Designing open infrastructures for
                           open learning and innovation
                               ...
overview
                    •    the problem - six use cases
                    •    inspiration - open source developme...
1
                         the problem
                         six use cases


Sunday, March 28, 2010
update &
                         upgrade
            James is a chemical engineer
           working for an SME. He wants...
extend
          Jean, a lawyer working for a
         pharmaceutical company, finds
          out she needs to expand her
...
internal
           knowledge
         sharing/building
        A multinational wants to do away
         with its travell...
innovation
            The association of public
       libraries wants to rethink its role
            in society and ret...
keeping up to
                 date
            An SME wants to innovate
         constantly and therefore needs
         ...
world-wide
                  knowledge
                    sharing
           A large international agency
           want...
2
                         inspiration
                    open source networks


Sunday, March 28, 2010
‘Internet technologies
                         radically undermine
                         organizational structures
   ...
‘This enables the
                         formation of ‘episodic
                         communities on demand’,
       ...
• There are deeper levels to the book
                     • micro-foundations, what drives people:
                      ...
3
                            a hypothesis
                         Learning Networks


Sunday, March 28, 2010
a hypothesis

                         All use cases may be addressed by working
                         with Learning Ne...
formal      non-formal    informal
                                 learning      learning     learning


                ...
A Learning Network = DF

                            an online social network that is
                            specifica...
• design
                     • using web 2.0 technologies for
                           interaction?

                  ...
4
                               test
                         design research


Sunday, March 28, 2010
theoretical models
                              smoke          therapy
                                Ia                ...
• such models are tested by predicting future
                         behaviour (a hypothesis) and comparing it
         ...
• a Learning Network is a natural system, but
                         one that is designed for a purpose: artefact

     ...
targeted state of the system
    (artefact) is different than the
    obtained (observed) state


                        ...
• unlike natural systems artefacts are tested
                         for performance (criteria!)

                    • ...
5
                      design requirements
                     for learning & support


Sunday, March 28, 2010
judge (interpret, analyse, classify)




                               requirements for learning
                   learn...
specific competent behaviour



                         knowledge          personal
                            skills    ...
social learning
                    • learning is not passively downloading
                    • learning is interactivel...
design for social
                             learning
          teacher          teacher          learning         goals...
support services
                    •    online profile           •   content provision and
                              ...
6
                           solutions
                         two scenarios


Sunday, March 28, 2010
centralised control
                    • there is an organisation which is in control,
                         acts as a...
examples

                    • VLEs such as Moodle, Blackboard
                    • Content Management systems such as
 ...
distributed control
                    • your desktop is your environment, no one
                         is in control
...
examples
                    • LinkedIn, FaceBook,Yammer, Academia
                    • Mindmeister, Google Docs
        ...
7
                      in summary
                 some questions for you


Sunday, March 28, 2010
1. the problem - design for professional
                       development, taking personal and
                       or...
4. test - use a design-research methodology
                       for ‘hypothesis’ testing

                    5. requir...
Yochai Benkler
                         University networks and technical platforms will
                         have to ...
questions
                    1. Can one piece together out of existing
                       ‘parts’ a learning environm...
Questions?
                   Follow-up
              mail: peter.sloep <at> ou.nl
                     http:pbsloep.nl
  ...
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Designing open infrastructures for open learning and innovation

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Presentation for a doctoral seminar at the University of Lancaster, Lancaster, UK, March 24, 2010. The argument put forth is that open, distributed infrastructures are the way go for networked learning, particularly in non-formal settings.

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Designing open infrastructures for open learning and innovation

  1. 1. Designing open infrastructures for open learning and innovation Peter B. Sloep Lancaster seminar March 24, 2010 Lancaster, UK Sunday, March 28, 2010
  2. 2. overview • the problem - six use cases • inspiration - open source development • a hypothesis- Learning Networks • test - design research • requirements - for learning, for interaction • solutions - two scenarios • in summary - some questions for you Sunday, March 28, 2010
  3. 3. 1 the problem six use cases Sunday, March 28, 2010
  4. 4. update & upgrade James is a chemical engineer working for an SME. He wants to pursue a career as a water manager with the local water board. He therefore needs to update and upgrade his skills. Sunday, March 28, 2010
  5. 5. extend Jean, a lawyer working for a pharmaceutical company, finds out she needs to expand her knowledge in order to get a more thorough understanding of the science part of the company, in particular about biotechnology. Sunday, March 28, 2010
  6. 6. internal knowledge sharing/building A multinational wants to do away with its travelling road show of trainers and stimulate its employees to study online. They also want to stimulate the build- up of a collective knowledge base and stimulate the emergence of communities of practice. Sunday, March 28, 2010
  7. 7. innovation The association of public libraries wants to rethink its role in society and retrain its personel in the process. Collaborative open innovation and creativity as well as joint sense making and learning are key. Sunday, March 28, 2010
  8. 8. keeping up to date An SME wants to innovate constantly and therefore needs to keep its personel up to date. Collaborative open innovation and creativity as well as joint sense making and learning are key. Sunday, March 28, 2010
  9. 9. world-wide knowledge sharing A large international agency wants to distribute existing knowledge on a particular topic more equitably. Not duplicating existing work and world-wide knowledge sharing are key. Sunday, March 28, 2010
  10. 10. 2 inspiration open source networks Sunday, March 28, 2010
  11. 11. ‘Internet technologies radically undermine organizational structures because they reduce the cost of communications and transactions toward an asymptote of zero (p. 171).’ Hence, go online. Sunday, March 28, 2010
  12. 12. ‘This enables the formation of ‘episodic communities on demand’, so-called virtual organizations that come together frictionlessly for a particular task and then redistribute to the next task just as smoothly.’ Hence, use a networked approach. Sunday, March 28, 2010
  13. 13. • There are deeper levels to the book • micro-foundations, what drives people: pride; being an innovator; self-promotion; doing things together • macro-organisation, how to make it work: co-ordination (individual incentives, shared norms, and leadership), cope with complexity (division of labour) Sunday, March 28, 2010
  14. 14. 3 a hypothesis Learning Networks Sunday, March 28, 2010
  15. 15. a hypothesis All use cases may be addressed by working with Learning Networks, online, social networks that have been modelled after networks for open source software development. Sunday, March 28, 2010
  16. 16. formal non-formal informal learning learning learning initial ‘ordinary’ rare out of scope education education occasion post-initial ‘continuous’ lifelong out of scope education education learning Sunday, March 28, 2010
  17. 17. A Learning Network = DF an online social network that is specifically designed to support lifelong learning and lifelong professional development (note: emphasis on post-initial education) Sunday, March 28, 2010
  18. 18. • design • using web 2.0 technologies for interaction? • using any resource available, but thriving on open (educational) resources? • using open source-like business model: make money through additional services? Sunday, March 28, 2010
  19. 19. 4 test design research Sunday, March 28, 2010
  20. 20. theoretical models smoke therapy Ia Ib S1 S2 S3 healthy Ic cancer dead therapy Sunday, March 28, 2010
  21. 21. • such models are tested by predicting future behaviour (a hypothesis) and comparing it with actual behaviour (data) • this leads to confirmation, rejection, but usually adaptation of the model Sunday, March 28, 2010
  22. 22. • a Learning Network is a natural system, but one that is designed for a purpose: artefact • its design is based on confirmed knowledge and to the extent that that is missing, on assumed knowledge (and we never have full knowledge) • so artefacts may fail to do what they were designed to do Sunday, March 28, 2010
  23. 23. targeted state of the system (artefact) is different than the obtained (observed) state St Si So I the existence of a difference means: i) our theoretical model is wrong ii) our assumptions are wrong Sunday, March 28, 2010
  24. 24. • unlike natural systems artefacts are tested for performance (criteria!) • this leads to rejection, acceptance, but usually redesign Sunday, March 28, 2010
  25. 25. 5 design requirements for learning & support Sunday, March 28, 2010
  26. 26. judge (interpret, analyse, classify) requirements for learning learn competent, expert anticipate behaviour act (effectively & efficiently) Sunday, March 28, 2010
  27. 27. specific competent behaviour knowledge personal skills learn and attitudes action theory personality traits Sunday, March 28, 2010
  28. 28. social learning • learning is not passively downloading • learning is interactively (re)organising and extending what you know and can do • interact: with other agents (environment) • organise: make‘fit’ in with • extend: build upon Sunday, March 28, 2010
  29. 29. design for social learning teacher teacher learning goals to be design perception activities achieved teacher student learning goals design perception activities achieved Wiebe Bijker: interpretative flexibility of artefacts (philosophy of technology) Sunday, March 28, 2010
  30. 30. support services • online profile • content provision and matching • e-portfolio • coaching (peer, teacher) • billing • tutoring (peer, teacher) • assessment of prior competences • authoring • network visualisation • collaboration support Sunday, March 28, 2010
  31. 31. 6 solutions two scenarios Sunday, March 28, 2010
  32. 32. centralised control • there is an organisation which is in control, acts as a one-stop-shop for services • an online environment is designed, developed, maintained by them • you have to ‘go there’ to participate in the network • it is a closed infrastructure Sunday, March 28, 2010
  33. 33. examples • VLEs such as Moodle, Blackboard • Content Management systems such as Sharepoint, Drupal • portals such iGoogle, Netvibes, Liferay Sunday, March 28, 2010
  34. 34. distributed control • your desktop is your environment, no one is in control • use all kinds of Web 2.0 tools to assemble an open infrastructure for learning • tools should somehow be interoperable (APIs, specs like open social, IMS spec on Tools Interoperability, widgets) Sunday, March 28, 2010
  35. 35. examples • LinkedIn, FaceBook,Yammer, Academia • Mindmeister, Google Docs • Twitter, Jabber • Slideshare, Google Docs • Del.icio.us, Zotero, CiteUlike, Connotea • Wikipedia, Wikiversity, Wikibooks Sunday, March 28, 2010
  36. 36. 7 in summary some questions for you Sunday, March 28, 2010
  37. 37. 1. the problem - design for professional development, taking personal and organisational interests into account 2. inspiration - open source development shows the way 3. a hypothesis - networks for learning, best modelled after open source networks? Sunday, March 28, 2010
  38. 38. 4. test - use a design-research methodology for ‘hypothesis’ testing 5. requirements - look at what we already know about learning and interaction 6. two solution scenarios - differentiate between a centralised and distributed approach Sunday, March 28, 2010
  39. 39. Yochai Benkler University networks and technical platforms will have to focus on managing the increasingly permeable boundaries among universities, and between universities and the world outside them. University platform design should be focused on ensuring that faculty and students have the greatest degree possible of authority and capacity to act freely, innovate internally, and participate externally. Benkler, Y. (2009). The Tower and the Cloud: Higher Education in the Age of Cloud Computing. In R. N. Katz (Ed.), The University in the Networked Economy and Society: Challenges and Opportunities (pp. 51-61). Educause. Sunday, March 28, 2010
  40. 40. questions 1. Can one piece together out of existing ‘parts’ a learning environment for the distributed scenario? 2. Is my list of services jointly exhaustive and mutually exclusive? 3. What ‘applications’ match what services? 4. How can this be made economically viable? Sunday, March 28, 2010
  41. 41. Questions? Follow-up mail: peter.sloep <at> ou.nl http:pbsloep.nl http:celstec.org http:dspace.ou.nl twitter: pbsloep jabber: pbsloep del.icio.us: pbsloep slideshare: pbsloep Sunday, March 28, 2010
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