Understanding Our Past Prehistory – Before Written RecordsThe First Humans
Objective: Learn how scholars study the historical past
I) Studying our historical Past A)Historian-person who studies how people lived in the past primarily using written sources.
Studying our historical Past – Two types of Sources 1) Primary source -- First hand account (1) Journal, diary, letter, interview, some blogs (Team Washington blog) 2) Secondary source -- Account from someone who did not witness event Textbook, encyclopedia, documentary, some blogs – (ancient Egypt blog)
Objective: Find out how anthropologists investigate the period of prehistory Anthropology is a science of humankind or the study of people.
Traditions food Clothing/dance African griot B) Anthropology -- study of the origins and development of people and their societies (called anthropologists) 1) Culture – way of life of a society that is handed down from one generation to the next by learning and experience 12
Anthropologists An anthropologist can specialize in one of four areas. 1. Cultural anthropology is the study of cultures, both past and present. 2. Physical anthropology deals with biological aspects of humans. This is everything from variation in human traits (what we call "races") to the whole theory of evolution and how we became the human beings we are now. 3. Linguistic anthropology focuses on language. 4. Archaeology is the study of human remains (bones, skeletons, etc. and things they've created like tools, pottery, etc.)
Anthropologists Anthropologists work in every environment and setting imaginable. Anthropologists can be found working in large corporations like Intel and GM or studying primates in Africa. Anthropologists work in deserts, cities, schools, underwater, in laboratories, in libraries and in the field. Working in the field means that an anthropologist might be sifting through a garbage dump, digging up a pyramid or studying a city.
Anthropologists study A. animals B. the stars C. people D. the earth Let’s see how well you were reading.
An anthropologist can specialize in one of ____ areas? Cultural Anthropology Archaeology Linguistics Physical Anthropology Let’s see how well you were reading. 4
Anthropologists study in the lab field library all of the above Let’s see how well you were reading.
What do you think field work means? Studying anyplace people or their artifacts are found… in the Amazon, in a garbage dump, in a city Let’s see how well you were reading.
Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull C) Archaeology- the study of the ways of life of early people through the examination of their physical remains (People who study archaeology are called archaeologists)
fossil Archaeologists study physical remains, both fossils and artifacts. These scientists use many clues to help them put pieces of the past together. One thing they must know is the difference between an artifact and a fossil. artifact
1) Artifact- an object made by people – tools, jewelry, clothing, weapons, buildings
Fossils Fossils are remains of living things (plants, animals, people), not things that were made.
Fossils Gorilla Skull
Objective: Understand how discoveries in Africa and beyond have influenced anthropologists' views about early humans and their ancestors
65 Million Years Ago Dinosaurs died out about 65 million years ago. The first human like hominids did not appear until around 4 million years ago. So, early man (hominids) did not live during the same period in history as dinosaurs.
The First Humans Hominids are the family of mankind and his or her relatives. A hominid is any member of the biological family Hominidae (the "great apes"), including humans, chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans.
The Paleolithic Age or the Old Stone Age
2,500,000 BCE – 10,000 BCE
This period in history is called the Stone Age because the ancient people made tools from stone or bone.
The Paleolithic Age or the Old Stone Age
Hominids spent their time hunting (men) & gathering (women) lived in small bands of 20-30 humans
NOMADIC - they moved from place to place
Primate Family Tree HUMANS A primate is a member of an order of mammals with a large brain and complex hands and feet, including humans, apes, and monkeys.
Ardipithecus ramidus The First Humans A Timeline
Ardipithecus ramidus The most primitive hominid yet found. This species has more chimpanzee-like features than any other human ancestor. The remains were found in Ethiopia.
Ardipithecus ramidus Ardipithecus ramidus may have walked upright. Other fossils discovered with Ardipithecus ramidus suggest that the species lived in the forest about 4.4 million years ago.The first fossils were found 1992.
Anthropologists believe different groups of hominidslived in Africa (1) 4 million years ago –human like creatures called Australopithecus lived in Africa
Australopithecus means "Southern Ape". According to differences in the shape of the creatures' jaws, teeth and the size of their brains, scientists divided them into four different species: Australopithecus afarensis Australopithecus africanus Australopithecus robustus Australopithecus boisei
Lucy - Australopithecus afarensis In 1974, a skeleton was found in Ethiopia. The bones were female, about 20 years old or so when she died. Scientists named her Lucy. About 3 million years ago, when Lucy was alive, she was about 4 feet tall and weighed about 50 pounds. Lucy was thought to be the oldest link between man and ape until ArdipithecusRamidus was discovered.
Homo habiliswas discovered about2.6 million years ago –called “handy man” – He is believed to be the first hominid to make tools cutting, scraping, sawing of plants, animals, wood.
Homo habilis -Handy Man– first discovered in 1959 by anthropologist Mary Leakey. His fossils were found with stone tools and evidence of “butchered” animals. Homo habilis was very similar to the australopithecines in terms of body size and shape.
HOMO HABILISwas found in East Africa.
HOMO HABILIScreated stone tools.
Making Stone tools - Flint Knapping Early Homo Habilis toolmakers chose a durable stone to break or chip into a core and several flakes. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nyuzh1uaSf4&feature=related
HOMO ERECTUS Upright man
2 million years ago –Homo erectus – upright man They were fully upright walkers. They had larger brains and bones, smaller teeth They are believed to be the first to use fire.
They invented a new stone tool- the hand ax. Their remains have been found in Asiaand Europe- They migrated from Africa.
HOMO SAPIENS Wise man
250,000 – 100,000 years ago Homo erectusdisappeared. A new group called Homo sapiens appeared
Anthropologists are not sure where Homo sapiens originated.
Differing Human Migration Theories Some say evolution occurred at the same time in different areas.
Others say evolution occurred in Africa and the people migrated to different areas in the world.
There were twogroups of Homo sapiens. 1. Neanderthalswho lived mostly in Europe and western Asia. Neanderthal youtube.com video clip(3:01)
Homo neanderthalensis Neanderthal man was discovered in the Neander Valley near Dusseldorf, Germany in 1856. He had a massive brain, large torso, short limbs, and broad nasal passages.
2. The other group of people were the earliest modern humans who eventually spread over world. modern Homo sapiens Neanderthal http://prehistoria.info/wp-content/uploads/2009/ 06/homo-neanderthalensis-2.jpg
50,000 to 30,000 years ago - (a) Neanderthals disappeared (b) Early modern humans were the only hominids left.