3.
Rounding<br />NOTE: Don’t round until you have completely finished the problem<br />Rounding within the problem will <br /> result in a close answer, <br /> but not an exact one<br />
4.
Rounding<br />To round to the nearest tenth, <br /> carry out the division process to <br /> hundredths place (2 positions to the right of the decimal) <br />3/8 = 0.37<br /> 1/3 = 0.33<br /> 3/4 = 0.75<br />
5.
Rounding<br />Next, look at the number in the hundredths place <br />If the number is less than 5, then round down<br />0.33 rounds to 0.3<br />If the number is 5 or higher, then round up, <br />0.75 rounds to 0.8<br /> 0.37 rounds to 0.4<br />
6.
Volume and Concentration<br />Meds are given to clients in some type of volume <br />(ml, tablets, capsules, mEq, units, etc.)<br />Concentration indicates the amount of medication in a given amount of solution (mg/ml, units/ml, mg/tablet, etc.) <br />
7.
Conversions<br />Remember a conversion = 1<br />It can be used in an equation with either number as the numerator or denominator<br />The unit of measure is BEFORE THE NUMBER in the apothecary system<br />The unit of measure is AFTER THE NUMBER in the metric and household systems<br />
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Common Metric Conversions<br />Metric: <br />1 kg = 2.2 pounds (#)<br />1 kg = 1000 g<br />1 mg = 1000 mcg<br />1 g = 100 mg<br />2.54 cm = 1 inch<br />
9.
Other Common Conversions<br />Apothecary: <br />1 grain = 60 mg<br />Remember ss = ½ grain<br />Household: <br />1 teaspoon = 5 ml<br />30 ml = 1 ounce<br />3 teaspoons = 1 tablespoon<br />
10.
Basic Formula<br />D x V = amount to be given<br />H 1<br />D = desired dose (what client is supposed to receive)<br />H = dosage you have on hand<br />V = volume or vehicle that the dosage on hand is in<br /> ‘D’ and ‘H’ must be in the same unit of measurement<br />
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Setting up Problems<br />Use the label factoring method (dimensional analysis – DA). This method uses labels with the numbers to arrive at the correct answer <br />(Kee pg. 92- 104)<br />Determine unit of measurement for answer<br />Set up problem until labels cancel out and you are left with correct label for the answer<br />
12.
Dosages based on Weight<br />Drugs may be ordered based on the weight of the client <br />(amount of mg of the drug per kg of weight)<br />When converting weight in pounds to weight in kilograms, the number is approximately less than ½ of the weight in pounds<br />110 # = 50 kg; 220# = 100 kg; 140# = 63.6 kg<br />
13.
Divided Doses<br />You may have a problem that asks you to calculate the entire amount of drug that is to be given in a 24 hour period<br />A problem may give you the amount of drug the client is to receive in 24 hours and ask you to calculate an individual dose<br />
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Reconstitution of a Drug<br />A problem might give you a great deal of information about reconstituting a drug – how much diluent, vial size, etc. (Kee pg. 186)<br />The bottom line is to recognize the final concentration<br />Order for 1.5 g of penicillin IM q6h. The pharmacy sends a vial labeled penicillin 5 g/vial in dry form. Reconstitute with 5.6 ml of sterile water to yield 1000 mg/ml. How much should be given?<br />
15.
Hints for Taking Quizzes<br />Read the directions completely<br />Decide the unit of measure needed for the correct answer<br />Read the problem again after you decide on the answer. Is the answer logical?<br />Check calculations more than once on calculator<br />Read the directions again<br />
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The EndContinue with reading below<br />16<br />
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