Inci Gen


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A presentation explaining the concept of Incidetal Power Generation as compared to classical Cogeneration or CHP

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Inci Gen

  1. 1. “ InciGen” The Power of Steam Principle & Basics of Steam Turbine
  2. 2. Cogeneration “ Simultaneous Generation of Power & Heat from one Fuel” Fuel + Heat Electricity
  3. 3. Types of Cogeneration Process Heat Division Type Remarks Power & Steam Balanced Complete Power & Steam demand of the process met Power Based Complete Power demand met, steam / heat is only incidental Steam Based Complete Steam demand of process met, power is only incidental Heat Based Heat used in Process, power is only incidental
  4. 4. Options - Issues <ul><li>Steam based </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Boiler Design </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Basically for Process Heating </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Type of firing system </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Process Demand </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fluctuations in demand </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fluctuation in Power Output </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>O&M of the Plant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Simple to operate & low cost maintenance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Power based </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Boiler Design </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Higher Pressure & Temperature </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Continuos Operation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Designed for Power Generation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Process Demand </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Takes care of both steam & power demand </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>O&M of the Plant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Power plant operation </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Methods of Cogeneration <ul><li>Steam Turbine based </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High pressure & temperature steam </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Diesel / Gas Engine based </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Waste Heat Boiler for Steam Generation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gas Turbine based </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Waste Heat Boiler (HRSG) for Steam Generation </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Steam Turbine Operation V w V 1 V 2 V w = V 1 - V 2
  7. 7. Mollier Chart H 1 H 2 Entropy ‘S’ Enthalpy ‘H’ P 1 P 2
  8. 8. Steam Turbine Types <ul><li>Impulse Type </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Change in velocity converted to rotary motion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No drop in pressure across each stage </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Reaction Type </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Change in pressure converted to rotary motion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gain in velocity at each stage </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Impulse Reaction Type </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Combination of Impulse & Reaction Types </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Steam Turbine Types <ul><li>Back Pressure Turbine </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exhaust pressure higher than atmospheric pressure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Steam inflow = Steam Outflow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Power output depends upon steam flow </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Extraction-cum-back Pressure Turbine </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exhaust pressure higher than atmospheric pressure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Q 1 = Q 2 + Q 3 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Power output depends upon steam flow </li></ul></ul>Q 1 Q 1 kW kW Q 1 Q 2 Q 3
  10. 10. Steam Turbine Types <ul><li>Condensing Turbine </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exhaust pressure less than atmospheric pressure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Entire steam flow is condensed in a condenser below atmospheric pressure in a condenser outside the turbine </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Extraction-cum-condensing Turbine </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Q 1 =Q 2 +Q c where condensing P e < 1 ata </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Steam required for process is extracted at desired pressure </li></ul></ul>Process Heat Division Q 1 Q 1 P e < 1 ata Cond. kW Q 2 Q 1 Q 1 P e < 1 ata Cond. kW
  11. 11. Single Stage Back Pressure Turbine Process Heat Division
  12. 12. Steam Turbine Types <ul><li>Saturated Steam Turbines </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inlet steam is saturated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Desired is 100% dry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exhaust for a BP turbine is always wet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Requires slightly higher steam for the process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Turbine material is important </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Turbine speed is important </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Least power cost </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Superheated Steam Turbines </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inlet steam is superheated & high pressure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exhaust steam in a BP turbine is superheated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Requires slightly lower steam generation from the boiler </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Turbine material is important </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Slightly higher fuel consumption </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Higher power output per kg of steam </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Slightly higher power cost </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water treatment critical </li></ul></ul>Process Heat Division
  13. 13. Mollier Chart Entropy ‘S’ Enthalpy ‘H’ P 1 P 2 P 3 H 1 H 2
  14. 14. InciGen <ul><li>Present Industry Practice: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Generate Steam at 10.54 kg/cm2g </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use a PRV to reduce pressure to 3 kg/cm2g </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This results in wastage of expensive energy & noise generation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Slight improvement on steam quality </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Better Energy Efficient Practice: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use a BP ‘micro’ turbine to drop pressure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Generate power almost free! </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. InciGen <ul><li>Incidental Power Generation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Steam for process is main criteria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Power produced is incidental </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Least cost </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Power produced costs between Rs 0.20 - 0.45 / unit </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Quick payback </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Typical payback in within 1.5 years </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Easy to operate </li></ul><ul><li>Simple to install </li></ul>
  16. 16. InciGen <ul><li>Type of Electricity Generator </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Synchronous Generator </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Suitable for stand alone generation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Limitations on turbine turndown </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No power export to the grid </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Induction Generator </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Suitable for varying power output </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No limitations on turbine turndown </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Power export to the grid </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Needs external power supply always </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Works in conjunction with the grid or DG set </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Drivers for InciGen <ul><li>Drive to decrease energy cost </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Need for power at low cost </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Electricity Act 2003 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Encourages captive power generation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No approvals required </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rising cost of power </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Average escalation by 6% year on year </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Typical Applications for InciGen <ul><li>Some of these industries are best suited </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Distilleries & Breweries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Paper (Kraft Paper) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Textiles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chemicals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Edible Oil </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Thanks