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A presentation on what is Cogeneration, its benefits, various types of cogen systems

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  • Cogeneration

    1. 1. Presentation on Cogeneration in Process Industries Synergy of Power & Steam Generation by Pinaki Bhadury
    2. 2. Some facts about Electricity <ul><li>Did you know that , </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For every unit of power consumed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>50 to 70% of the energy used in its generation is wasted in to the atmosphere? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1.76 kgs of CO 2 is left in to atmosphere? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>An average urban household in India vents 6336 kgs of CO 2 (GHG) gases annually in to atmosphere for use of electricity alone! </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For every ton of steam generated by coal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>20% of the input energy is wasted in to atmosphere? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>504 kgs/hr of CO 2 is left in to atmosphere? </li></ul></ul></ul>
    3. 3. Energy Madness – worldwide energy waste Electricity Generation Worldwide (TWh) (Source: International Energy Agency 2002, Courtesy - WADE) Overall efficiency ≈ 35%
    4. 4. World All-Energy Investment, 2001 - 2030 46% 54% Power generation Network T&D Network investment needs exceed generation needs by 17% $5.2 trillion of investment Source: International Energy Agency, 2003 Reference Scenario – Business-as-Usual
    5. 5. Limitations of Centralized Generation <ul><li>High cost of new generators </li></ul><ul><li>Bankability of mega projects </li></ul><ul><li>Risk of “stranded” assets </li></ul><ul><li>Difficult to attract new investments without PPAs, “guarantees” </li></ul><ul><li>Investments are “lumpy” </li></ul>
    6. 6. Limitations of Centralized Generation <ul><li>Wires get more congested (Not In My Back Yard) </li></ul><ul><li>High T&D losses technical & theft </li></ul><ul><li>Vulnerability to plant security. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High social and political risk </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Grid collapse and cascade tripping </li></ul><ul><li>Concentrated local Environmental impact </li></ul>
    7. 7. Power Generation in India <ul><li>66% Power Generated through Fossil Fuels </li></ul><ul><li>Annual Generation in FY 06-07 was about 690 billion units </li></ul>
    8. 8. Traditional Power Generation Thermal Power Plant 100% Fuel Power Output 27% 73% Losses
    9. 9. Conventional Energy Generation Diesel Generating Set Captive Power Generation 100% Fuel 45% Flue Gas Loss Power Output 40% 15% Jacket Cooling Losses
    10. 10. Conventional Energy Generation Steam Generation 100% Fuel Steam Output 82% 18% Flue Gas Loss
    11. 11. Conventional Energy Generation + Useful Energy 61% Losses 39% 100% Fuel Power generation Steam Generation
    12. 12. What is Cogeneration? “ Generation of Power & Heat from a single fuel source”
    13. 13. Cogeneration - Concept 100% Heat Input 11% Losses 27% Power 62% Useful Heat
    14. 14. The Cogeneration Advantage <ul><li>Overall Efficiency > 75% </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Captive Power at lower cost </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fuel Savings > 40~50% </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Less fuel storage </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Quality Power at all times </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Longer life of electrical equipment </li></ul></ul>
    15. 15. WADE Economic Model – Cogeneration Courtesy ; WADE, UK More efficient fuel use
    16. 16. G8 Summit Declaration at Heiligendamm “ Adopt instruments and measures to significantly increase the share of combined heat and power (CHP) (Cogeneration) in the generation of electricity” Declaration Report, Page 24 7 th June 2007
    17. 17. Types of Cogeneration <ul><li>One must decide the basis of Cogeneration Plant : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Power based </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Steam based </li></ul></ul>Heat used in Process, power is only incidental Heat Based Complete Steam demand of process met, power is only incidental Steam Based Complete Power demand met, steam / heat is only incidental Power Based Complete Power & Steam demand of the process met Power & Steam Balanced Remarks Type
    18. 18. Options - Issues <ul><li>Steam based </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Boiler Design </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Basically for Process Heating </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Type of firing system </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Process Demand </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fluctuations in demand </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fluctuation in Power Output </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>O&M of the Plant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Simple to operate & low cost maintenance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Power based </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Boiler Design </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Higher Pressure & Temperature </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Continuos Operation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Designed for Power Generation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Process Demand </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Takes care of both steam & power demand </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>O&M of the Plant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Power plant operation </li></ul></ul></ul>
    19. 19. Options for Cogeneration Plants <ul><li>Steam Turbine based </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High pressure & temperature steam </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Diesel / Gas Engine based </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Waste Heat Boiler for Steam Generation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gas Turbine based </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Waste Heat Boiler (HRSG) for Steam Generation </li></ul></ul>
    20. 20. Selection Criteria for Cogen Options <ul><li>Steam to Power Ratio </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What is your Steam / Power Ratio? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A low ratio means low attractiveness </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A high ratio gives high attractiveness </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Fuel Options </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Even though a steam / power ratio may suggest most appropriate cycle to adopt </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Non-availability of fuel may force you to adopt a less appropriate cycle </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Plant Location </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nearness to fuel source and water availability often decides the type of cogeneration cycle to be adopted </li></ul></ul>
    21. 21. Selection Criteria for Cogen Options <ul><li>If steam required for process is 10 TPH </li></ul><ul><li>Power required is 2 MW </li></ul><ul><li>Then the steam / power ratio = 5 </li></ul>Steam to Power Ratio (S/P) =
    22. 22. Steam to Power Ratio Cogen Calculator
    23. 23. Selection Criteria for Cogen Options <ul><li>Fuel Options </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Liquid fuels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>light distillate oil </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>heavy fuel </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Natural Gas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Solid fuels </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Location near to fuel source </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Near to coal mine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Near to port </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Near to agro-waste fuel source </li></ul></ul>
    24. 24. Selection Criteria for Cogen Options <ul><li>Steam Intensive </li></ul><ul><li>Power Intensive </li></ul><ul><li>Steam & Power Intensive </li></ul>Gas Turbine based <ul><li>Steam Intensive </li></ul><ul><li>Steam & Power Intensive </li></ul>Steam Turbine based <ul><li>Power Intensive </li></ul>Diesel Engine based Application Cogeneration Cycle
    25. 25. Selection Criteria for Cogen Options <ul><li>Steam Turbines </li></ul>Solid Fuels <ul><li>DG </li></ul><ul><li>Gas Turbines </li></ul><ul><li>Steam Turbines </li></ul>Gaseous Fuels <ul><li>DG </li></ul><ul><li>Gas Turbines </li></ul><ul><li>Steam Turbines </li></ul>Liquid Fuels Cogen Cycle Option Type of Fuel
    26. 26. Cogeneration - Applications <ul><li>Petrochemicals </li></ul><ul><li>Fertilizers </li></ul><ul><li>Sugar </li></ul><ul><li>Textiles </li></ul><ul><li>Paper </li></ul><ul><li>Man Made Fiber </li></ul><ul><li>Pharmaceuticals & Drugs </li></ul><ul><li>Food & Diary </li></ul><ul><li>District Heating & Cooling </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hotels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hospitals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shopping Complexes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Software technology Parks </li></ul></ul>
    27. 27. Co-generation Benefits <ul><li>To the Nation: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lower fossil fuel consumption </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>longer availability of these fuels in future </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>lower fuel bill of the nation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>conservation of precious foreign exchange reserves </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Environment friendly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>decreases global warming </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Power at a lower cost </li></ul></ul>
    28. 28. Benefits to the Nation <ul><li>Fuel Consumption: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In April to March 06-07, 69 billion units was generated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Of which 38 Billion Units was generated using coal </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This consumed: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>31 Billion tons of coal! </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Huge Carbon Dioxide Generation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This released 62.5 Billion Tons of CO 2 in to the atmosphere!!! </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In India it is estimated that only 4000 MW is being cogenerated </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The potential is 15000 MW or even more! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This will help reduce GHG gases by 12-15% over present levels </li></ul></ul>
    29. 29. Benefits to the User <ul><li>Overall Efficiency > 75% </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Captive Power at lower cost </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Depending upon the type of Cogen Plant configuration & fuel cost </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Power cost is usually 40-60% that of grid power or even lower </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Fuel Savings > 40~50% </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Less fuel storage </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Quality Power at all times </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Longer life of electrical equipment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Users of Cogen plant have experienced lower maintenance cost by as much as 20-30% or even higher </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Cogen plants are eligible for CDM benefits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CERs will result in additional revenue generation from the project </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Higher returns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>India will be shifting to Annexure A list of countries soon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Obligatory on part of these countries for CO 2 reduction </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Industries will be asked to adhere to Kyoto Protocol norms </li></ul></ul></ul>
    30. 30. Thank You For further details or clarifications, you may contact: Pinaki Bhadury [email_address]