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Inci Gen
Inci Gen
Inci Gen
Inci Gen
Inci Gen
Inci Gen
Inci Gen
Inci Gen
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Inci Gen
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Inci Gen

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A presentation explaining the concept of Incidetal Power Generation as compared to classical Cogeneration or CHP

A presentation explaining the concept of Incidetal Power Generation as compared to classical Cogeneration or CHP

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  • 1. “ InciGen” The Power of Steam Principle & Basics of Steam Turbine
  • 2. Cogeneration “ Simultaneous Generation of Power & Heat from one Fuel” Fuel + Heat Electricity
  • 3. Types of Cogeneration Process Heat Division Type Remarks Power & Steam Balanced Complete Power & Steam demand of the process met Power Based Complete Power demand met, steam / heat is only incidental Steam Based Complete Steam demand of process met, power is only incidental Heat Based Heat used in Process, power is only incidental
  • 4. Options - Issues
    • Steam based
      • Boiler Design
        • Basically for Process Heating
        • Type of firing system
      • Process Demand
        • Fluctuations in demand
          • Fluctuation in Power Output
      • O&M of the Plant
        • Simple to operate & low cost maintenance
    • Power based
      • Boiler Design
        • Higher Pressure & Temperature
        • Continuos Operation
        • Designed for Power Generation
      • Process Demand
        • Takes care of both steam & power demand
      • O&M of the Plant
        • Power plant operation
  • 5. Methods of Cogeneration
    • Steam Turbine based
      • High pressure & temperature steam
    • Diesel / Gas Engine based
      • Waste Heat Boiler for Steam Generation
    • Gas Turbine based
      • Waste Heat Boiler (HRSG) for Steam Generation
  • 6. Steam Turbine Operation V w V 1 V 2 V w = V 1 - V 2
  • 7. Mollier Chart H 1 H 2 Entropy ‘S’ Enthalpy ‘H’ P 1 P 2
  • 8. Steam Turbine Types
    • Impulse Type
      • Change in velocity converted to rotary motion
        • No drop in pressure across each stage
    • Reaction Type
      • Change in pressure converted to rotary motion
        • Gain in velocity at each stage
    • Impulse Reaction Type
      • Combination of Impulse & Reaction Types
  • 9. Steam Turbine Types
    • Back Pressure Turbine
      • Exhaust pressure higher than atmospheric pressure
      • Steam inflow = Steam Outflow
      • Power output depends upon steam flow
    • Extraction-cum-back Pressure Turbine
      • Exhaust pressure higher than atmospheric pressure
      • Q 1 = Q 2 + Q 3
      • Power output depends upon steam flow
    Q 1 Q 1 kW kW Q 1 Q 2 Q 3
  • 10. Steam Turbine Types
    • Condensing Turbine
      • Exhaust pressure less than atmospheric pressure
      • Entire steam flow is condensed in a condenser below atmospheric pressure in a condenser outside the turbine
    • Extraction-cum-condensing Turbine
      • Q 1 =Q 2 +Q c where condensing P e < 1 ata
      • Steam required for process is extracted at desired pressure
    Process Heat Division Q 1 Q 1 P e < 1 ata Cond. kW Q 2 Q 1 Q 1 P e < 1 ata Cond. kW
  • 11. Single Stage Back Pressure Turbine Process Heat Division
  • 12. Steam Turbine Types
    • Saturated Steam Turbines
      • Inlet steam is saturated
      • Desired is 100% dry
      • Exhaust for a BP turbine is always wet
      • Requires slightly higher steam for the process
      • Turbine material is important
      • Turbine speed is important
      • Least power cost
    • Superheated Steam Turbines
      • Inlet steam is superheated & high pressure
      • Exhaust steam in a BP turbine is superheated
      • Requires slightly lower steam generation from the boiler
      • Turbine material is important
      • Slightly higher fuel consumption
      • Higher power output per kg of steam
      • Slightly higher power cost
      • Water treatment critical
    Process Heat Division
  • 13. Mollier Chart Entropy ‘S’ Enthalpy ‘H’ P 1 P 2 P 3 H 1 H 2
  • 14. InciGen
    • Present Industry Practice:
      • Generate Steam at 10.54 kg/cm2g
      • Use a PRV to reduce pressure to 3 kg/cm2g
      • This results in wastage of expensive energy & noise generation
      • Slight improvement on steam quality
    • Better Energy Efficient Practice:
      • Use a BP ‘micro’ turbine to drop pressure
      • Generate power almost free!
  • 15. InciGen
    • Incidental Power Generation
      • Steam for process is main criteria
      • Power produced is incidental
    • Least cost
      • Power produced costs between Rs 0.20 - 0.45 / unit
    • Quick payback
      • Typical payback in within 1.5 years
    • Easy to operate
    • Simple to install
  • 16. InciGen
    • Type of Electricity Generator
      • Synchronous Generator
        • Suitable for stand alone generation
        • Limitations on turbine turndown
        • No power export to the grid
      • Induction Generator
        • Suitable for varying power output
        • No limitations on turbine turndown
        • Power export to the grid
        • Needs external power supply always
        • Works in conjunction with the grid or DG set
  • 17. Drivers for InciGen
    • Drive to decrease energy cost
      • Need for power at low cost
    • Electricity Act 2003
      • Encourages captive power generation
      • No approvals required
    • Rising cost of power
      • Average escalation by 6% year on year
  • 18. Typical Applications for InciGen
    • Some of these industries are best suited
      • Distilleries & Breweries
      • Paper (Kraft Paper)
      • Textiles
      • Chemicals
      • Edible Oil
  • 19. Thanks

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