Lyme regis fieldtrip 2011
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Lyme regis fieldtrip 2011

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Introduction to October Lyme Regis fieldtrip

Introduction to October Lyme Regis fieldtrip

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Lyme regis fieldtrip 2011 Lyme regis fieldtrip 2011 Presentation Transcript

  • GCSE GEOGRAPHY LYME REGIS FIELDTRIP October 12 th 2011 South Molton Community College ~ Department of Geography
  • OCR GCSE GEOGRAPHY SDME – 25% FIELDWORK INVESTIGATION – 15% (1200 words) GEOGRAPHICAL INVESTIGATION – 10% GEOGRAPHY EXAM – 50%
  • SETTING THE SCENE WHAT IS OUR MAIN QUESTION? WHAT ARE OUR KEY QUESTIONS? WHERE IS OUR STUDY AREA? (Location map(s), written description) WHAT ARE OUR INTENDED OUTCOMES? HOW DOES THE FIELDWORK RELATE TO OUR SCHEME OF WORK? WHAT COASTAL PROCESSES WILL WE STUDY? WHAT BACKGROUND CAN WE RESEARCH?
  • WHY IS THERE A NEED TO PROTECT THE COAST IN YOUR CHOSEN AREA? MAIN QUESTION:
  • WHY IS THERE A NEED TO PROTECT THE COAST IN YOUR CHOSEN AREA? KEY QUESTIONS # WHERE IS THE CHOSEN STUDY AREA? - How can we describe the location of our study area? - What physical features are found in this area? - What human features are found in this area? # IS THERE EVIDENCE OF ACTIVE EROSION AND WEATHERING IN THIS AREA? - What wave patterns can be identified in this area? - What landforms have been created by erosion and weathering? - What other coastal processes are evident in this area? # WHAT METHODS OF COASTAL MANAGEMENT HAVE BEEN ADOPTED TO PROTECT THIS AREA? - What methods of hard engineering can be identified in this area? - What methods of soft engineering can be identified in this area? - How effective are coastal defence solutions in this area? # ARE AGEING COASTAL DEFENCES DETERIORATING? - What evidence can we find of coastal defences being destroyed by the sea? # WHAT RISKS EXIST TO LOCAL PROPERTIES AND AMENITIES? - Can we find buildings or services under threat? # WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR THIS AREA OF PROJECTED SEA LEVEL RISE IN THE FUTURE? - How will rising sea levels affect this area? - What will this area be like in the future?
  • WHERE IS OUR STUDY LOCATION?
  • WHERE IS OUR STUDY LOCATION?
  • WHERE IS OUR STUDY LOCATION?
  • WHERE IS OUR STUDY LOCATION?
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  • HOW DOES THE FIELDWORK RELATE TO THE OCR SCHEME OF WORK? Four Key Exam Themes 1 Rivers and Coasts 2 Population and Settlement 3 Natural Hazards 4 Economic Development
  • Four Key Exam Themes 1 Rivers and Coasts 2 Population and Settlement 3 Natural Hazards 4 Economic Development WAVE ACTION – fetch, swash & backwash, constructive & destructive waves COASTAL EROSION – methods of erosion, cliffs, mass movement, wave cut platforms, headlands & bays, caves, arches & stacks COASTAL DEPOSITION – longshore drift, beaches, spits, bars, tombolos & salt marshes COASTAL MANAGEMENT – hard & soft engineering
  • WHAT COASTAL PROCESSES WILL WE STUDY? WAVE ACTION & FETCH PROCESS OF EROSION PROCESS OF LONGSHORE DRIFT COASTAL MANAGEMENT
  • WAVE ACTION
  • SWASH and BACKWASH
    • Waves are created by the wind. As the wind drags down on
    • the surface of the sea, water is forced around in a circular
    • motion.
    • When the water depth shallows, water cannot complete its
    • full circle, and the wave breaks.
    • Water runs up the beach as SWASH , and returns (by gravity)
    • to the sea as BACKWASH .
  • CONSTRUCTIVE WAVES – have a stronger swash and build up the coast DESTRUCTIVE WAVES – have a stronger backwash and destroy the coast
  • STORM WAVES The stronger the wind, the bigger the waves. The bigger the waves, the more energy they have.
  • FETCH The area of open water over which wind blows is known as FETCH .
  • FETCH
  • CORRASION (ABRASION) – is caused by large waves hurling beach material against a cliff HYDRAULIC ACTION – is the force of waves compressing air in cracks in a cliff SOLUTION (CORROSION) – is when salts and other acids in seawater slowly dissolves a cliff ATTRITION – is when waves cause rocks and boulders to collide and break up into smaller particles PROCESS OF EROSION
  • HYDRAULIC ACTION HYDRAULIC ACTION – is the force of waves compressing air in cracks in a cliff
  • CLIFFS
  • CLIFF COLLAPSE
  •  
  • WAVE CUT PLATFORMS
  • Longshore Drift Sediment is TRANSPORTED along the coastline by wave action.
  • Features Created By Longshore Drift - Spits
    • There are two different approaches
    • used to defend against
    • coastal erosion and flooding:
    • HARD ENGINEERING
    • SOFT ENGINEERING
    • WHY PROTECT OUR COASTS?
    • Many coastlines in developed countries are heavily populated
    • Many coastlines provide income from industries like tourism
    • & fishing
    • Many coastlines have high land values
    • Many coastlines are prone to erosion and flooding
    • Many coastlines are fragile natural environments easily damaged
    • by people
  • HARD ENGINEERING
    • Hard engineering is:
    • SHORT TERM
    • NOT SUSTAINABLE in the long term
    • EXPENSIVE
    • UGLY
    • In need of CONSTANT MAINTENANCE
    • Often responsible for PROBLEMS FURTHER DOWN THE COAST
    • THERE ARE FIVE MAIN
    • HARD ENGINEERING DEFENCES :
    • GROYNES
    • SEA WALLS
    • REVETMENTS
    • GABIONS
    • SEA ARMOUR
  • GROYNES Groynes are wooden structures placed at right angles to the coast where longshore drift occurs. They reduce movement of material along the coast, and hold the beach in place. This protects cliffs from erosion and protects low areas from flooding. COST = £6000 each!
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  • SEA WALLS Sea walls DEFLECT (not absorb) wave energy, protecting beaches from erosion and low areas from flooding. Waves can erode sea walls and cause collapse. COST = £2000 per metre!
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  • GABIONS Gabions are steel mesh cages containing boulders. The rocks absorb some of the wave energy and reduce erosion. They are cheap, but ugly!
  • SEA ARMOUR Sea armour consists of large boulders piled on the beach where erosion is likely. They are cheap but ugly. Even these large rocks can be moved or undermined by wave action.
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