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SSoE InFocus, Spring 2005

SSoE InFocus, Spring 2005



My prose was not treated gently by certain hands, but I love my many byline aliases throughout.

My prose was not treated gently by certain hands, but I love my many byline aliases throughout.



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    SSoE InFocus, Spring 2005 SSoE InFocus, Spring 2005 Document Transcript

    • SPRING 2005 ISSUE VOLUME 3S OESCHARLES V. SCHAEFER, JR. SCHOOL OF ENGINEERINGCHARLES V. SCHAEFER, JR. SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING 2 Interdisciplinary Research in the Realm of the Very Small 10 Why Nano-Micro-Bio? 15 In the Shop: A Short History of Machining at Stevens 22 Olympic Sailing in 2012 IN THE REALM OF THE VERY SMALL
    • DEANGEORGE P.KORFIATIS MULTISCALE ENGINEERING This issue of InFocus is dedicated to the efforts of pioneering faculty and students at the Charles V. Schaefer, Jr. School of Engineering who are making enormous contributions and are creating new knowledge in the frontiers of multiscale engineering. Dear Friends and Colleagues, I have often wondered how our world of science for design, manufacturing and mass production of engi- and technology would have been shaped if the neered systems across multiple length-scales becomes early Egyptians and Greeks were able to make prevalent. The emergence of complex biological functions, direct observations at the atomic level. In reality, it from the cell level to macroscale physiological behavior, wasn’t until the late 15th century that the father-son has created another frontier of multiscale engineering. team of Hans and Zacharias Janssen constructed This issue of InFocus is dedicated to the efforts of pioneer- and put into production the first compound micro- ing faculty and students at the Charles V. Schaefer, Jr. scope. The magnification power of those micro- School of Engineering who are making enormous contribu- scopes ranged from 3x to 9x but that was enough to tions and are creating new knowledge in the frontiers of open our eyes into a new world. The first scientific multiscale engineering. Research in carbon nanotubes, treatise of the study of ‘minute bodies’ was written piezoelectric fibers, nanomaterials, enabled photonic by Robert Hook in 1665, in his book, Micrographia. sensors, nanopowders for environmental applications, An explosion in discoveries and scientific advances microchemical reactors and nanobiomedical applications has taken place since. Yet it was not until 1959 when are a sample of the exciting work carried out in our labora- the genius of Nobel Prize winner Richard P Feynman . tories. There is no doubt that engineering in the future will captured our imagination with the historic lecture be dominated by diminishing length and time-scales and “Plenty of Room at the Bottom.” Feynman opened that we will be increasingly challenged by systems integra- the door that takes us from observation to the realm tion and complexity. We will be there to provide the solu- of intervention, design and engineering at the tions and launch the technologies that meet and overcome atomic level. The term nanotechnology has been those challenges. coined to capture that leap. Still in its infancy, nan- As always please do not hesitate to contact me. otechnology provides an immensely fertile ground for engineering innovation. As a better under- My Best Regards, standing of properties, interactions and behavior of materials at the nanoscale emerges, the need
    • CONTENTS SPRING 2005 ISSUE VOLUME 3 FEATURES Interdisciplinary Research 2 in the Realm of the Very Small: Interdisciplinary Research in Nanosensors An Engineering Evolution: MEMS and Nanotechnology Revolutionizing Chemical Synthesis Microchemical Systems Enable Real-World Solutions Application of Nanomaterials to Water Treatment Next-Generation Composite Materials: Carbon Nanotube-Reinforced Polymers “Hundreds of Tiny Hands:” The Making of Nano-Manipulation Tools Engineering the Nano-Bio-Interface Why Nano-Micro-Bio? 10 S OE S INFOCUS INFOCUS EXECUTIVE EDITOR Dean George P Korfiatis . SSoE Heritage CONSULTING Patrick A. Berzinski Dr. Cardinal Warde ‘69, Microsystems Entrepreneur 13 EDITORS Pamela KriegerStephen T. Boswell ‘89 and ‘91, An Entrepreneurial Civic Leader 14 MANAGING EDITOR Christine del Rosario CONTRIBUTORS Patrick A. Berzinski In the Shop: A Short History of Machining at Stevens 15 Dr. Ronald Besser Dr. Leslie Brunell Dr. Henry Du SSoE Students Dr. Frank Fisher Steven Hakusa Luce Scholars 16 Dr. Adeniyi Lawal Dr. Woo Lee Shotmeyer Scholar Dr. Matthew Libera Dr. Xiaoguang Meng InnertCHILL: Overclocking Made Easy 17 Roberta McAlmon The HeliOS Project Dr. Yong Shi Dr. Zhenqi Zhu Peter Krsko: Micro-Voyager 18 PHOTOGRAPHERS Meagen Henning Peter Krsko Christine del Rosario SSoE Faculty Special thanks to the Stevens Alumni Association Generating Intellectual Property 19 EXECUTIVE New Arrivals ADMINISTRATOR Marta Cimillo GRAPHIC DESIGN KMG Faculty News 20 Graphic Design Studio www.soe.stevens.edu Olympic Sailing in 2012 22 © 2005 Charles V. Schaefer, Jr. School of Engineering C H A R L E S V. S C H A E F E R , J R . S C H O O L O F E N G I N E E R I N G
    • Interdisciplinary Research in Nanosensors Dr. Henry Du AN ENGINEERING EVOLUTION: MEMS AND NANOTECHNOLOGY Dr. Yong Shi REVOLUTIONIZING CHEMICAL SYNTHESIS Dr. Adeniyi Lawal MICROCHEMICAL SYSTEMS ENABLE REAL-WORLD SOLUTIONS Dr. Ronald Besser INTERDISCIPLINARY APPLICA NANOMA A TION OF TERIALS TO W TER TREA TMENT RESEARCH In the of the Very Small Realm Dr. Xiaoguang Meng NEXT-GENERA TION "Nanotechnology stands out as a likely launch COMPOSITE MATERIALS: CARBON pad to a new technological era, because it focuses NANOTUBE-REIN- FORCED POL YMERs on perhaps the final engineering scales people Dr. Frank Fisher have yet to master." “HUNDREDS OF TINY Those words appeared in a 1999 report, Nanotechnology: Shaping the World Atom by HANDS” THE MAKING OF NANO-MANIPU- Atom, by the National Science and Technology Council. Indeed, technologies designed LATION TOOLS to build complex structures, molecule by molecule, have allowed scientists to create Dr. Zhenqi Zhu new structural materials 50 times stronger than steel of the same weight, making pos- sible the construction of a Cadillac weighing 100 pounds, according to Ralph Merkle of the Xerox Palo Alto Research Center. It could also, Merkle said in an article in MIT’s Technology Review, "give us surgical instruments of such precision and deftness that Engineering the they could operate on the cells and even molecules from which we are made." Nano-Bio-Interface Dr. Matthew R. Libera A bold new world of science and engineering has opened up, and it has only just begun to hint at the benefits it will yield to humankind. Well prior to the US Nanotechnology Initiative of 2001, engineers and scientists at WHY Stevens Institute of Technology were performing distinguished and highly recognized NANO-MICRO-BIO? funded research in the fields of nanotechnology and microtechnology; and since 2001, Dr. Woo Lee with growing federal support in funding and new faculty added to strengthen work in interdisciplinary focus areas, greater strides are being made each year. s2
    • I NT E R D I S C I P L I N A RY R E S E A R C H I N T H E R E A L M O F T H E V E RY S M A L LInterdisciplinary Research in Nanosensors The Sensor GroupDr. Henry Du and his research team have PCFs are fabricated via a modified sol-gelpioneered work on the integration of pho- method for optical fibers with the aid of a a range of state-of-the-art laser techniquestonic crystal fibers (PCFs) with nanoscale simulation-based design for optimum used for taking measurements.technologies that will potentially lead to light-analyte interactions. Nanoscale Furthermore, experimental studiesrobust chemical and biological sensing surface functionalization is conducted augmented by computer simulation take following two strategies: into account the effects of surface function-devices. The National Science Foundation alization, analyte medium, and biospecificrecently granted Du’s team $1.3 million to 1. Surface attachment of Ag nanoparticles interactions on the optical characteristicspursue their multidisciplinary project. mediated by 3 mercaptopropy- of PCFs.Using molecular and nanoscale surface ltrimethoxysilane self-assembled monolay-modification, state-of-the-art laser tech- er (SAM) for chemical sensing of NOx, CO, In view of the challenges faced by theniques, and computer simulation, their and SO2, where surface-enhanced Raman nation, the interdisciplinary team ofresearch seeks to enhance the prospects of scattering (SERS) canPCF sensors, sensor arrays, and sensor be exploited for highnetworks for diverse applications such as sensitivity and molec-remote and dynamic environmental ular specificity; andmonitoring, manufacturing process safety, 2. Surface binding ofmedical diagnosis, early warning of biospecific recognitionbiological and chemical warfare, and entities for biologicalhomeland defense. sensing using the"Through basic and applied research," said following recognition Prof. Rainer Martini (Faculty Fellow), Prof. Du (PI), Prof.Svetlana SukhishviliDu, "the optically robust PCFs with surface- pairs: biotin/avidin, (Co-PI), Prof. Hong-Liang Cui (Co-PI), Prof. Kurt Becker (Faculty Fellow), Prof.functionalized, axially-aligned air holes are cholera toxin/anti- Christos Christodoulatos (Co-PI), and Prof. Xiaoguang Meng. The project isexpected to achieve a quantum leap in cholera toxin and conducted in collaboration with OFS Laboratories, a world leader in fiberchemical and biological detection capabili- optic research. organophosphorousty over conventional fiber-optic sensor hydrolase (OPH)/paraoxon, where SERS academic and industrial researchers alsotechnology." may also be exploited. involves postdoctoral fellows, graduatePCF sensors enabled by nanotechnology Then, the surface-functionalized air holes students, and several undergraduate/high-also have the potential to be a powerful are filled with analytes in order to evaluate school summer research scholars, thusresearch platform for in-situ fundamental the sensing capabilities of PCFs. Surface affording them training in chemical andstudies of surface chemistry and chemi- functionalization studies employ various biological sensing and monitoring - acal/biological interactions in microchemical surface-sensitive analytical techniques with priority area of federal R&D. sand microbiological systems. Specifically,An Engineering Evolution: MEMS and Nanotechnology Dr. Yong Shi ‘s Research GroupIn the evolution of micro-electro-mechani- evolved since the first one was developed goal is to increase the life cycle (to overcal systems (MEMS) design and modeling by Petersen in 1979. The contact configu- 100 billion cycles) and power capacity (toand the fabrication of nanomaterials, Dr. ration can be either vertical or lateral; more than 100mW)Yong Shi develops radio frequency (RF) direct metal-metal contact or of a capaci- of an RF switchMEMS switches and nanopiezoelectric tive type. The actuators used for these used for radar andfibers for nanoscale sensors, actuators, switches are typically electrostatic, ther- other instrumenta-and devices. mal-electric, electro-magnetic and piezo- tion systems. HeBreakthrough Technology: electric. However, they will not be viable developed a novelRF MEMS Switches MEMS switch shown in Figure 1RF switches are devices that provide a and has alreadyshort circuit or open circuit in the RF Figure 2. Microfabricated demonstrated thattransmission line. RF switches (millimeter MEMS switch by using the modu-wave frequencies 0.1 to 100 GHz) are lated contact sur-used in satellites, radar and wireless com- faces shown in Figure 2, the life cycle ofmunications. While MEMS technology has the MEMS switch can be significantlybeen extremely successful in developing increased while maintaining low contactacceleration sensors for automobile resistance. RF MEMS switches provideairbags, inkjet printers, blood pressure extreme performance advantages such asmonitors, and digital video projection Figure 1. MEMS switch concept lower insertion loss and higher isolationsystems, the incorporation of MEMS into over solid-state switches like p-i-n diodes.the micro/millimeter RF wave system has in the market unless their life cycle and Further investigations are being conduct-started a new technological revolution. power handing capacity are dramatically ed in system design and optimization;Different types of MEMS switches have increased and costs are reduced. Dr. Shi’s modeling of the friction and wear of the continued on next page 3
    • An Engineering Evolution...continued from page 3 undulated contact surface; macroscale. PZT nanofibers provide the thin film piezoelectric actuator capability to make active fiber compos- optimization; device integra- ites (AFC) and nanoscale devices. tion; and packaging. Dr. Shi’s research develops nanofibers with diameters from 6 micrometers to 50 Figure 3. Arbitrarily Figure 4. Aligned The Building Blocks: nanometers using electrospinning. Fibers distributed nano-piezo- nano-piezoelectric Nano-Piezoelectric Fibers with a diameter of about 200 nm have electric fibers fibers One-dimensional nanostructures already been developed as shown in technologies to assist the development of such as nanotubes, nanowires and Figure 3, where the nanofibers are dis- the nanofibers in designing the test nanofibers have great potential as tributed arbitrarily. SEM, TEM and X-ray samples, depositing and patterning the either building blocks for micro/nano diffraction are used to characterize the electrodes, and also releasing the devices or as functional materials for nanofibers and their crystal structures. nanofibers from the substrate. microscale electronics, photonics, and Different approaches are being explored to fabricate well-aligned or uniformly dis- Ultimately, Dr. Shi’s nanofiber and MEMS sensing and actuation applications. tributed PZT nanofibers. Some aligned research seeks to evolve and expand the Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT), an impor- nanofibers are shown in Figure 4. Dr. Shi capabilities of current technologies into tant piezoelectric material, is used for uses MEMS-based microfabrication increasingly smaller nanodevices. s both actuators and sensors at the Revolutionizing Chemical Synthesis by Dr. Adeniyi Lawal At the New Jersey Center for Micro- project) and without acid (~1500ppm) at high yield and a reduced need for energy Chemical Systems (NJCMCS), we are cur- moderate pressure and temperature condi- intensive separation/purification steps. rently demonstrating two novel microreac- tions using our in-house formulated cata- The microreactor-based production tor-based process intensification concepts lyst. The 1.5 wt% concentration finds direct approach, if successfully demonstrated, for on-demand, on-site, energy-efficient, commercial application in environmental will replace the existing energy inefficient, and cost-effective chemical production. remediation, while the 1500ppm concen- Both projects are funded by the DOE-OIT tration can be used as a biocide. to develop and deliver advanced technolo- Catalytic Hydrogenation gies that increase energy efficiency, of Nitroanisole to Anisidine improve environmental performance, and In September 2003, we partnered with boost productivity. Bristol-Myers Squibb (BMS), one of the Microchannel Reactors Revolutionize the world’s largest pharmaceutical companies Production of Hydrogen Peroxide (H2O2) to design and evaluate a microchannel In September 2002, we partnered with FMC reactor system for the multiphase catalytic (one of the largest producers of H2O2 with hydrogenation of a model pharmaceutical (From left to right) Ms. Sunitha Tadepalli (Ph.D. more than 12% of the world market) to compound, nitroanisole to anisidine. student), Prof. Adeniyi Lawal, Dr. Raghu Halder develop a microchannel reactor system for Hydrogenation reactions are ubiquitous, (Research Associate), and Yury Voloshin (Ph.D. on-site production of hydrogen peroxide. accounting for 10-20% of all reactions in student). Today, we have successfully designed and the pharmaceutical industry. cost ineffective, environmentally detrimen- evaluated a laboratory microreactor sys- We have screened over eight different cat- tal, and inherently dangerous slurry semi- tem for the controlled, direct combination alysts and have identified the right cata- batch reactor-based catalytic hydrogena- of H2 and O2 in various compositions - lyst/support for the model hydrogenation tion manufacturing practice. The primary including explosive regimes. The reaction reaction. Also, an extensive investigation challenge is the development of paradigm- is extremely fast with a residence time that of the effects of various processing condi- changing design and hardware integration is almost two orders of magnitude less tions on the activity of the selected methodologies for auxiliary equipment than that of macroreactors. The direct catalyst in terms of conversion, yield, and and plant infrastructure that will enable combination concept is possible with selectivity has been carried out in the many aspects of the microchannel reactor microchannel reactors because they pos- microreactor system. Similar experiments technology. The next phase of the project sess extremely high surface to volume are currently being undertaken in a semi- will involve a real-world pharmaceutical ratios by virtue of their small transverse batch reactor system at the New molecule patented by BMS. dimensions, and consequently exhibit Brunswick facility of BMS. Preliminary Articles were written about the two projects in enhanced heat and mass transfer rates. results indicate that the mass transfer Chemical Engineering Progress, EurekAlert, The enhanced heat transfer enables rapid efficiency of the microreactor system is Jersey Journal, Small Times News, and the wall quenching of free radicals which in two orders of magnitude higher than that Chemical and Engineering News. Stevens fac- conventional-size reactors lead to runaway of the semi-batch reactor system. ulty team members are the PI, Dr. Adeniyi thermal conditions and explosion. The significant reduction of heat and mass Lawal, assisted by two Co-PIs, Drs. Woo Lee Another achievement is the production of transfer resistances in microchannel reac- and Ronald Besser, and Dr. Suphan Koven. H2O2 in concentrations of significant tor systems enables the realization of fast Drs. Emmanuel Dada and Dalbir Sethi of FMC, and Don Kientzler and Dr. San Kiang of BMS commercial interest with acid (~1.5 wt%, intrinsic kinetics (millisecond reactions) provide technical guidance from industrial exceeding the 1 wt% requirement of the which suppresses side reactions, leading to perspectives. s4
    • I NT E R D I S C I P L I N A RY R E S E A R C H I N T H E R E A L M O F T H E V E RY S M A L LMicrochemical Systems Enable Real-World Solutions Dr. Ronald Besser’s Research Team Prof. Besser’s hydrogen is harvested from hydrocarbons nies can use to screen catalysts from vari- research team like methanol or diesel fuel, carbon ous vendors for a particular synthesis focuses on monoxide, a poison to both humans and step being developed for manufacturing. the funda- fuel cells, is produced. Besser’s group Prof. Besser’s background is in the devel- mentals of investigated a novel microchemical opment of materials, processes and chemical reac- approach to removing this poison. This devices. His expertise has been leveraged tion within step is especially important for proton- in developing microchemical systems the confined exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells using many of the same techniquesgeometries of microchemical systems. which are the front runners for broad exploited in MEMS technology. He andTheir work is approached holistically by commercialization of the technology. his students collaborate heavily withbringing together tools from different They are also exploring other new initia- microsystems experts at Lucent Bell Labs,disciplines that can be applied in various tives for fuel cell energy, for example, thefields including energy, pharmaceuticals, processing of military diesel fuels thatand chemicals. Microfabrication is used to will significantly lighten the load ofcreate precisely defined structures in tomorrow’s foot soldiers as well as bringwhich chemicals and reactions can be distributed electrical power to largestudied. Testing methods involve coupling Navy vessels.these small reactors to the external world The team’s work in processing pharma-to control and sample their output with ceutical chemicals involves the develop-chromatographs and mass spectrometers. ment of a new reactor microchip conceptThe data gathered is mathematically which can circumvent problems existingmodeled to both understand the observa- in current industry-wide reactor technolo-tions and to predict behavior. The results gy. In this new approach, miniaturizationcontribute to the growing knowledge base affords the possibility of creating an inti-needed to evolve microchemical systems mate mixture of liquid and gaseous react- Prof. Besser (center) with students Shauninto devices that can ultimately benefit ing chemicals, while at the same time effi- McGovern (left) and Woo Cheol Shinn (right).society. ciently extracting the heat generated byRecently completed work focused on a the process. The chip can be used with NJIT, and the Cornell Nanofabricationreaction that eliminates a poison from the commercial catalysts already available, Facility (CNF), where Dr. Besser serves ashydrogen gas used for fuel cells. When and is a tool that pharmaceutical compa- a member of the CNF User Committee. sApplication of NanomAtErials to W ter Trea a tment by Dr. Xiaoguang MengNanotechnology offers great potential in enormous adsorption capacity for chemi-advancing scientific discovery and tech- cals and pollutants. metals. The material is also an active pho-nological development. The federal gov- In 2002, researchers at the Center for tocatalyst. In the presence of dissolvedernment is spending more than $1 billion Environmental Systems developed a oxygen and with UV-light irradiation, theon nanotechnology, making it the largest nanocrystalline titanium dioxide with a following are generated at the titaniumpublic-funded science initiative since the high adsorption capacity for arsenic, lead, dioxide surface: hydroxyl radicals, super-space race. Various nanomaterials such as and other heavy metals (Figure 1). oxide ions, and hydrogen peroxide. Thesenanoparticles, nanotubes, and nanowires Titanium dioxides are widely used as pig- highly reactive chemical species destroyhave been developed to create sensitive ment in paints, paper, organic pollutants and kill bacteria.analytical sensors, miniature medical plastics, sun block Currently, a patent pending nanocrys-devices, electrical components, and lotion, and tooth talline titanium dioxide is marketed bymachinery. In addition, nanomaterials paste. However, the Hydroglobe, Inc., a company founded bywith at least one dimension in the commercial pigment Stevens in 2000 and acquired by Gravernanometer range (10-9m) may possess is not effective for the Technologies in 2004. Because nanocrys-superior physicochemical properties such removal of heavy talline titanium dioxide enables theas high conductivity and hardness; fasci- metals. effective removal of lead and other heavynating optical phenomena; excellent cat- Nanocrystalline titani- metals, it was used to develop a faucetalytic activity for chemical reactions; and um dioxide is pro- mount filter (Figure 2) available at Target, Figure 2. Faucet duced by the hydroly- mount filter that Wal-Mart, and other stores. DOW sis of titanium in Chemical has also licensed the patent and uses TiO2 solutions under con- developed a new adsorbent with the adsorbent. trolled pH, tempera- material. ture, and time. The crystalline size and In the near future, more water treatment specific surface area of the material is products will be made of nanocrystalline about 6 nm and 330 m2/g, respectively. titanium dioxide as the drive to fulfill theFigure 1. Scanning electron microscop- This high surface density of functionalic image of aggregates of TiO2 particles. promise of nanotechnology continues. s groups strongly binds arsenic and heavy 5
    • Next-generation composite materials: nanotube-reinforced polymers Dr. Frank Fisher’s Research Group Dr. Frank Fisher’s primary change in properties research area is the mechanical of this non-bulk inter- modeling of polymer nanocom- phase region, we posites with a focus on carbon have developed a nanotube-reinforced polymers coupled experimental- (NRPs). Since their discovery in modeling technique the early 1990s, carbon nanotubes to characterize the (CNTs) have excited scientists and changes in the engineers with their wide range of relaxation processes unusual physical properties. These of the nanocomposite properties are a direct result of the response due to the near-perfect microstructure of the properties of the CNTs, which at the atomic scale can non-bulk polymer be thought of as an hexagonal sheet of interphase (Figure 1, carbon atoms rolled into a seamless, center). The existence quasi-one-dimensional cylindrical of this interphase shape. Besides their extremely small region has recently Kon Chol Lee, Gaurav Mago, Dr. Frank Fisher, Vinod Challa, and Arif size (single-walled carbon nanotubes been verified via high Shaikh can have diameters on the order of 1 resolution scanning nm, or 1*10-9 m, 100,000 times smaller electron microscopy cate bone-shaped carbon nanotubes as than the diameter of a human hair), car- (SEM) images of the fracture surface of shown in Figure 2. The highly uniform bon nanotubes are half as dense as alu- a CNT-polycarbonate fracture surface geometry of these nanostructures minum, have tensile strengths 20 times (Figure 1, right). Working in conjunction (length, inner and outer diameters, wall that of high strength steel alloys, have with colleagues in chemistry and mate- thickness) can be controlled via appro- current carrying capacities 1,000 times rials science, one important application priate manipulation of the template fab- that of copper, and transmit heat twice of these modeling techniques is to rication and carbon deposition process- as well as pure diamond. Given these quantify how different processing meth- es. Enhanced load-transfer for these unparalleled physical properties, CNTs ods influence the size and properties of bone-shaped inclusions is anticipated offer the potential to create a new type this interphase region. For example, through mechanical interlocking with of composite material with extraordi- tethering short polymer chains covalent- the polymer matrix at the widened nary properties. However, the ly to the surface of the nanotube prior ends. s nanoscale interaction mechanisms between the CNTs and the surrounding polymer must be understood and cou- pled to the micro/macroscale mechani- cal response of the material. One aspect of this work is the develop- ment of enhanced modeling methods and corresponding experimental tech- niques to describe the effective mechanical behavior of these systems. For example, due to the extremely small size of the embedded nanotubes, Figure 1. (left) Three-phase model of NRP accounting for the presence of a non-bulk polymer a polymer interphase region forms in interphase region. (center) Relaxation spectra for MWNT-PC samples showing additional, long- timescale relaxation processes that are due to the mechanical behavior of the non-bulk poly- these systems with mechanical proper- mer interphase. (right) High-resolution SEM imaging of a CNT-polycarbonate fracture surface. ties that are different from the proper- ties of the bulk polymer matrix (see Figure 1, left). Due to the extremely to composite fabrication has been large surface area of the embedded shown to alter the size and properties of nanotubes, this interphase region can this interphase region. comprise a significant portion of the volume fraction of the composite and Another project investigates alternative significantly influence the overall methods of enhancing the load-transfer mechanical properties of the composite. mechanisms in these nanocomposite Figure 2. High magnification TEM images of a However, because of the extremely material systems. With collaborators at bone-shaped templated carbon nanotube. The small size of this interphase region, the University of North Carolina- outer stem and end diameters are ~40 and ~70 experimental characterization is exceed- Charlotte, the team is looking to exploit nm, respectively. The wall thickness is ~10 nm. ingly difficult. Thus, to quantify the a novel template-based method to fabri- The length of the T-CNT is ~5 µm.6
    • I NT E R D I S C I P L I N A RY R E S E A R C H I N T H E R E A L M O F T H E V E RY S M A L L"Hundreds of tiny hands:" The making ofnano-manipulation tools Dr. Zhenqi Zhu’s Research TeamTrue realization of nanotechnologyrequires nanoscale components/struc-tures to be inexpensively assembled intofunctional systems; nanoscale manipula-tion is one of the key enabling technolo-gies in this vision.The power and capacity of manipulationtools in changing our world were high-lighted in 230 B.C. by Archimedes, aGreek mathematician, engineer, andphysicist: "Give me a lever long enoughand a place to stand, and I will move theworld." Tool searching and developmentcontinues today as scientists and engi- The jointless nanomanipulator (a & b), US patent pending featuring friction- and backlash-free 6-DOFneers demand manipulation tools small motion. (c) Photograph of initial macroscale prototype. (d) High resolution image of cilia. (e,f) Modelsenough to extend their arms into the of motion mechanism of a segment of a cilium or flagellum.nanoscale world. Such small-enoughmanipulation tools are what Feynmanfirst challenged in 1959 with his"hundreds of tiny hands" vision ofnanotechnology.Nanotechnology will enable one tounderstand, measure, manipulate, andmanufacture at the atomic and molecu-lar levels creating materials, devices,and systems with fundamentally newfunctions and properties. A great break-through in nanotechnology came with State-of-the-art, bottom-up nanomanipulation/design. (a) Atom by atom positioning on surface (Eiglerthe inventions of the scanning tunneling of IBM, 1990); (b) Singling out a DNA using optical tweezers (Chu of Stanford, 1992); (c) Path planningmicroscope in 1982 and the atomic force for automatic atomic positioning (Requicha of USC, 1999); (d) Molecular lift design (Balzani, 2003); (e) Biped DNA walker (Sherman and Sherman of NYU, 2004)microscope in 1986. These revolutionaryinventions opened the nanoworld to sci-entists and engineers. However, the rela-tively large-size mechanical nanoposi-tioning systems employed in scanningprobe microscopes and optical micro- A group ofscopes are too massive to be used in nanomanipulatorsparallel operation in the nanoworld. Bio-inspired by the motion mechanisms resolution and accuracy required for ing existing MEMs-based fabricationfound in cilia and flagella, the goal of numerous nanotechnology applications. techniques. (2) Fabrication and perform-research by Associate Professor Zhenqi These can be incorporated into ance evaluation of 6-DOFs microscaleZhu, of Mechanical Engineering, and his massively parallel, independently nanomanipulator devices, includingcolleagues from several departments, is addressable nanomanipulation tools theoretical, computational, and experi-to develop and demonstrate a disruptive (truly realizing Feynman’s ‘hundreds of mental study of the nanomanipulatorsdesign methodology based on a mono- tiny hands’ vision). with integrated actuators and sensors.lithic jointless Stewart platform to yield (3) Demonstration of device use in (a)fully three-dimensional, six degree-of- To successfully develop such a disrup- "full device" 6-DOF inspection underfreedom, surface-independent jointless tive methodology for nanomanipulator SPM probes; (b) "real device" 6-DOFmanipulation capability in free space device design, the research team in-situ scanning with nanomanipulatedwith nanometer resolution and accuracy. addresses three major challenges: (1) optical fiber based sensors; (c)Now, US patent pending (Flexible Design and analysis of a new class of massively-parallel, coordinated flexibleParallel Manipulator for Nano-, Meso-, or nanomanipulator based on a monolithic nanoautomation.Macro-positioning with Multi-degrees of jointless Stewart platform approach toFreedom), this device approach will lead yield nanometer positioning resolution This research effort is complementedto nanomanipulation tools with truly with a unique combination of fully-flexi- with an educational and outreach pro-scalable device sizes (spanning several ble 6 DOFs and truly scalable device gram with a strong support from CIESEorders of magnitude from micro- to size. The focus of the design will be on to introduce K-12 and undergraduatenanolevel), and yield the nanometer manufacturability of the device(s) utiliz- students to topics in nanotechnology. s 7
    • Engineering the Nano-Bio-Interface Dr. Matthew R. Libera’s Research Group Chemical, Biomedical and Materials Engineering Professor Matthew R. Libera leads the Microstructure Research Group and is Director of the Electron-Optics Laboratory at Stevens. Using powerful transmission and scanning electron microscopes Libera, his colleagues, and his students have graphically demonstrated the possibilities that flow from engineering materials in the micro and nano worlds. Libera’s research centers on the tools and new ways of thinking based development, implementation, and on nanotechnology are opening radical- application of advanced electron-opti- ly different pathways to achieve suc- cal techniques for the measurement cess. We certainly see this in our work." and control of microstructure and mor- Polymeric materials have been increas- phology in engineering materials at ingly utilized at surfaces and interfaces high resolution. A main theme of his for a variety of biomedical applications research concentrates on the study of including tissue-engineering matrices, polymers and polymeric biomaterials implants with biocompatible surfaces, such as hydrogels using such tech- drug delivery, and biosensors. Due to niques as electron holography and elec- Figure 1. A 7x7 array of PEG nanohydrogels the chemical diversity of polymeric surface patterned into an area 5 microns by 5 tron energy-loss spectroscopy. One of materials, both biological and synthetic, microns in size. Imaged dry (top) and in water his group’s recent innovations has been researchers can fine tune the desired (bottom). the development of new methods to physical properties of surfaces and map the spatial distribution of water in didate Peter Krsko, generated nanohy- design bioactive interfaces from a drogels with lateral dimensions of order synthetic materials for health and per- molecular perspective. Understanding sonal care applications using advanced 200 nanometers – about 500 times the complex interactions between bio- smaller than the diameter of a human methods of cryo-electron microscopy. It material surfaces and their environment is important to understand such prob- hair - which can swell by a factor of five is critical to improving healthcare tech- or more, depending on the radiative lems, for example, as how bioerodable nologies related to implants, devices, polymer tissue-engineering scaffolds dose of electrons. and future innovations in these areas. degrade in the human body. "These things are like little sponges," Significantly, Libera’s team is aggres- explains Krsko, "and we can control Over the past few years, Libera’s group sively investigating the properties of has been using electron microscopes how spongy they are by controlling hydrogels, the kinds of polymeric mate- how we irradiate them in the SEM. not only as materials-characterization rials that form the basis for everyday tools but also as materials-processing One of the really cool things we found soft contact lenses and other common is that we can control whether or not tools. High energy electrons can modify biomedical applications. the structure and properties of poly- various types of proteins bind to these "We have used focused electron-beam little nanosponges." mers, and because electrons can be cross-linking to create nanosized hydro- With the focused electron beam, high- focused by a microscope into fine gels," says Libera, "and this provides us density arrays of such nanohydrogels probes with nanoscale dimensions, with a new method with which to bring can be flexibly patterned onto silicon electron microscopes can be used to the attractive biocompatibility associat- surfaces. Significantly, the amine pattern polymers into nanostructures. ed with macroscopic hydrogels into the groups remain functional after e-beam These properties have been exploited in nano length-scale regime." exposure, and the research shows that the practice of electron beam lithogra- phy, which has been essential to the Using thin films of polyethylene glycol they can be used covalently to bind pro- semiconductor device community for (PEG) films on silicon and glass sub- teins and other molecules. several decades. Libera and his stu- strates, Libera, working with Ph.D. can- "We use bovine serum albumin to dents have pushed this technology in an entirely new direction by applying it to polymers of interest because of the way in which they interact with physio- logical systems involving proteins, cells, and tissues. The central idea is to create biospecific surfaces – surfaces which interact with physiological systems in very controlled ways. "People have been working in this area in different ways for several Figure 2. GFP transfected mouse neuron following a cell-adhesive path patterned onto a surface decades," Libera explains, "but new using functional nanohydrogel technology.8
    • I NT E R D I S C I P L I N A RY R E S E A R C H I N T H E R E A L M O F T H E V E RY S M A L Lamplify the number of amine groups,"says Krsko, "and we further demonstratethat different proteins can be covalentlybound to different hydrogel pads on thesame substrate to create multifunctionalsurfaces useful in emerging bio/pro-teomic and sensor technologies.""There is a lot of student interest in thisstuff," says Libera. "When I talk about itin my undergraduate materials class, Ialways find students – very good stu-dents – appearing at my office door latertrying to find out more about it."Indeed, one such interaction has led to asenior design project of patterninghydrogels for possible application tonerve regeneration in spinal cord injury."Our NIH collaborator on this is so excit-ed he has invited one of my undergrad Chandra Valmikinathan (Masters), and Ph.D. candidates Merih Sengonul, Sergey Yakovlev, andresearch students – Jen Sipics - to work Alioscka Sousa are members of Dr. Libra’s team.in his lab in Bethesda this summer."Another student – Ali Saaem – joined the our work is really being helped a lot by exactly what [Stevens researchers] aregroup after taking Libera’s Materials the rapid growth of the new biomedical now doing in biomedical engineering.Processing course. "This guy is an EE engineering program at Stevens." They’re trying to use nanotechnology tomajor. He came in and reconstructed Nanopad arrays consist of protein-adhe- fabricate devices that can be insertedthe computer interface to our SEM and sive regions separated by non-adhesive into the human body."elevated the entire level of e-beam pat- regions. The adhesive regions are "There’s an awful lot of potential forterning capabilities. Now, I think we’ve created by lithographically patterning a companies that are able to get sufficient patent protection for innovations thatLibera’s work on nanohydrogels holds implications for the eventu- they have made in nanotechnology,"al production of the next generation of protein microarrays, which says Assistant Professor of Mechanical Engineering Frank Fisher, commentingcan be used to establish the function of various genes that become on the commercial potentialities of cur-active during cancer, disease, and aging processes. rent-day nanotechnology research. "We’re talking about instruments andgot him really interested in the biologi- hydrophobic polymer to which control- capabilities that would have a verycal problems the group is pursuing," lable amounts of fibronectin is adsorbed. significant economic impact for thosecomments Libera. Fibronectin is one of several proteins companies and those entities that makeLibera’s work on nanohydrogels holds that signals cellsimplications for the eventual production to adhere to sur-of the next generation of protein faces. The physi-microarrays, which can be used to ological effect ofestablish the function of various genes nanopad arraythat become active during cancer, variations isdisease, and aging processes. being assessed using cell cultureBecause hydrogels mimic many of the of fibroblasts andphysiological conditions of the body, monitoring theirproteins bound to them retain their bio- expression oflogical function far better than when extracellular Figure 3. The adhesion of Stapphyloccocus Epidermidis bacteria to syntheticbound to a hard substrate as is done in surfaces can be controlled using functional hydrogels on surfaces, a cell- matrix. Related repulsive hydrogel pad (left) and a cell-adhesive hydrogel pad (right).current protein and DNA microarray experiments aretechnology. Furthermore, the nanosize of being developed tothe hydrogels made in Libera’s lab study neuron growth relevant to spinal these developments. That’s why we’remeans that 10,000 times more proteins cord injury. seeing the US make a strong push as farcan be probed in a single experiment as investing in nanotechnology, becauseand much less of each protein needs to Physics Department Head Kurt Becker comments: "Years ago, there was a sci- the real large payouts aren’t necessarilybe used each time. Pushing this same going to be within the next one to threetechnology one step further, nano- and ence-fiction movie called Fantastic Voyage, where people were shrunk to years; it’s a longer time frame ofmicrohydrogels can be used to control investment." swhether and where cells adhere to sur- micro-sizes, injected into a person’sfaces. "This has been one of our targets blood stream, and then traveled aroundfor a long time," says Libera, "and now the body to repair some damage. That’s 9
    • INTERDISCIPLINARY RESEARCH In the Realm of the Very Small By Patrick A. Berzinski In the popular mind, and sometimes in popular science writing, nano- and microtechnology are often used interchangeably to describe very different human hair that can be used as minia- phenomena. Professor Frank Fisher explains the distinction. ture structural materials, electronic "The most straightforward difference is the feature size," says Fisher. components and drug delivery systems. "Microtechnology typically refers to feature sizes on the order of one micron, whereas nanotechnology refers to feature sizes on the order of a nanometer. Scientists also depend on such tools as To put that into perspective: The width of a human hair is about 100 microns. In Scanning Tunneling Microscopes and nanotechnology, on the other hand, we’re interested in exploiting novel phenome- Scanning Probe Microscopes to build na that happen on the nanoscale. So it’s a distinction between miniaturization ver- images on surfaces, manipulate atoms into miniature structures, or analyze sus taking advantage of novel properties that are available below the microscale." the identities of atoms and molecules "The first direction that we went, as we started looking at microdevices, really one atom at a time. evolved from microchip technology," says Associate Dean of Engineering Keith "When you come from basic physics, Sheppard. "The techniques that were developed to create different layers on the what you like to do is understand surface of silicon, particularly for chips, which typically involve adding layers or things on the smallest possible scale, which for all these applications is the etching layers or changing the properties of surfaces – those same technologies atomic or the molecular level," says Dr. have then been directed to making devices." Kurt Becker, who works in the field of Various of those microdevices have of precisely arranged atoms include microplasmas. "That level is typically been tailored to accomplish work on in the realm of about a nanometer. So molecular self-assembly, in which from the science perspective, you take the nanoscale, where engineered molecular building blocks assemble it apart, step-by-step, until you reach arrangements of individual atoms are themselves in pre-designed ways. the nanoscale; and then, of course, now becoming a reality. Using this technique, researchers have once you understand it, you put every- Some methods necessary to build created carbon nanotubes with diame- thing back layer by layer, and go back structures consisting of large numbers ters of about one ten-thousandth of a into the micro- and macroscale." s WHY NANO-MICRO-BIO? US Patent Recent Reflections and Revelations by Dr. Woo Y. Lee On October 26, 2004, US Patent #6,808,760 was issued to Woo Y. Lee; When Dean Korfiatis decided to high- reactor and let them react preferentially Yi-Feng Su; Limin He; and Justin light "nano-micro-bio" activities in this on the substrate surface. Subsequently, Daniel Meyer; titled, A Method for issue of SSOE InFocus, I thought that it small clusters of atoms produced from preparing .alpha.-dialuminum trioxide would be a timely forum for me to share the decomposed gaseous species nucle- nanotemplates. my latest view of this very broad inter- ate and grow on the surface, and are disciplinary research area. My interest assembled into a solid thin-film struc- in making "very small things" started ture. For example, as part of my Ph.D. when I was given a chance to study work, I produced my first nanostructured ing technology advances arising from chemical vapor deposition (CVD) for my material, a self-lubricating nanocompos- the exploitation of new physical, chemi- Ph.D. degree in chemical engineering ite coating that contained hard AlN cal, and biological properties of systems under the interdisciplinary supervision whiskers (2 nm wide and 1 µm long) in a that are intermediate in size, between of Prof. Jack Lackey, a ceramist, and soft BN matrix phase from a gaseous isolated atoms and molecules and bulk Prof. Pradeep Agrawal, a chemical engi- mixture of AlCl3, BCl3, and NH3. materials, where the transitional proper- neer, at Georgia Tech. What Is Nanoscale Science and ties between the two limits can be con- CVD is a coating technique widely used Engineering? trolled." The nanoscale covers "a frac- for making semiconductor, solid state tion of nanometer to about 100 nm." To a large extent, my Ph.D. research laser, and photonic devices as well as This newly emerged nanoscale science exemplifies the National Science aerospace structures, synthetic diamond and engineering perspective did not Foundation’s broad definition of films and carbon nanotubes. In this obviously exist, although I was practic- Nanoscale Science and Engineering: "the method, we mix gaseous chemicals in a ing it. fundamental understanding and result- continued on next page10
    • I NT E R D I S C I P L I N A RY R E S E A R C H I N T H E R E A L M O F T H E V E RY S M A L L another example, a graduate student, Dr. are present in microreactors (just like in Yi-Feng Su, observed that α-Al2O3 (sap- CVD) because of their high surface-to-vol- phire) grains present in a thin-film form ume ratios and the technological need to can grow laterally, abnormally, and control these interactions for rational incredibly at temperatures about 950ºC microreactor design. Third, as I just below the melting point of α-Al2O3, as became Chair of the newly merged long as the film is thinner than 100 nm Department of Chemical and Materials (Figure 2b). We also demonstrated that Engineering, I envisioned that microreac- the abnormally grown α-Al2O3 film tors could provide a common engineering increases the oxidation life of a single platform for synergistically integrating crystal Ni-based superalloy used in individual faculty research interests and advanced gas turbines by five-times. motivations. Fourth, I foresaw that we These examples show how nanoscale were able to compete in some major phenomena can provide enabling funding opportunities due to the strong building blocks for making useful multi- presence of chemical, defense, pharma- scale structures that are relevant to the ceutical and microsystems industries in human scale. our region and their growing interests in the emerging microreactor technology.Mr. Justin Meyer, a Ph.D. candidate and a "Nano-Micro" Integrationco-inventor of the nanotemplate patent Through collaborative work with my col- About 4 years ago, I initiated a new leagues, Professors Ronald Besser, research effort in microreactors for sever- Suphan Koven and Adeniyi Lawal, andAs I have continued my CVD research at al reasons. First, after receiving my with strong support from our partnerUnited Technologies Research Center, Oak tenure, I wanted to expand my research organizations such as ARDEC-Picatinny,Ridge National Laboratory and Stevens horizon beyond CVD. Second, I was intel- Bristol-Myers Squibb, FMC, Lucent-Bellfor the past 15 years, I have encountered lectually driven by the recognition of Labs and Sarnoff, this effort has grownsome fascinating nanoscale phenomena. complex surface-fluidic interactions that from a small internal seed project to the establishment of the New Jersey Center for MicroChemical Systems (www.stevens.edu/njcmcs). My contribu- tion to this team effort is to explore new ways to design, control, and make "very small" surface structures as an integral part of fabricating "small" microreactors. For example, Mr. Honwei Qiu, a Ph.D. candidate, in my research group, is inves- tigating self-assembly infiltration methods to deposit a layer of close-packed micros- pheres (Figure 2a) as a potential means of integrating catalyst particles into microre- a b actors with help from Professor Svetlana Figure 1. Two examples of nanoscale behavior: (a) critical particle radius below which Sukhishvili and her expertise in polyelec- t-ZrO2 phase can be stabilized due to the lower surface energy of t-ZrO2 over that of trolytes. Mr. Haibao Chen, another Ph.D. m-ZrO2 as a function of deposition temperature and (b) abnormal grain growth rate of candidate, is experimenting with 3-dimen- α-Al2O3 as a function of film thickness at 1100ºC. Research sponsored by the National Science Foundation and the U.S. Office of Naval Research. sional cellular structures (Figures 2b and 2c) which can be directly infiltrated as net-For example, recently graduated Ph.D. continued on next pagecandidate, Dr. Hao Li, in my researchgroup observed that tetragonal ZrO2 (t-ZrO2) grains of about 35 nm in radiusundergo martensitic transformation tomonoclinic ZrO2 (m-ZrO2) at a tempera-ture of 1100ºC, when the t-ZrO2 grainsgrow to be larger than this critical sizedue to the thermodynamic reason sum-marized in Figure 1a. We discovered thatthis size-dependent phase transformation a b ccauses delamination within the ZrO2 coat- Figure 2. Self-assembled structures for multiscale integration with microreactors: (a) aing near the coating/substrate interface, single layer of 500 nm SiO2 spheres electrostatically attached to an Si surface usingand consequently provides a unique weak polyelectrolytes, (b) interconnected cellular structure formed from an inverse template ofinterface mechanism which can be used self-assembled and partially sintered 15 µm polystryne spheres infiltrated into an Sito produce damage-tolerant fiber-rein- microreactor, and (c) the skeleton phase of the cellular structure consisting of partially sintered 500 nm SiO2 spheres. Research sponsored by the New Jersey Commission onforced ceramic matrix composites. In Science and Technology, the U.S. Army, and the U.S. Department of Energy. 11
    • ...nano-micro-bio continued shape structural elements into microreactors using poly- meric and ceramic microspheres as key building blocks. With my collaborators, we are evaluating these new struc- tures for controlling and improving microreactor perform- ance for miniaturized chemical, fuel cell, and pharmaceutical system applications. Importance of Bio in "Nano-Micro-Bio" I admit that I was somewhat skeptical about the relevance of nanotechnology, based on my initial estimate of the potential return on the federal government’s investment in nanotechnolo- Dr. Lucie Bednarova, and Dr. Yi-Feng Su, co-inventor of the nanotem- gy. This view has changed over the past several years, as I read plate are both Dr. Lee’s Postdoctoral Research Associates about human physiology, cell biology, and biological transport phenomena in conjunction with the implementation of our new Biomedical Engineering program. From my recent understanding of cells (as super-intelligent nanostructure factories) and proteins (as ultimate nanostructures), I began to see some exciting integra- tion points that may link my past, current, and future research activities. Also, through my participation in various workshops sponsored by the National Academies, the Keck Foundation, the National Science Foundation, and the National Institute of Health, I was profoundly influenced by some remarkable progress being made in the bio- Mr. Hongwei Qiu, a Ph.D. candidate in Lees group medical research com- munity with emerging microsystem and nan- otechnology tools. As my view was drastically evolving, I came across an interesting "nano-micro-bio" research topic last October: microbial infections of implanted medical devices which constitute an ever increasing threat to human health with significant clinical and economic con- sequences. In most infections, bacteria attach to the surfaces of indwelling medical devices (such as intravascular catheters, cere- brospinal fluid shunts, aortofemoral grafts, intraocular lenses, pros- thetic cardiac valves, cardiac pacemakers, and prosthetic joints) by forming adherent and cooperative communities known as biofilms. Bacteria in a biofilm are well protected from host defenses and antibiotics, making most biofilm infections difficult to treat with conventional antibiotics which have been developed assuming the planktonic state of bacteria. I have become interested in the topic because of similar issues at a methodological level between biofilms and the "physical" thin-films of my previous research, while recognizing the greater complexity of biofilms due to the Mr. Haibiao Chen, Dr. Lee’s Ph.D. candidate "living" aspects of microorganism communities. Prof. Matt Libera, who has a somewhat different scientific perspec- ing this article, our graduate students are traveling to tive, Prof. Jeff Kaplan, a microbiologist at the University of Newark to learn how to grow Staphylococcus epidermidis Medicine and Dentistry– NJ, and I are working on a long-term plan bacteria in Prof. Kaplan’s laboratory. to design and build microreactors with 3-dimensional nanoscale surface elements and patterns that will: (1) emulate physiologically I am very excited by this interdisciplinary collaborative relevant micro-environments and (2) increase the predictive capa- effort. As our region is the center of the global health care bility of "in vitro" investigations of cell-material and cell-cell inter- economy, I look forward to developing extensive research actions in reference to "in vivo" and clinical studies. We foresee and educational collaborations that leverage the exciting that this type of new "in vitro" microreactors can be instrumental in initiatives we are engaged in at Stevens as we push out the rapid development of rational therapeutic delivery strategies the "nano-micro-bio" frontier. I can be reached at: for treating a variety of infectious and other diseases. As I am writ- wlee@stevens.edu. s12
    • SSOEDR. CARDINAL WARDE ’69: HERITAGEMICROSYSTEMS ENTREPRENEUR By Patrick A. BerzinskiDr. Cardinal Warde, a professor of electrical engineering at MIT, is consid-ered one of the worlds leading experts on materials, devices and systemsfor optical information processing. Warde holds ten key patents on spatiallight modulators, displays, and optical information processing systems.He is a co-inventor of the microchannel Yale, he joined MIT’s faculty of Electricalspatial light modulator, membrane-mir- Engineering and Computer Science asror light shutters based on micro- an Assistant Professor.electro-mechanical systems (MEMS), an At MIT, Wardes interest shifted towardoptical bistable device, and charge- engineering the applications of optics.transfer plate spatial light modulators. He became involved with other facultyWarde grew up on the small Caribbean in the development of devices forisland of Barbados. His parents enhancing the performance of opticaldemanded excellence in school but atmospheric (wireless) communicationgave him lots of freedom and support systems to improve communicationto engage his inquisitive mind outside performance in inclement weather, andthe classroom. By age 16, he had con- photorefractive materials for real-timeverted his fathers unused carpenters holography and optical computing. Toshop into a chemistry and physics labo- date, he has published over a hundredratory, and with high school friends, he technical papers on optical materials,launched homemade rockets (with mice devices and systems.aboard) from the beach near his home. Today, Wardes research is focused on Dr. Cardinal WardeFortunately, he says, none escaped developing the optical neural-networkearths gravity and most of the mice tures transparent liquid-crys- co-processors that are expected to tal microdisplays for digitalwere freed when the rockets crashed. endow the next generation of PCs with camera viewfinders, portableAfter high school, Warde boarded a rudimentary brain-like processing; telecommunications devices,plane for the United States. He received transparent liquid-crystal microdisplays and display eyeglasses.a bachelors degree in physics from for display eyeglasses and novel cellu-Stevens in 1969, where he was also a lar phones; membrane-mirror-based Dr. Warde is also dedicated tomember of the varsity soccer team. His spatial light modulators for optical working with Caribbean gov-passion for physics continued at Yale switching and projection displays; and ernments and organizations toUniversity where he earned his Master’s spectro-polarimetric imaging sensors help stimulate economic devel-and Ph.D. degrees in 1971 and 1974. for remote-sensing applications. opment. He lectures through- out the Caribbean at scientificWhile at Yale, Warde invented a new Warde is also an entrepreneur. In 1982, and government meetings oninterferometer that worked at near he founded Optron Systems, Inc., a the role of technology and edu-absolute zero temperature in order to company that develops electro-optic cation reform. Also, for the lastmeasure the refractive index and thick- and MEMS displays, light shutters and decade , Warde has mentoredness of solid oxygen films. This experi- modulators for optical signal process- students in the Networkence stimulated his keen interest in ing systems. Later, he co-founded Program of the New Englandoptics and optical engineering. After Radiant Images, Inc., which manufac- Board of Higher Education, whose mission is to motivate and encourage minority youth to consider majoring in sci- ence and engineering and to pursue careers in these fields. He has received a number of awards and hon- ors, including the Renaissance Science and Engineering Award from Stevens in 1996, and cur- rently serves on Stevens’ Board of Trustees. sCoach Singer, Cardinal Warde (bottom row center) and the Cardinal Warde, 19691968 Soccer Team, the Tech Booters. 13
    • SSOE HERITAGE STEPHEN T. BOSWELL ’89 AND ’91 AND AN ENTREPRENEURIAL CIVIC LEADER by Roberta McAlmon Dr. Boswell, a highly their support and through gifts made successful entrepre- in their honor, the Stephen and Karen neur, is an alumnus Boswell Scholarship Fund was recent- and trustee of ly established to support the educa- Stevens. He has pur- tional aspirations of Stevens’ Civil sued an illustrious Engineering majors. career in business, Over the years, his generous and assuming leadership public-spirited endeavors include, the roles in entrepreneurial donation of engineering services for endeavors that bring the construction of school play- credit to himself and the grounds, public parks and the expan- Institute. And his generosi- sion of facilities at Stevens. ty to Stevens and the com- munity-at-large has been In addition, Boswell has received enormous. He has dedicated numerous awards including: the his ingenuity and leadership American Council of Engineering to advancing the education Companies’ Community Service of our students and develop- ing environmental technolo- In recognition of his many years of public service in civil and gies that benefit our society. Stephen Boswell began his environmental engineering, his entrepreneurial accomplish- career as President and CEO of ments, his community-minded efforts to improve the quality Boswell Engineering. Under his of life for his neighbors and the public, and his distinguished direction, the firm designed and engineered the construction of service to Stevens, Dr. Boswell recently received hundreds of miles of roads, the 2004 Charles V. Schaefer, highways and bridges through- out the northeastern United Jr. Entrepreneur Award. States. Dr. Boswell has also authored numerous environmen- Award; the American Society of Civil tal impact statements and wet- Engineers’ North Jersey Branch lands reports. His doctoral Service to the People Award; and the research proposed a novel NJ Society of Professional Engineers’ method for removing volatile Engineer of the Year Award. organic chemical contaminants and radon from groundwater. In recognition of his many years of Since 1993, he has served as an public service in civil and environ- advisory board member to mental engineering, his entrepreneur- Stevens’ Center for ial accomplishments, his community- Environmental Systems. minded efforts to improve the quality of life for his neighbors and the pub- For many years, Dr. Boswell has lic, and his distinguished service to also shared his knowledge, time Stevens, Dr. Boswell recently and experience with Stevens’ received the 2004 Charles V. Schaefer, Civil Engineering Department. Jr. Entrepreneur Award. This award is His dedication to the students presented to individuals like has been extraordinary and his Dr. Boswell who embody Schaefer’s mentoring - invaluable. Boswell entrepreneurial and leadership spirit. Engineering was one of the first industry sponsors of a Dr. Boswell resides in Wyckoff, N.J., senior design project. The with his wife Karen and their daugh- company has also been very ter, Kristen, who is pursuing an engi- active in the Cooperative neering degree at Duke University Education Program and has –––––––––––––––---------------------------------------–––––––- employed many of Stevens’ Roberta McAlmon is a writer graduates. In appreciation of living in Convent Station, N.J.14
    • In the Shop: A SHORT HISTORY OF MACHINING AT STEVENS By Patrick A. BerzinskiFollowing the appearance in 2004 of the man curriculum, and "the shop" was decen- I learned skills that were invaluable and thatLiam Neeson film "Kinsey," with its portrayal tralized into five or six separate shops, each set me apart from others in my field."of Stevens Institute of Technology in the serving a different academic department. Senior Mechanical Engineering studentearly 20th century, some note was taken of Still, on a recent visit to Stevens, award-win- Keith Yzquierdo attests: "Standing back andAlfred S. Kinsey (father of the famous Alfred ning author Richard Reeves recalled his looking at something you have created,C.), who was employed for many years as a indoctrination in the late 1950s into numer- knowing that its dimensions are within 0.001"professor of shop practice." It can be said ous machining skills, including, notably, inches of those specified – the feeling ofthat the elder Kinsey, whose son spent glass-blowing. (Asked if he had preserved accomplishment is unparalleled."several years at Stevens before moving on any examples of his student work, Reevesto other disciplines, established a tradition was quick to respond: "Of course not!")of hands-on machining at the Institute thatcontinues to this day. By the early 1990s, when Dr. Arthur Shapiro served as Stevens’ provost, the variousKinsey began working at Stevens at the age machine shops had become fairly neglectedof 15 in 1886 as a machinist’s helper. After facilities, run mostly by octogenarians usinggraduating from Cooper Union in 1890, he ancient equipment. "For a school this size,"worked in the Department of Tests for 18 said Shapiro, "having five or six shopsyears, and obtained his teaching position in seemed a little inefficient and they took up ashop practice under Professor David S. lot of scarce space." In 1992, the decisionJacobus. More remarkably, in 1908 he was made to recentralize all of the shopsexpanded and modernized the course on back into one location as the Instituteshop practice in the then-new Carnegie Machine Shop in the basement of theMechanical Laboratory. He also wrote a Burchard Building, directed by George Joe Vaspolcomplete textbook in shop practice for engi- Wohlrab. "The Institute Machine Shop’sneering students that was used by the mission," says Wohlrab, "is to enrich Stevensyoung Alexander Calder, a 1919 Stevens with a high-precision manufacturing capabil-graduate, and by several generations of ity focused mainly on academic tasks. It wasfreshmen. Among the machining disciplines also designed to provide students with acovered in the text were pattern-making in short, but fundamental, background of whatmetal, founding and casting, lathing, a machine shop can do and how to use itspunching and heavy-duty drilling. resources."After Kinsey retired in 1941, machining Since 1993, the success of the Machinebecame gradually less central to the fresh- Shop’s academic programs has brought many customers to its doors. Today, students from many departments are trained by George Wohlrab and Joe Vaspol. Courses in Senior Design and Design III in the School George Wohlrab and Dr. Lucie Bednarova of Engineering, in the New York University exchange program, and in the Physics First-year Electrical Engineering student Kyle Department SKIL Program use the excellent Mulligan sums up the experience of many facilities found in the Institute Shop. "George students: "Mr. Wohlrab said that working in and Joe are two of the great problem- the machine shop would give me vital solvers," said Shapiro, who is also a sculptor experience that I could take with me through of note in the Calder tradition. "Though my any career I pursued. What I have learned studio is off-campus, I still like to drop by has been exceptional. Each day I pick up a the shop frequently to discuss technical new skill or learn a better way of doing ideas and possibilities." something…I am going out for Co-op in the Damien Marianucci ’03 and a graduate stu- fall and my experience in the Machine Shop dent in Physics, said, "Over the summer of will give me an edge over others." 2004, I worked alongside George and Joe to A tradition begun early in the last century design and construct a vacuum chamber to continues to enrich the educational experi- reevaluate Rutherford’s Scattering ence and to serve the broader community at Experiment, as a project for the Physics the beginning of the new century. s Department commissioned by Stevens alumnus and writer, Richard Reeves. 15
    • SSOE STUDENTS IN FOCUS LUCE SCHOLARS: TRACEY RYAN AND JENNIFER KURUCZ Through the generous support of the Clare On campus, she is involved in a plethora of Boothe Luce Program, two undergraduate activities. These include: the Scholars women at Stevens have achieved an Program; the Biomedical Engineering Society, esteemed designation as Clare Boothe Luce as the chapter’s first President; the Phi Sigma Scholars. These merit-based scholarships are Sigma International Sorority; the Society of awarded through a competitive selection Women Engineers; the International Society of process to outstanding engineering majors Pharmaceutical Engineers; the Ambassadors interested in academic careers. "These schol- Club; Peer Mentoring; and representative to arships will help these accomplished young the Association of Independent Colleges and women complete their last two years of Universities of New Jersey. undergraduate studies and encourage their Jennifer Kurucz resides in Port Reading, N.J. participation in research and graduate school," She has a 3.67 average and is majoring in said Susan Metz, Executive Director of Computer Engineering. Jennifer participates in Stevens’ Lore-El Center for Women in the Stevens Co-operative Education Program Engineering and Science. "Stevens is most and is going into her fourth year at Stevens. interested in new scholarships for engineering She has worked for Colgate Palmolive on students, since engineering continues to be three consecutive Co-op assignments, demon- the field with the greatest under-representa- strating how much the company values her tion of women." talents. Recently, she completed an assign- One of the two Luce Scholars is Tracey Ryan, a ment with United Parcel Service and will be resident of Westfield, N.J. In her junior year, returning there in the summer. "By working she is studying biomedical engineering and for UPS, I have grown both technically and maintains a 3.69 average. Tracey will be professionally and have experienced another receiving both a Bachelor of Engineering side of engineering," said Jennifer. degree and a Master’s degree in Engineering At one time, Jennifer was interested in joining Management with a Graduate Certificate in a sorority, but when the one she chose turned Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Practices in her down, she decided to devote all of her four years – a highly notable accomplishment. extra time to the Society of Hispanic Tracey plans to pursue a doctorate and get Professional Engineers. Although she is not a involved in biomedical engineering research. Latina, she finds the warmth, community, and She explains, "My main goal in life is simply diversity of this organization enormously Tracey Ryan and Jennifer to help others. If I can contribute to medically satisfying and has been an active student Kurucz (top) helping just one individual, my life will have volunteer for their Eastern and National been a success." Conferences. s Shotmeyer Scholar: Lisa Ditto By Dr. Leslie Brunell In December, Lisa Ditto, a Civil Engineering senior, received International Sorority, Chi the Henry J. Shotmeyer Scholarship. This scholarship is Epsilon (National Civil awarded to selected Civil Engineering undergraduate stu- Engineering Honor Society), dents based on academic merit, financial need, and accom- Tau Beta Pi (National plishments in Civil Engineering. Engineering Honor Society), Lisa’s many awards include: the 2004 Moles Scholarship Gear & Triangle Society, and Award, Edwin A. Stevens Society Honorary Membership the Senior Week Planning Award; Henry J. Shotmeyer Scholarship; ACEC Committee. Scholarship; Construction Industry Advancement Program Currently, Lisa is working on Scholarship Award; Terminal Construction Scholarship; her senior design project with Edwin A. Stevens Scholarship; and Women in fellow team members James Engineering Scholarship. DeMarco, James Myers, and Consistently on the Dean’s List, Lisa is also a Teaching Adam Yoda. They are working Assistant and has interned at Port Authority of NY/NJ, on the design of an inlet structure for their sponsor, the Duke URS Corporation, and Langan Engineering & Farms Foundation. This structure will control flow into the Environmental Services. She is also involved in several Dead River from its main water source, the Raritan River. campus activities including: Delta Phi Epsilon During moderate to heavy storms, the area experiences16
    • InnertCHILL: The HeliOSOverclocking made easyThe InnertCHILL System Cooler is an ing. He gained experience in develop- Projectambitious student-created and -run mental engineering through work at For their senior design project, nine studentsresearch and design project, initially Science Applications International advised by Professordeveloped to satisfy the Senior Design Corporation in his freshman and sopho- Bruce McNair in therequirements for students enrolled in the more years. Matthew is currently an Electrical andSchool of Engineering. However, since its editor at a popular computer hardware Computer Engineeringinception, it has turned into much more. website. Department at Stevens"The basic idea is to create a new type of Alexander is in his fifth year as a and Professor Kencooling system for personal computers, Business & Technology major. His expert- Perlin of New Yorkimplementing a chilled, electrically inert ise lies in project management, market-liquid, spraying through jet impingement University, are design- ing, and market research. Tim has builtheads at the major heat producing ele- ing a system to enable various connections in the entertainmentments of a common computer," says an electric radio controlled helicopter to hover industry, and has strengthened his man-Project Leader Matthew Swartout. "We agement skills by creating a successful autonomously. The goal of the system is tointend for it to be stable, safe, and able to concert production organization on cam- avoid the use of GPS for position reference,work with any commercial off-the-shelf pus as well as producing various fund- which will allow the system to operate in areasproduct available on the market," says raisers and comedy events. He has that most other autonomous systems cannot.Business Plan Director Tim Alexander. interned at Muze, Inc., and worked as an To accomplish this, the system uses on-boardThe project, advised by Professors Hamid Agent Assistant at the Central cameras and machine-learning algorithms inHadim from Mechanical Engineering, Entertainment Group, both located in addition to the traditional suite of analog sen-Nader Mohamed from Electrical and New York City. sors. The design team hopes to achieve stableComputer Engineering, and Bernard Other members of the InnertCHILL hover by Design Day;Skown from Business and Technology, project team include Peter Micchelli they see their work asand sponsored by 3M Corporation, came (Electronics), a fifth year student studying a cornerstone uponto fruition with a working prototype at the Electrical Engineering; Andrew Dullasend of the spring 2005 school semester. which future students and Dan Furey (Mechanics), students in can build. They haveSwartout is a USAF cadet in his fourth their fourth year studying Mechanical also started a "Remoteyear at Stevens studying Electrical Engineering; and John-Paul KosmynaEngineering, with a continuing interest in (Software), a fifth year student studying Controlled Flight Club"commercial computer hardware, modifi- Computer Science. s advised by McNaircations, cooling methods and overclock- through the Stevens SGA, and they fly micro RC helicopters in Walker Gymnasium every Friday afternoon. A group of underclassmen have already expressed interest in taking over the project and the club next year. Ultimately, the team would like to see the project compete in the International Aerial Robotics Competition in which some of the premier engineering schoolssignificant flooding due to the substantial amount of debris at the face of the cul- in the country participate.vert opening. The students’ project will prevent debris from entering the DeadRiver thereby eliminating the blockages at the downstream historical culvert. The HeliOS Project Members:Without an existing control structure or topographic data, the team surveyed the Sensor System Team Guidancearea, created a model of the existing conditions of the Dead River and developed Steven Hakusa & Control Teamtwo designs for the inlet structure. During their December presentation, Duke Oliver Kennedy William LemFarms chose one of the two designs and this spring semester, the students will Rayad Khan Christian Pullabe designing, from scratch, a stone arch culvert with a debris barrier that will also Karl Schmidt Eton Kwokserve as a walkway, allowing pedestrian and vehicle passage. Jason PoulosIn May, Lisa will be graduating with a Bachelors of Engineering, and is currently Hesham Wahbahpursuing a Master’s of Civil Engineering. sAnnual Event - Senior Design DayApril 27, 2005 • Noon to 2pmSchaefer Athletic Center - Canavan ArenaThis annual event gives the senior undergraduate engineering students anopportunity to showcase their design projects to the Stevens community,sponsors, and the general public. 17
    • SSOESTUDENTSIN FOCUS PETER KRSKO: MICRO-VOYAGER Working with to control surface structure and chem- Professor Matthew istry at length-scales ranging across Libera, graduate stu- both the nano- and microscales. “The dent Peter Krsko’s biologically relevant polymers can be main research interest used as resins and subsequently as is the patterning of templates for adsorption and covalent bioactive hydrogels on binding of proteins and directed cell surfaces in order to care- growth. ” fully control the interac- "Besides serving as a technique for sci- tions between synthetic entific research," he says, "it can also materials and physiological be used for producing creative micro- systems. Together, they have and nano-masterpieces." Peter tinkers a patent pending entitled with all of the instruments in their lab "Patterned Polymer Micro-gel and uniquely uses the scanning elec- and Method of Forming tron microscope to create a micro- Same." stencil which controls the adhesion of proteins and living cells that become the "paint" of the resulting image. Besides just looking at small things, he creates small images - the smallest stencil art in the world. Krsko’s work in the micro- and nanophotography of insects has been exhibited in DeBaun Auditorium and the New Brunswick Public Library. Peter Krsko started at Stevens in 1998 and received a B.S. and M.S. in Applied Physics. While working in Dr. "Patterning of biological molecules Liberas Lab, the research became so on micro- and nano-scales is interesting that he decided to stay for increasingly essential to high- his Ph.D. studies. throughput proteomic arrays, biosensor, and studies of cell adhe- "What else could I say? I really enjoy this research sion," says Krsko. "Knowledge of cell-material interaction mecha- because its truly interdisciplinary work. I dont study nisms and a better understanding just one science field…there are problems to figure out of extra-cellular and intra-cellular phenomena during the adhesion of and I learn everything that I need to achieve the solu- cells on biomaterials will help in tion…physics, polymer chemistry and cell biology." the development of new biocom- patible materials." Various methods have been devel- oped to place the molecules on the surface directly or indirectly. "Electron-beam patterning has been traditionally used in the IC industry," says Krsko, "but because of its high resolution, ability to generate arbitrary pat- tern and to chemically modify An example of patterned protein on glass surface. Our technology allows the irradiated material, I use it us to transform any grey scale image (A) into a surface with controlled distribution of protein (B). Various shades of green correspond to different concentrations of protein.18
    • FACULTYGENERATING INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY IN FOCUSOn October 5, 2004, US Patent #6,801,131 was awarded to Dr. Dimitri Donskoy and Dr. Nikolay Sedunov for a"device and method for detecting insects in structures," utilizing a plurality of transceivers, each of which gener-ates separate and distinct microwave signals and receives separate and distinct signals reflected from a structurebeing tested.On November 16, 2004, US Patent #6,818,193 was awarded to Dr. Christos Christodoulatos; Dr. George P Korfiatis; .Richard Crowe; Dr. Erich E. Kunhardt; Plasmasol Corporation; and Stevens Institute of Technology for a "Segmentedelectrode capillary discharge, non-thermal plasma apparatus and process for promoting chemical reactions." CES-HydroGlobe PrizeFrom IP to the Marketplace: HydroGlobe The three co-inventors of the patented technology that goes into the HydroGlobe/Graver products HydroGlobe, a Technogenesis environmental ® (and now also a home filter product) have estab- technology company incubated at Stevens, lished a new prize for entrepreneurial juniors and which produces patented products for the seniors at Stevens. The award has been endowedremoval of heavy metals from water, including lead and arsenic has been acquired by by Professors Christodoulatos, Korfiatis andGraver Technologies, a leading manufacturer of filtration and separation products. Meng, with proceeds from the sale of theHydroGlobe was founded in 2000 by three professors based on research conducted at Technogenesis company that they founded.the Center for Environmental Systems (CES), directed by Dr. Christos Christodoulatos. The annual award will be given to a student orThe other founders include Dr. George P Korfiatis (CES founding director and Dean of . student team that presents an idea or inventionthe Schaefer School of Engineering) and Dr. Xiaoguang Meng, CES Director of judged to have a high probability of commercialTechnical and Academic Development. application. Finalists will be determined by a"This is a validation of our philosophy at Stevens, real-world solutions can be found committee consisting of the founding donors, onefor major real-world problems through technology innovation," said Stevens Stevens Trustee (Jerald M. Wigdortz ’69) and onePresident Harold J. Raveché. "The Technogenesis philosophy holds that innovation is faculty member from the School of Technologythe key to enriching the marketplace and creating new kinds of employment…this is Management (Dr. Audrey Curtis) and the Schoolexactly what we are seeing with the acquisition of HydroGlobe." of Sciences and Arts (Dr. Kurt Becker).SSOE NEW ARRIVALSJon K. Miller joins the Center for Maritime Systems as a Research Associate. Millers major research inter-ests include coastal processes, storm response, shoreline modeling, and remote sensing. Miller received a2003 Fulbright Fellowship to continue his doctoral research on large-scale shoreline changes at the Universityof Queensland, Australia. Miller earned his doctorate and masters degree in Coastal Engineering from theUniversity of Florida, and a Bachelor of Engineering degree in Civil Engineering from Stevens.Yinian Zhu received his B.Sc. degree in physical chemistry from Zhongshan University, China, and his M.Phil.& D.Phil. degrees in electrical and electronics engineering from Rand Afrikaans University, South Africa. He iscurrently working as a post-doctoral Research Associate in the Department of Chemical, Biomedical, andMaterials Engineering at Stevens. From 1982 to 1987, he was a teaching assistant and lecturer with WuhanUniversity of Technology, China and from 1987 to 1997, he was a senior research engineer with ShanghaiElectric Cable Research Institute, China. Zhu was also a visiting research engineer with the Laboratory forLightwave Technology at Brown University. His research interests are primarily in fiber Bragg gratings, long-period gratings, photonic crystal fibers, and rare earths doped optical fibers, as well as their applications insensing systems and optical fiber communications.Brian J. Sauser joins the Department of Systems Engineering and Engineering Management as a ResearchAssistant Professor. Sauser earned his doctorate in Technology Management at Stevens and a Master ofScience degree in Bioresource Engineering at Rutgers University. He has also received advanced training inTechnology Assessment, as well as in Commercialization and Marketing Technologies, at the Robert C. ByrdNational Technology Transfer Center. He also participated in the NASA Advanced Project ManagementTraining Program at the NASA Academy of Program and Project Learning.John T. Boardman is an accomplished senior executive in academic and management consultancy with prac-tical experience in functional management and consulting projects. He joins SSoE as a Distinguished ServiceProfessor. Boardman also has broad experience in corporate-level academic policy making, innovationmanagement, fiscal management, and decision-making. He is an experienced consultant and acclaimedexpert in collaborative project design and management. He has planned and led numerous large-scaleacademic/industry collaborative RTD initiatives. He successfully initiated and nurtured the establishment ofan entirely new School of Systems Engineering at the University of Portsmouth, UK. Boardman holds adoctoral degree from University of Liverpool, UK. 19
    • FACULTY NEWS Building a Future of Complex, Intelligent and Interactive Systems The Design & Manufacturing Institute (DMI) integrates intelligent product design, materials processing, and manufacturing expertise with modern software and embedded technologies for defense and commercial applications. DMI’s researchers are focusing on systems-level research dealing with complex military and commercial systems with embedded intelligence, human Rapid Composite Molding interaction and command and control functions. "DMI is working on a spectrum of technologies with applications to military systems," said Dr. Kishore Pochiraju. "We are collaborating with the Picatinny Arsenal and the Air Force Research Laboratory in developing intelligent electromechan- ical systems and engineered material systems." DMI is working with Picatinny on developing integration methodologies for complex, intelligent and interactive systems; with the Air Force Research Laboratory, Penn State and Boeing under the MEANS (Materials Engineering for Affordable New Systems) Program on the design of lightweight structural materials for high temperature applications and with Marotta Controls, a NJ valve manufacturing company, on developing lightweight and affordable valve bodies for highly corrosive environments seen in commercial and US Navy applications. s High Temperature Space Applications Stevens Instrumental in Lightweight Armor Development for Operation Iraqi Freedom The Design and Manufacturing Institute’s team of engineers and scientists worked with the US Army Armament Research, Development and Engineering Center (ARDEC) in the rapid design and development of a lightweight armor protection system for the Stryker Armored Vehicle. DMI’s work was instrumental in the evaluation and selection of material systems and integrated product and process design for the lightweight armor system. "This armor system provides soldiers with critical protection not currently available on Stryker vehicles," said DMI’s Lead Project Engineer, Mr. Thomas Kiel, "Advanced lightweight material developments along with rapid systems engineering and prototyping have enabled the Stevens/ARDEC team to provide a technologically Stryker Armored Vehicle advanced system within a significantly compressed timeframe." CIESE, the Center for Innovation in Engineering & Science Modeling an Americas Cup Racer Education, adds to their list of achievements: A member of Stevens Ocean Engineering fac- • $50,000 from the AT&T Foundation to support "Research & Innovation in ulty is evaluating some Engineering Education (RIEE): Creating an Environment of Excellence in Teaching & Learning at Stevens." Dr. Ken Bain, author of "What the Best College Teachers Do," of the computational kicked off the RIEE AT&T Distinguished Speaker Series in January, attended by 75 tools that will help the Stevens faculty. BMW Oracle (BOR) Team perfect a winning vessel • $254,996 in four grants from the NJ Department of Education and school district design for the 2007 partners to improve mathematics achievement in Piscataway, Passaic, and Elizabeth Americas Cup race. through teacher professional development programs and classroom support in the use of technology-based curriculum materials in middle school mathematics. That faculty member is Professor Len Imas, a native of Forest Hills, Queens, who holds • $81,548 from the Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection for curricu- a doctorate from MIT. Working in Stevens lum development and online/face-to-face teacher training for the CT Air Quality/ Davidson Laboratory, Imas is an expert in Clean School Bus project. numerical analysis of marine craft aero- "We have seen dramatic increases in students’ science achievement scores—averag- hydrodynamics. He supports the BOR Team ing 10% growth sustained over three years—in those schools that worked with by researching and assisting with the selec- Stevens in the (NJ High Technology Workforce) program. In fact, in 2004, science tion of numerical simulation and visualiza- scores increased by almost 10% district-wide and by 20% in the participating schools. tion tools which may be used for evaluat- This demonstrates the value and impact of the CIESE training. As teachers became ing the teams IACC yacht concepts. more facile with their computer skills and their ability to integrate real time projects into their teaching, the impact has, over time, added value." - Dr. Gayle W. Griffin, With the BOR Teams design well under- Assistant Superintendent of Teaching and Learning, Newark Public Schools s way, the excitement is mounting on all fronts. Prof. Imas is uniquely poised to offer insights into the precise preparations The Stevens Data Visualizer was developed by Dov Kruger, Dr. Anne Pence, Joe Kilroy, for the Americas Cup competition, as well Steven Anastos and Elena Zagari at Stevens’ Center for Maritime Systems to display 4- as into the advanced modeling technology dimensional computer-modeled results and realtime data for the NYHOPS (the New York that helps create Cup-winning vessels - the Harbor Observation and Protection System – www.stevens.edu/maritimeforecast) and original of which, the yacht America, CMN (Coastal Monitoring Network) projects, under the direction of Professor Alan belonged to and was piloted by members Blumberg. In the future, they hope to add support for meteorological data, surrounding terrain and flybys, allowing the user to visualize data in the harbor in its real context. s of the Stevens family in the 1850s. s20
    • FACULTY NEWS Scott Zederbaum, a Senior AccountStevens Hosts Third Annual Conference 40 Advisory Board members from govern- Manager for Tektronix, donated a $70Kon Systems Engineering (SE) Research ment, industry, and academia. In this new WCA380 real-time spectrum analyzer to On March 23-25, role, Dr. Jain will identify major education the Electrical and the Schaefer and research initiatives such as: becoming a Computer School of participating body for ABET Accreditation of Engineering Engineering, in SE programs; forming an SE curriculum Department.cooperation with the University of Southern committee; creating a meaningful research Professor McNairCalifornia, presented this years conference strategy and an agenda for INCOSE; and explained, "Thisfocused on secure, intelligent network-cen- creating a repository of SE research and device is a research tool that will also betric systems, and educational resources. In this capacity, she used in education to examine Radioagile deployment will also participate on the Academic Council Frequency (RF) signals in the timeand development of INCOSE. domain, the frequency domain, and alsoin the aerospace, provides the capability of exploring thedefense, finance, internal structure of cellular, PCS and 31st Annual Northeast Bioengineeringbanking, IT, other signals." Conference Hosted by Stevenstelecommunica- The Spinal Cord Injury and Repair confer-tions, pharmaceutical, and healthcare ence was held at Stevens on April 2-3, 2005.domains. Also, acting as a conference Speakers presented an overview of the sub-organizer was the Air Force Center for SE of ject, research at the cellular and molecularthe Air Force Institute of Technology. biology level and clinical research on emerg-Dr. Rashmi Jain, Chair of the Technical ing regenerative and prosthetic therapies.Program, said, "Our objective was to provide The conference included poster sessions andpractitioners and researchers in academia, talks in all areas of Biomedical Engineering. industry, and government Drs. Yu-Dong Yao, Hong Man and Yan Meng a common platform to Among the speakers: Dr. Noami Kleitman, are investigating the remote detection and present, discuss and influ- Program Director, Extramural Research diagnosis of prostate cancer through Internet ence SE research with the Program, NIH, National Institute of and wireless networks to provide prostate intent to enhance SE Neurological Diseases, Topic: Scientific and cancer screenings to men in rural and devel- practice and education." Programmatic Overview of Spinal Cord oping countries. Funded by the US Army Injury; Dr. Herbert M. Geller, Head,Mr. Mark Schaeffer Day One kicked off with Developmental Neurobiology, NIH; National Medical Research and Material Command, remarks from Co-Chair Dr. they are taking advantage of the explosive Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, Topic: NeuralDinesh Verma, Associate Dean and development of telecommunications infra- Development and Regeneration after SCI;Dr. George P Korfiatis, Dean of Engineering. . structures and information processing and Dr. P Hunter Peckham, Executive .The conference featured three keynote technologies to develop techniques that Director, Cleveland Functional Stimulationaddresses by experts in the field of SE: reduce the costs of telepathology through Center at MetroHealth Medical Center andMr. Mark Schaeffer, Principal Deputy, computer-aided detection and diagnosis. The Louis Stokes Cleveland Department ofDefense Systems, OSD (AT&L), and Director By examining the roles of pathology, Veterans Affairs Medical Center andof Systems Engineering, US Department of telepathology, medical imaging and the Professor of Biomedical Engineering andDefense; Dr. John Boardman, Distinguished requirements of Internet and wireless Orthopedics at Case Western ReserveService Professor, Stevens; systems in telepathology and teleconsulta- University, Topic: Neural Prosthesesand Mr. Kelly Miller, Chief tion, they hope to provide significantSystems Engineer, National advances in the early detection ofSecurity Agency. Dr. Yu-Dong Yao and his prostate cancer.Original research papers team in collaboration withwere delivered throughout Jackson State University Stevens Forges Alliance in Irelandthe three-day conference Mr. Kelly Miller were awarded an Undergraduate Research On December 7, 2004 a cooperativeaddressing the conception, design and Program funded by the agreement between Stevens and thearchitecting, development, modeling and Dr. Yu-Dong Yao National Science Institute of Technology Tallaght (ITT) insimulating, production, operation and sup- Foundation (NSF) where undergraduate Dublin, Ireland was signed by Dr. Timport of these systems; definition of metrics of students research and design integrated test Creedon, Director of ITT and Dr. George P .performance and improvement methods; beds to develop software-defined radio and Korfiatis, Dean of Engineering at Stevens.assessment and mitigation of risks; definition frequency transmitters and receivers. Their The agreement leverages the strengths ofof critical success factors; and best practices. research aims to increase spectrum utiliza- both organizations towards the development tion significantly for both military and of an educational initiative in the form of anDr. Rashmi Jain, Stevens commercial applications. The project International Center for PharmaceuticalAssociate Professor, was includes mentorship by experienced electri- Education which will deliver technicalappointed Head of cal engineering and computer science faculty education to the pharmaceutical/ health careResearch and Education including Co-PIs (Professor Bruce McNair industry worldwide; including the deliveryfor the International and Dr. Yan Meng), weekly presentations, of online courses with remote/virtualCouncil on Systems seminars, and other professional develop- experiments and joint faculty/studentsEngineering (INCOSE), Dr. Rashmi Jain ment opportunities during a ten-week exchanges. scomprised of more than summer program at Stevens.5,000 members worldwide, and more than 21
    • Olympic Sailing in 2012Last year, the International Olympic Maritime Systems (CMS) and theCommittee (IOC) announced its Department of Civil, Environmental On July 6, 2005, the 117 membersselection of five Candidate Cities for and Ocean Engineering. Dr. Blumberg of the IOC from 79 countries willthe 2012 Games: London, Madrid, is one of the world’s most respected vote on the host city for the 2012Moscow, New York and Paris. NYC2012, and experienced oceanographers with Games. For more informationa committee started in 1994, leads his own Olympic sailing experience. please contact:New Yorks quest for the Olympics. During the 1996 Olympics in Atlanta, Joshua Jackson he assisted yachting teams by provid- Project Planning CoordinatorTo help win the bid, NYC2012’s plan ing regional wind, current, and water NYC2012for Olympic Sailing was designed to level forecasting services at the 1 Liberty Plaza, 33rd Floorprovide the best possible conditions Savannah, GA sailing area. Today, Dr. New York, NY 10006for Olympic and Paralympic Sailors. Blumberg leads the CMS’s Urban http://www.nyc2012.com/They worked with numerous experts Ocean Observatory that maintains ato acquire detailed meteorological and host of in-situ sensors and networkedcurrent data to select a preliminary computers with estuarine and coastallocation for the Olympic Regatta. A ocean forecasting models, which auto-proposed Olympic Marina (modeled matically monitor and predict weatheron the one in Sydney, Australia) would and water conditions in the NY/NJbe located off Breezy Point, a short Harbor and adjacent coastal areas © Alex Garvin34-minute ferry ride from the (www.stevens.edu/maritimeforecast).proposed site of the Olympic Village.Olympic Class racing has never been Dr. Blumberg visited the potentialconducted in this area, so extensive sailing venue off Rockaway, NY with regional data the IOC Evaluation Commission, regarding the answering questions on wind and proposed site current patterns and variabilities. He was integral to believes that, "having the Games in winning the the NY area will enable Stevens to Olympic bid. shine by using the accumulated knowledge and experience of our Among the diverse faculty in many different areas, experts sought from secure communications, to sen- by NYC2012 was sor development and network design, © Neoscape Dr. Alan F. to information dissemination Blumberg of the technology, and port security." s Center for22S OE SINFOCUSCharles V. Schaefer, Jr. School of EngineeringStevens Institute of TechnologyCastle Point on HudsonHoboken, N.J. 07030Phone 201.216.5263Fax 201.216.8909 www.soe.stevens.edu