  • three social VLEs OpenU Cloudworks LandingTuesday, November 20, 12
  • novices & experts • novices: social VLE? • experts: personal learning network!Tuesday, November 20, 12
  • Alec Couros on PLNs for teachers Joyce Seitzinger on PLNs for teachersTuesday, November 20, 12
  • 6 in conclusionTuesday, November 20, 12
  • 1. information society (knowledge workers, lifelong learners, networked professionals) (also) demand other than formal modes of learning for professionals 2. peers partly fulfill role teachers in online networks 3. tools help match peers (filtering of content and people)Tuesday, November 20, 12
  • 4. such tools need a user interface 5. social VLEs and social intranets for novices (and companies who want to stay in control) 6. PLNs (consisting mainly of existing social networking tools) for expertsTuesday, November 20, 12
  • two issues • commercial social networking sites • generic ones are bad for user experience; privacy is an issue • the sociology of interacting peers vs network dynamics • some network structures ‘work’ betterTuesday, November 20, 12
  • Thanks for having me here!!! mail: peter.sloep <at> ou.nl my publications: www.mendeley.com/ profiles/peter-sloep; pbsloep.nl CELSTEC publications - dspace.ou.nl scoop.it: www.scoop.it/t/networked- learning-learning-networks blog pbsloep.blogspot.com twitter: pbsloep Google+: pbsloep delicious: pbsloep slideshare: pbsloepTuesday, November 20, 12