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Spectrum    Engineering Realities          Peter Rysavy        http://www.rysavy.com            July 20121                ...
U.S. Spectrum Crunch    Frequency      Amount of      Comments       Band        Spectrum     700 MHz         70 MHz      ...
Urgent Need For Spectrum                 Long process from first steps to use.     Shorter term:     • Mobile Satellite Se...
Spectrum Characteristics    • Harmonized bands       – Unusual bands inhibit ecosystems       – But all spectrum is valuab...
Downlink Spectral Efficiency      Spectral efficiency: bandwidth available from spectrum      Approaching theoretical limi...
High versus Low Spectrum                                       Lower frequencies:                                       • ...
Types of Deployment                          Rural:                          • Low capacity network                       ...
Combining Low and High Bands                                       Low Frequencies:                                       ...
The Future: Heterogeneous Networks                                                                                     4G ...
700 MHz Interoperability     •   Source: WT Docket No. 12-69,         http://transition.fcc.gov/Daily_Releases/Daily_Busin...
E-UTRA        Uplink (UL) operating band      Downlink (DL) operating band   Duplex                                       ...
Carrier Aggregation Release 10 Timeframe     • Intra-band contiguous:        – Band 1 (FDD), UL[1920-1980]/DL[2110-2170]  ...
Carrier Aggregation Release 11 Timeframe     • Expanded CA combinations, all inter-band, non-       contiguous, and FDD, i...
dawn of the mobile broadband era     • Spectrum crunch is real     • Networks can be built with       either low or high b...
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Rysavy spectrum

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Engineering realities of radio spectrum for mobile broadband.

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Transcript of "Rysavy spectrum"

  1. 1. Spectrum Engineering Realities Peter Rysavy http://www.rysavy.com July 20121 Copyright 2012 Rysavy Research
  2. 2. U.S. Spectrum Crunch Frequency Amount of Comments Band Spectrum 700 MHz 70 MHz Ultra-High Frequency (UHF) 850 MHz 50 MHz Cellular 1.7/2.1 GHz 90 MHz Advanced Wireless Service (AWS) 1.9 GHz 120 MHz Personal Communications Service (PCS) 2.5 GHz 194 MHz Broadband Radio Service (significantly less deployable) 600 MHz Up to 120 MHz Incentive auctions. Ten year process? 1755 to Up to 95 MHz NTIA study. Ten year process? 1850 MHz • Roughly 500 MHz allocated for Commercial Mobile Radio Spectrum • Rysavy Research and FCC models show looming spectrum crunch • Congestion already occurring regularly2 Copyright 2012 Rysavy Research
  3. 3. Urgent Need For Spectrum Long process from first steps to use. Shorter term: • Mobile Satellite Services (MSS) spectrum • 1755 -1780 MHz paired with 2155-21803 Copyright 2012 Rysavy Research
  4. 4. Spectrum Characteristics • Harmonized bands – Unusual bands inhibit ecosystems – But all spectrum is valuable, e.g., WCS • Band size – LTE operates best in 10+10 MHz or higher • Frequency – Lower propagates further and penetrates better • Spectral efficiency – Depends on technology, not frequency • Aggregation – Possible with HSPA+, LTE – Next best option after wider channels4 Copyright 2012 Rysavy Research
  5. 5. Downlink Spectral Efficiency Spectral efficiency: bandwidth available from spectrum Approaching theoretical limits – limited future gains Further details: http://www.rysavy.com/Articles/2011_09_08_Mobile_Broadband_Explosion.pdf, page 565 Copyright 2012 Rysavy Research
  6. 6. High versus Low Spectrum Lower frequencies: • Longer propagation • Fewer cells required for coverage • Better in-building penetration Higher frequencies: • Shorter propagation • More cells required for coverage • BUT higher capacity network Spectral efficiency (bandwidth in spectrum) is equivalent! Further details: http://www.hightechforum.org/low-versus-high-radio-spectrum/6 Copyright 2012 Rysavy Research
  7. 7. Types of Deployment Rural: • Low capacity network • Fewer cells desirable Urban: • High capacity network • More cells needed • Low/high frequencies offer largely equivalent performance7 Copyright 2012 Rysavy Research
  8. 8. Combining Low and High Bands Low Frequencies: • Larger cells • Underlay for coverage • Lower capacity High Frequencies: • Smaller cells • Overlay for capacity • Selectively deployed E.g., airport8 Copyright 2012 Rysavy Research
  9. 9. The Future: Heterogeneous Networks 4G Pico Femto 4G Macro Cell Femto Femto 3G Macro Cell Wi-Fi 3G Macro Cell Manage: Femto Wi-Fi Mobility Femto Interference Congestion Femto Wi-Fi QoS Handoff Wi-Fi Load balancing Data offload Wi-Fi Control traffic 4G Pico Abuse Self-organizing Attacks Roaming Self-optimizing • HetNets (with small cells) can significantly increase capacity • Methods defined in LTE-Advanced • Backhaul remains fundamental challenge • Long-term proposition9 Copyright 2012 Rysavy Research
  10. 10. 700 MHz Interoperability • Source: WT Docket No. 12-69, http://transition.fcc.gov/Daily_Releases/Daily_Business/2012/db0321/FCC-12-31A1.pdf • AT&T is in band class 17 (B/C blocks). • Verizon is in band class 13 (Upper C block). • Lower D block: unpaired, Qualcomm MediaFLO, now AT&T • Small operators in band class 12 (A block). • E block can operate at high power, so is additional source of interference for A band. • Upper C band reversed with lower block used for transmit – right next to low band C block transmit.10 Copyright 2012 Rysavy Research
  11. 11. E-UTRA Uplink (UL) operating band Downlink (DL) operating band Duplex Operating BS receive BS transmit Mode Band UE transmit UE receive FUL_low – FUL_high FDL_low – FDL_high 1 1920 MHz – 1980 MHz 2110 MHz – 2170 MHz FDD LTE Bands Specified Globally 2 1850 MHz – 1910 MHz 1930 MHz – 1990 MHz FDD 3 1710 MHz – 1785 MHz 1805 MHz – 1880 MHz FDD 4 1710 MHz – 1755 MHz 2110 MHz – 2155 MHz FDD 3GPP Technical Specification 36.104, V11.0.0. 5 824 MHz – 849 MHz 869 MHz – 894MHz FDD 1 6 830 MHz – 840 MHz 875 MHz – 885 MHz FDD 7 2500 MHz – 2570 MHz 2620 MHz – 2690 MHz FDD 8 880 MHz – 915 MHz 925 MHz – 960 MHz FDD 9 1749.9 MHz – 1784.9 MHz 1844.9 MHz – 1879.9 MHz FDD 10 1710 MHz – 1770 MHz 2110 MHz – 2170 MHz FDD 11 1427.9 MHz – 1447.9 MHz 1475.9 MHz – 1495.9 MHz FDD 12 699 MHz – 716 MHz 729 MHz – 746 MHz FDD 13 777 MHz – 787 MHz 746 MHz – 756 MHz FDD 14 788 MHz – 798 MHz 758 MHz – 768 MHz FDD 15 Reserved Reserved FDD 16 Reserved Reserved FDD 17 704 MHz – 716 MHz 734 MHz – 746 MHz FDD 18 815 MHz – 830 MHz 860 MHz – 875 MHz FDD 19 830 MHz – 845 MHz 875 MHz – 890 MHz FDD 20 832 MHz – 862 MHz 791 MHz – 821 MHz 21 1447.9 MHz – 1462.9 MHz 1495.9 MHz – 1510.9 MHz FDD 22 3410 MHz – 3490 MHz 3510 MHz – 3590 MHz FDD 23 2000 MHz – 2020 MHz 2180 MHz – 2200 MHz FDD 24 1626.5 MHz – 1660.5 MHz 1525 MHz – 1559 MHz FDD 25 1850 MHz – 1915 MHz 1930 MHz – 1995 MHz FDD 26 814 MHz – 849 MHz 859 MHz – 894 MHz FDD ... 33 1900 MHz – 1920 MHz 1900 MHz – 1920 MHz TDD 34 2010 MHz – 2025 MHz 2010 MHz – 2025 MHz TDD 35 1850 MHz – 1910 MHz 1850 MHz – 1910 MHz TDD 36 1930 MHz – 1990 MHz 1930 MHz – 1990 MHz TDD 37 1910 MHz – 1930 MHz 1910 MHz – 1930 MHz TDD 38 2570 MHz – 2620 MHz 2570 MHz – 2620 MHz TDD 39 1880 MHz – 1920 MHz 1880 MHz – 1920 MHz TDD 40 2300 MHz – 2400 MHz 2300 MHz – 2400 MHz TDD 41 2496 MHz – 2690 MHz 2496 MHz – 2690 MHz TDD 42 3400 MHz – 3600 MHz 3400 MHz – 3600 MHz TDD 43 3600 MHz – 3800 MHz 3600 MHz – 3800 MHz TDD11 Note 1: Band 6 is not applicable. Copyright 2012 Rysavy Research
  12. 12. Carrier Aggregation Release 10 Timeframe • Intra-band contiguous: – Band 1 (FDD), UL[1920-1980]/DL[2110-2170] – Band 40 (TDD), UL[2300-2400]/DL[2300-2400] • Inter-band non-contiguous (FDD): – Band 1 (UL[1920-1980]/DL[2110-2170]) + Band 5 (UL[824- 849]/DL[869-894]) Release 10 LTE-Advanced UE resource pool Rel’8 Rel’8 Rel’8 Rel’8 Rel’8 100 MHz bandwidth 20 MHz Release 8 UE uses a single 20 MHz block12 Copyright 2012 Rysavy Research
  13. 13. Carrier Aggregation Release 11 Timeframe • Expanded CA combinations, all inter-band, non- contiguous, and FDD, include: – Band 3 and Band 7 (TeliaSonera – 1800MHz+2600 MHz) – Band 4 and Band 13 (Verizon – AWS + Upper 700 MHz) – Band 4 and Band 17 (AT&T – AWS + Lower 700 MHz) – Band 2 and Band 17 (AT&T – PCS + Lower 700 MHz) – Band 4 and Band 5 (AT&T – AWS + 850 MHz) – Band 4 and Band 12 (Cox Communications – AWS + Lower 700 MHz) – Band 5 and Band 12 (US cellular – 850 MHz + Lower 700 MHz) – Band 5 and Band 17 (AT&T – 850 MHz + Lower 700 MHz) – Band 7 and Band 20 (Orange – 2600 MHz + 800 MHz)13 Copyright 2012 Rysavy Research
  14. 14. dawn of the mobile broadband era • Spectrum crunch is real • Networks can be built with either low or high bands • Low and high bands can be combined for high coverage and high capacity • Carrier aggregation will play an important role • Future technologies such as small cells help – but are very complicated14 Copyright 2012 Rysavy Research
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