1. Virtual Schools and Open Schools: a view from Europe Paul Bacsich Senior Consultant, Sero Project Manager on EU projects VISCED and POERUP
2. Project Manager, VISCED – Virtual Schools and Colleges (ages 14-21 inclusive) Project Manager, POERUP – national policies for OER uptake Former Research Director, Re.ViCa – virtual campuses (post-secondary) Canterbury Visiting Fellow, New Zealand (study visit hosted by Prof Niki Davis): spent much time looking at Asia & Oceania Other projects: public-private HE consortia, MOOCs, benchmarking, quality...
3. VISCED – Virtual Schools and Collegesfor Teenagers and Young Adults Funded under EU LLP KA3 ICT January 2011 to December 2012 inclusive; report and key deliverables now public! Sero was project coordinator and research lead Leveraged on Re.ViCa, leading into POERUP Approximately US$ 500,000 of funding
4. What is a virtual school? For us… An institution that teaches courses entirely or primarily through distance online methods With courses which are similar (in purpose and outcome) to those normally taken by school- age children: ISCED 2 and 3 lower/upper secondary – junior/senior high Our age focus is 14-21 Making it real: So that’s Interhigh – video (play it later)
5. World tour on virtual schools Hundreds in US (268 noted, 200 more at least) and Canada (35) – and Latin America Several (29) in Australia/New Zealand: Te Kura But very few in Oceania (and Caribbean) A few in Africa (far north and far south) “Thought” to be few and/or to have died out in Europe – NOT TRUE (70 or more) Asia much less clear to us (20?) –maybe collaborative work can find the true number
6. Europe Europe in our sense includes not only the EU but the countries in geographic Europe including Turkey, all Russia and the Caucasus Around 70 virtual schools identified Likely to be over 100 However, most countries have only one or two Main exceptions are UK (10+), Spain (10+), Finland (a network) and Sweden (3 main ones)
7. Outputs of the project Brochure and Wiki Handbook – 2 volumes – World Tour Newsletter every 2 months in 2011-2012 Case studies – see next slide Many specific reports – now public – including Innovative Good Practice Teacher Training – by Prof Niki Davis Critical Success Factors And Final Report
8. Three virtual schools to ponder Sofia Distans – Sweden (more asynch) http://www.virtualcampuses.eu/index.php/Sofia_Distans undervisning - and video (play these later) Interhigh – Wales (more synch) - video http://www.virtualcampuses.eu/index.php/InterHigh Escola Movel – Portugal - video http://virtualcampuses.eu/index.php/Escola_Movel And five more: Bednet (Belgium), iScoil (Ireland) Nettilukio (Finland), Wereldschool (Netherlands), Vidusskola (Latvia)
9. And outside Europe Credenda (Canada) Open High School, Sydney (Australia) Brisbane School of Distance Education (Australia) Open Polytechnic (New Zealand) – a virtual college (I could say a lot more about these – and see Coda) Other interesting examples include Pamoja Education (for IB) and Open High School Turkey
10. Key issues – policyconstraints in Europe Some European countries are federal (UK, Germany, Spain) – like India? Some (like UK) even have zero pan-country ministry role (same in Canada) “Rights of the Child” issue inhibits homeschooling and “thus” virtual schooling Focus on nation-building/socialisation as well as education European ministries seem not very interested
11. Key issues 1-41. Most ICT-based activity in schools is blended – ministries thought (or hoped) that there were no virtual schools (any more)2. Virtual schools are mainly small (few hundred)3. Much larger focus on expatriates and disadvantaged/ill (homeschooling is often illegal)4. Virtual schools are less regulated
12. Key issues 5-95. Systems are more “classroom” in focus – not necessarily “synchronous”6. Often can draw only on minimal resources7. Virtual schools are more entrepreneurial, even state ones8. Virtual schools for adult credit recovery is a big driver in some countries (UK, Spain, Nordic) – see Coda9. More (?) interpenetration of virtual schools and virtual colleges (UK…)
13. Innovative practice Virtual schools are more conservative – having made the shift to online, they tend to stick with a specific technology (e.g. FirstClass, as used for many years at UK Open University) Also the wide nature of the constituency makes them cautious with assumptions on broadband penetration Their focus is on effective teaching, not on innovation and research (unlike universities?)
14. Staff development – not anissue in Europe Staff are recruited with suitable “attitude” and tend to stay a long time Systems evolve only slowly Virtual schools are not growing fast
15. Sustainability and success factors Many virtual schools in Europe are quite old Few have failed Some of the oldest operators are fading since they find it hard to shift from a “print and correspondence model” to online
16. EU policy areas wherevirtual schools could helpWe believe virtual schools are key to various EU initiatives – how does this relate to Asia?: STEM and other shortage subjects Early school leaving Travelling and other excluded communities Broadband uptake and open educationBut issues with: No EU right to good level/choice of education No Bologna for schools credit transfer
17. Policy recommendations –for school-age children Virtual schools have been shown to be effective and no more costly than f2f schools Yet in most EU countries virtual schools are rare Most common in countries with lighter regulation So... Governments should ensure that their regulations for schools do not explicitly or implicitly discriminate against virtual schools In particular, consider their restrictive approach to “home education” (e.g. Germany, Netherlands, ...) Virtual schools are NOT home education, they are schools (just as open universities are universities)
18. Some further thoughts and a question Remarkably few virtual schools use Open Educational Resources (OER) – this is surprising to us – but see e.g. Open High School of Utah Surely the vast amount of content e.g. from US foundations is beginning to be useful? We see little use of study centres for virtual schools in Europe, yet we see it for universities – this seems a model for some of Asia Important: we know too little about virtual and open schools in Asia – how can we collaborate?
19. Thank you for listening! Paul Bacsich Sero newsletter:http://www.virtualschoolsandcolleges.info wiki (ongoing) http://www.virtualcampuses.eu
20. A coda: On virtual schools for adults...
21. Virtual schools for adults Many virtual schools in US and some in Europe also cater for adults (e.g. UK, Finland) This is so that adults can get school-leaving qualifications to make them suitable to enter professions or study at university In the UK there are around 10 providers of online “GCSE” (school leaving) and “A levels” (uni entrance), mainly but not wholly for 21+
22. Cost-effectiveness A study for Sero by the University of Northampton claims, that for England: “people earning a [university entrance] qualification exclusively through distance learning could do so at a cost between 9 and 38 percent of school-based learning, a potential saving of 62 to 91 percent in comparison to current funding given to traditional schools!” This caused substantial discussion at the European Virtual Schools Colloquium in Sheffield in May 2012! Some backing for the general thrust of these figures from other countries (US, Scotland, India, etc)
23. Recommendations for virtual schooling for adults EU governments should reverse their neglect of non-university education for adults and in particular foster the development of adult-focused online teaching of school-leaving qualifications Universities and their researchers should consider long and hard why virtual schools in EU have been set up easily and cheaply in techno-pedagogic terms, yet universities in EU mostly struggle to deliver substantial distance learning and insist on doing large numbers of pilots and studies before making choices
24. Implications of this for universities and governments The various “fudges” to allow older adults to enter university without adequate qualifications could then be swept away All students could then enter university with relevant and up to date school-leaving qualifications Drop-out would be reduced, thus retention improved Quality of graduates would increase (e.g higher skill for “critical thinking”) – NB Academically Adrift Perhaps in some countries overall course length at university could then be reduced?