Broward County Climate Change Task ForceRecycling in Broward County: An Update & Review of its Potential Role in Reducing Greenhouse Gas EmissionsBy Phil Bresee, Recycling Program Manager, Broward CountyFebruary 19, 2009<br />1<br />
What’s in Broward County’s MSW?<br />3<br />Source: Broward County Waste and Recycling Services, 2008.<br />
How Should MSW be Managed?<br />4<br />US EPA developed solid waste management hierarchy in late 1980s.<br />Source, or waste reduction means minimizing or not creating waste in the first place. <br />Recycling is preferred way to manage materials.<br />WTE with energy recovery for non-recyclable trash offers benefits through less reliance on fossil fuels. <br />
Recent MSW and Recycling Trends in Broward County<br />5<br />Sources: Florida Dept. of Environmental Protection & Broward County Waste and Recycling Services, 2008.<br />
Recycling in Broward County: Background<br />1988 Florida Solid Waste Management Act established county recycling goals, including 30% recycling goal by end of 1994.<br />State also established Recycling & Education grants to counties.<br />First Broward County curbside recycling program began 1988-89 in unincorporated areas collecting aluminum cans and newspaper through “curb-sorting”.<br />City recyclables delivered to various local Materials Recovery Facilities (MRFs, pronounced “Murph”); County’s Resource Recovery System elected to pursue system-wide MRF in 1991.<br />All but two of Broward County’s cities provide curbside recycling.<br />Some cities also provide or facilitate recycling at multi-family complexes (condos and apartments).<br />6<br />
Recycling in Broward County: Background<br />County provides other recycling services including:<br />Recycling collections at Broward County Public Schools<br />Recycling at County agencies<br />Electronics recycling<br />Household hazardous waste recycling<br />Recycling at County Parks<br />7<br />
Emerging and Potential Recycling Trends, Programs, & Policy Actions to Increase Recycling<br />8<br /><ul><li>Producer responsibility and product stewardship.
State consideration of renewable energy sources, including WTE biomass and landfill gas diversion credits in achieving goals. (part of 2008 Energy Bill – HB 7135)
Reporting requirements and what can be counted towards recycling credit.
State financial support for recycling efforts.
Public place recycling – including recycling at FLL & “green lodging.”
Reduce landfill disposal of “high volume recyclables” including construction & demolition debris , yard waste and paper.
Focus on multi-family (50% ~ of Broward’s households) through more on-site recycling, drop-off centers, etc.
City solid waste contracts that include green waste recycling (“1-1-1”) and commercial recycling.
Single-stream recycling.</li></li></ul><li>Single-Stream Recycling 101<br />Single-Stream Recycling = Process in which all recyclables (paper materials and metal, glass & plastic food and beverage containers) are collected in a single, mixed form, and subsequently separated and processed at a MRF into marketable commodities.<br />9<br />
Single-Stream Recycling 101 (cont.)<br /><ul><li>Single-stream recycling provided in many large communities long known for their aggressive recycling programs including Seattle, Portland and San Francisco.
Currently about 600 single-stream curbside recycling programs operating (out of about 8,600+ total in the U.S.) and the number keeps growing.
Single-stream recycling began to take root in Florida in 2004 and current list of participants includes:
Single-Stream Recycling 101 (cont.)<br />Roll-out carts key feature of most single-stream recycling programs.<br />Most communities use 64 gallon carts which provides for increased recycling capacity vs. standard 18 gallon bins.<br />Carts allows for automated collections which may provide for collection cost savings including: <br /><ul><li>Routing efficiencies
Fewer injuries</li></ul>Cart collections can also help facilitate recycling incentive programs (RecycleBank). <br />Single-stream recycling can also better facilitate business and institutional recycling.<br />County / RRB staff working with cities on transition to single-stream; will most likely utilize system-wide combination of bins and carts, at least initially. <br />11<br />
Single-Stream Recycling 101 (cont.)<br />Single-stream recycling programs and MRFs have experienced rapid growth due to a number of factors:<br /><ul><li>Drive to increase amount of recyclables collected.
Single-Stream Recycling Results<br />14<br />* = Most data reported year-over-year after full transition to single-stream.<br />
Environmental Benefits of Recycling <br />15<br />Greenhouse gases (GHG) are emitted during product life-cycles, which include extraction, manufacturing and disposal. <br />Recycling and waste reduction can be effective tools for reducing GHG by:<br /><ul><li>Reducing / eliminating emissions from raw materials extraction.
Reducing emissions from energy consumption during manufacturing.
Reducing methane emissions from landfills.</li></ul>Illustration courtesy of U.S. EPA<br />
Environmental Benefits of Recycling & Waste Reduction (cont.)<br />16<br />US EPA and ICLEI (Local Governments for Sustainability) have developed models that allows communities to calculate GHG reduction benefits of recycling.<br />Based on nationwide recycling rate of 33% of MSW in 2007, estimated benefits were equivalent to: <br /><ul><li>Reduced GHG emissions of 193 million metric tons of CO2e.
Annual electricity usage by about 23.5 million households.
Saving the use of 240 million barrels of oil.</li></ul>Source: US EPA; E. Dorn, RW Beck, 2008.<br />
Economic Benefits of Recycling<br />17<br />Recycling is value-added, creating more jobs than disposal.<br />According to national economic study in 2001, US recycling and reuse industry accounted for:<br /><ul><li>$236 billion in annual revenues.
Employment base of 32,000 with payroll of $765 million.</li></ul>Recyclables are commodities. (commodity prices have been impacted by global recession)<br />Illustration courtesy of US EPA.<br />
Conclusions<br />Recycling is a demonstrated environmental protection success story with environmental and economic benefits. <br />Environmental goals can seem abstract – recycling allows for hands-on and visible opportunity for citizens and businesses to help their environment.<br />Is a “low-hanging fruit” for cities and counties to use to help reduce their carbon footprints. Uses infrastructure already in place.<br />Recycling can be a “gateway” to other positive environmental behaviors.<br />18<br />