SETTING THE SCENE WHAT IS OUR MAIN QUESTION? WHAT ARE OUR KEY QUESTIONS? WHERE IS OUR STUDY AREA? (Location map(s), written description) WHAT ARE OUR INTENDED OUTCOMES? HOW DOES THE FIELDWORK RELATE TO OUR SCHEME OF WORK? WHAT COASTAL PROCESSES WILL WE STUDY? WHAT BACKGROUND CAN WE RESEARCH?
SETTING THE SCENE MIND MAP Westward Ho! Fieldtrip Setting the Scene COASTAL PROCESSES MAIN QUESTION STUDY AREA INTENDED OUTCOMES LINKS TO WORK SCHEMES KEY QUESTIONS BACKGROUND RESEARCH
HOW AND WHY DO COASTAL FEATURES VARY IN THE WESTWARD HO! AREA? MAIN QUESTION:
HOW AND WHY DO COASTAL FEATURES VARY IN THE WESTWARD HO! AREA? KEY QUESTIONS # WHAT IS THE ENVIRONMENT AROUND WESTWARD HO! LIKE? - What physical features are found in this area? - What human features are found in this area? # WHAT COASTAL PROCESSES ARE TAKING PLACE IN THE W’WARD HO! AREA? - What wave patterns can be identified in this area? - What landforms have been created by erosion? - What evidence can we collect to prove that landforms have been created or modified by erosion? # WHAT ENGINEERING SOLUTIONS HAVE BEEN EMPLOYED TO DEFEND THE WESTWARD HO! COASTLINE? - What methods of coastal defence can be identified in this area? - How effective are coastal defence solutions in this area? # HOW & WHY DOES THE PEBBLE RIDGE CHANGE AS YOU TRAVEL NORTH? - What evidence can we find to prove that longshore drift is taking place here? - What measurements can we collect to describe the shape of the pebble ridge? # WHAT WILL THIS PART OF THE COASTLINE LOOK LIKE IN THE FUTURE? - How serious is the threat of flooding in this area? - Will a policy of ‘managed retreat’ change the appearance of this area?
WHERE IS OUR STUDY LOCATION?
WHERE IS OUR STUDY LOCATION?
WHERE IS OUR STUDY LOCATION?
HOW DOES THE FIELDWORK RELATE TO THE OCR SCHEME OF WORK? Four Key Exam Themes 1 Rivers and Coasts 2 Population and Settlement 3 Natural Hazards 4 Economic Development
Four Key Exam Themes 1 Rivers and Coasts 2 Population and Settlement 3 Natural Hazards 4 Economic Development WAVE ACTION – fetch, swash & backwash, constructive & destructive waves COASTAL EROSION – methods of erosion, cliffs, mass movement, wave cut platforms, headlands & bays, caves, arches & stacks COASTAL DEPOSITION – longshore drift, beaches, spits, bars, tombolos & salt marshes COASTAL MANAGEMENT – hard & soft engineering
WHAT COASTAL PROCESSES WILL WE STUDY? WAVE ACTION & FETCH PROCESS OF EROSION PROCESS OF LONGSHORE DRIFT COASTAL MANAGEMENT
SWASH and BACKWASH
Waves are created by the wind. As the wind drags down on
the surface of the sea, water is forced around in a circular
When the water depth shallows, water cannot complete its
full circle, and the wave breaks.
Water runs up the beach as SWASH , and returns (by gravity)
to the sea as BACKWASH .
CONSTRUCTIVE WAVES – have a stronger swash and build up the coast DESTRUCTIVE WAVES – have a stronger backwash and destroy the coast
STORM WAVES The stronger the wind, the bigger the waves. The bigger the waves, the more energy they have.
FETCH The area of open water over which wind blows is known as FETCH .
CORRASION (ABRASION) – is caused by large waves hurling beach material against a cliff HYDRAULIC ACTION – is the force of waves compressing air in cracks in a cliff SOLUTION (CORROSION) – is when salts and other acids in seawater slowly dissolves a cliff ATTRITION – is when waves cause rocks and boulders to collide and break up into smaller particles PROCESS OF EROSION
CORRASION CORRASION (ABRASION) – is caused by large waves hurling beach material against a cliff
HYDRAULIC ACTION HYDRAULIC ACTION – is the force of waves compressing air in cracks in a cliff
WAVE CUT PLATFORMS
Longshore Drift Sediment is TRANSPORTED along the coastline by wave action.
Features Created By Longshore Drift - Spits
There are two different approaches
used to defend against
coastal erosion and flooding:
WHY PROTECT OUR COASTS?
Many coastlines in developed countries are heavily populated
Many coastlines provide income from industries like tourism
Many coastlines have high land values
Many coastlines are prone to erosion and flooding
Many coastlines are fragile natural environments easily damaged
Hard engineering is:
NOT SUSTAINABLE in the long term
In need of CONSTANT MAINTENANCE
Often responsible for PROBLEMS FURTHER DOWN THE COAST
THERE ARE FIVE MAIN
HARD ENGINEERING DEFENCES :
GROYNES Groynes are wooden structures placed at right angles to the coast where longshore drift occurs. They reduce movement of material along the coast, and hold the beach in place. This protects cliffs from erosion and protects low areas from flooding. COST = £6000 each!
SEA WALLS Sea walls DEFLECT (not absorb) wave energy, protecting beaches from erosion and low areas from flooding. Waves can erode sea walls and cause collapse. COST = £2000 per metre!
GABIONS Gabions are steel mesh cages containing boulders. The rocks absorb some of the wave energy and reduce erosion. They are cheap, but ugly!
SEA ARMOUR Sea armour consists of large boulders piled on the beach where erosion is likely. They are cheap but ugly. Even these large rocks can be moved or undermined by wave action.
BACKGROUND RESEARCH MAPS www.multimap.co.uk www.ordnancesurvey.co.uk www.mappy.com www.earth.google.com http://digimapforschools.edina.ac.uk (User name: EX364LA Password: aerugx88) COASTS www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/geography/coastal http://getrevising.co.uk . . www.geographyfieldwork.com/GeographyVocabularyGCSECoasts http://www.geographyalltheway.com/igcse_geography/natural_environments/marine_processes/igcse_coasts.htm http://www.s-cool.co.uk/gcse/geography.html WESTWARD HO! http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Westward_Ho! http://www.ussher.org.uk/journal/80s/1989/documents/Keene_1989.pdf http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/North_Devon_Coast IF YOU HAVE ANY OTHER USEFUL SITES—LET US ALL KNOW!
COLLECTING THE DATA WHAT DAT COLLECTION METHODS WILL WE USE?