OER and MOOCs need competency-based higher education


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This presentation argues that a number of innovative technical developments, including OER and MOOCs but also microlearning and innovative forms of assessment, require a new approach to Bologna based primarily on competences

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OER and MOOCs need competency-based higher education

  1. 1. OER and MOOCs need competency- based higher education Paul Bacsich, Sero and Matic Media Margaret Korosec, University of Hull 26 September 2013 Microlearning 7.0 Göttweig Austria 1
  2. 2. POERUP and its partners autumn 2013 1. Sero (coordinator) 2. University of Leicester 3. Open University of the Netherlands 4. University of Lorraine 5. EDEN 6. Athabasca University (Canada) 2
  3. 3. Focus of POERUP • Stimulating the uptake of OER through policy • Building on previous initiatives • Through country reports: 27 by POERUP and about the same number by others (UNESCO Mosocw, OER Asia, etc) • And case studies, evaluating successful OER communities: – OER u, Futurelearn (MOOCs), ALISON, Wikiwijs, BC Campus,… • Linked other EU and non-EU initiatives • And to research on competences, retention, accreditation • Underpinned by research on costs/time in online learning • Microlearning 5.0 paper, UNESCO IITE, Open Education 2030 HE 3
  4. 4. OER policies we distilled • COL: Survey on Governments’ Open Educational Resources (OER) Policies • 40 country reports done by POERUP and sister projects (OER Asia, UNESCO Moscow etc) • OER Policy Registry on CC Wiki • Most important, many EU policies impinge on OER but are broader than OER 4
  5. 5. EU policy example • “Recognition/validation of non-formal learning by 2018: • have knowledge, skills, competences... acquired through non-formal/informal learning validated including through OER; • obtain a full qualification, or part qualification, on the basis of validated non-formal and informal learning experiences” 5
  6. 6. POERUP policy recommendations On assessment and accreditation 6
  7. 7. Assessment and accreditation of modules • Universities should improve and proceduralise their activity on APL (Accreditation of Prior Learning) including the ability to accredit knowledge and competences developed through online study and informal learning, including but not restricted to OER and MOOCs, with a focus on admitting students with such accredited studies to the universities’ own further courses of study. 7
  8. 8. Assessment and accreditation of modules (continued) • Larger member states should each set up an Open Accreditor to accredit a range of studies which could lead to an undergraduate degree. In the first instance the Accreditor should focus on qualifications in the ISCED 5B area as this is most correlated with high- level skills for business and industry. 8
  9. 9. Accreditation of institutions – new accrediting bodies and mutual recognition • Foster the development of transnational accrediting agencies and mutual recognition of accreditations across the EU • Reduce the regulatory barriers against new kinds of HE providers (e.g. for-profit, from outside the country, consortial, etc) 9
  10. 10. Quality agencies and the competences model Quality agencies (in ENQA) should: • Develop their understanding of new modes of learning (including online, distance, OER and MOOCs) and how they impact quality assurance and recognition; • Engage in debates on copyright; • Consider the effects of these new modes on quality assurance and recognition; • Ensure that there is no implicit non-evidence-based bias against these new modes when accrediting institutions (if relevant), accrediting programmes (if relevant) and assessing/inspecting institutions/programmes. Bologna-bis: competence-based not time-based assessment • Reduce the regulatory barriers against new time durations of provision: by developing a successor to Bologna (the tariff system for European higher education) based primarily on competences gained not duration of study. 10
  11. 11. The Bologna Process And its concepts 11
  12. 12. European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System • “Course descriptions contain – ‘learning outcomes’ (i.e. what students are expected to know, understand and be able to do) – workload (i.e. the time students typically need to achieve these outcomes). • Each learning outcome is in terms of credits – one credit approx corresponds to 25-30 hours of study” 12
  13. 13. Factors tending to cause change in Bologna • Strong – Impact of OER and MOOCs – Desire to accredit workplace & vocational training – Lack of easy credit transfer between universities • Weak (thus far) – European directives and proposals which (implicitly) require change, especially Opening Up Education – Lack of compatibility of degrees world-wide – Large quantum of credit, and of indeterminate size – Different exit competences from the school system – National inconsistencies in the process especially the time measures and the realities of student study times 13
  14. 14. Factors tending to resist change in Bologna • EU politics (compare EQF for vocational) • EHEA is now not under full control of EU • Bologna has hardly settled down yet – all kinds of minor niggles, national derogations and lack of transfer even within countries and higher education (sub)sectors 14
  15. 15. Bologna-bis Key features 15
  16. 16. Bologna-bis: normalisation • PhD  iPhD: output competences normalised across G-20 including key lists of journals • MSc  iMSc: output competences linked to what international employers want for their professional elite • (later) undergraduate degrees, normalised in a specific subject order (mathematics and medicine early, history late) 16
  17. 17. ECTS units • ECTS: credits replaced by centicredits: – 1 cct = competences gained from studying a bite- sized chunk (6 minutes, 1 deci-hour), reflecting on it, and being assessed on it (via mobile device?) – 100 cct = 1 ECTS point – Thus tailor-made for microlearning 17
  18. 18. Competences • Groups of learning outcomes • But assessable: UK QAA guide (A6) mandates: • Higher education providers ensure the assessment of students is robust, valid and reliable and that the award of qualifications and credit are based on the achievement of the intended learning outcomes. • In other words, just take learning outcomes seriously • And correlate to employment needs (but not only to these) 18
  19. 19. Notional learning hours – will fade • Initially an iMSc will tend to use “notional learning hours” (the expected study time of a typical student with the relevant prerequisites in an un-automated environment) but gradually these will fade away 19
  20. 20. Assessment issues • Assessment need not be final exams or mid-course essays • Wide variety of assessment interventions should be used – Automated assessment – Peer assessment – Dissertations, projects, portfolios, monitored practical work • Only requirement is that there is a correlation between what the assessment demonstrates and the competences • A range of assessment types can help to establish that and also provide better instruction 20
  21. 21. It’s happening now – but quietly “However, the School does regard its 12-month Master degrees as being equivalent to 90 ECTS credits and 9/10-month postgraduate degrees [Diploma or MSc] as being equivalent to approximately 80 ECTS credits. This assumption is based on the learning outcomes achieved by successful candidates and on the notional learning times required to achieve them” 21
  22. 22. Examples to ponder – hypothetical but a similar one now under development There will be a workshop on Bologna-bis later in 2013 22
  23. 23. Jasig (Apereo)/Oracle iMSc Computer Science • Around 10000 cct • iMSc likely to be “more studying” than a UK MSc, less study than some continental ones: tempting to take the US model as the median • Tailor-made for MOOCs and can leverage on much existing OER 23
  24. 24. EFN euBSc Nursing • 20000 cct • Syllabus is to be EU-wide with an opt-out percentage of national material (10%) • Competences will include more focus on practical skills and emotional intelligence than found in “some nursing degrees in some countries” • European nursing degrees already exist (but not competence-based): – The European Nursing degree (BSc Honours) is a qualification that leads to professional status as a Registered Nurse. Taught in UK - and for a year at a partner institution in Malta, Finland, Italy or Denmark - this course is designed to give you the skills needed to work in a modern health service. – You will develop clinical and other skills that will enable you to work alongside other healthcare professionals to provide seamless care. – The European Nursing Degree route provides the opportunity to gain greater understanding of pan European health problems, particularly related to deployment of health personnel and trends in health and social care. • The various Nursing Associations (EFN, RCN in UK, etc) can leverage on their substantial recent work on mutual recognition of professional qualifications across Europe 24
  25. 25. ISTE/iNACOL/EDEN iPgD: Postgraduate Diploma in online teaching • This is like a Masters without the final dissertation, but with a substantial ePortfolio • 7500 cct • From the T3 project on, there has been significant agreement (documented e.g. by VISCED) across a range of US and EU projects on the syllabus for such a course: – ISTE NETS*T – iNACOL National Standards for Quality Online Teaching • And several courses offer enrolment to all levels of teacher 25
  26. 26. Further information http://www.poerup.info/ - and 1. A liberal arts/science Competence-Duration model for universities within an Open Qualifications Alliance international framework, Open Education 2030, on Scribd 2. The cost- and time-effectiveness of online learning: providing a perspective on Microlearning and the differences between academic and corporate views, Microlearning 5.0, on Scribd 26 This presentation is protected by a Creative Commons License (Attribution-Noncommercial*-Share Alike 3.0) *broadly-based in the delivery chain