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A history of Ethiopia yesterday-today and tomorrow

A history of Ethiopia yesterday-today and tomorrow

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    Ethio New Ethio New Presentation Transcript

    • IOP IA Pazion T. Cherinet 2006
    • ETHIOPIA ---- pronounced “ Ityop'iya” Population (2005 est.): 73,053,286 (growth rate: 2.4%); Size - 435,184 sq mi (1,127,127 sq km) slightly less than twice the size of Texas Capital Addis Ababa : 2,716,200 Languages: Amharic ( official), Tigrigna, Orominga, Guaragigna, Somali, Arabic, English, French and Italian ( also over 80 other spoken languages with 200 dialects). Ethnicity/Race: Oromo 40%, Amhara and Tigrean 32%, Sidamo 9%, Shankella 6%, Somali 6%, Afar 4%, Gurage 2%, other 1% Religion: Islam 45%–50%, Ethiopian Orthodox 35%–40%, animist 12%, other 3%–8% Geography: Ethiopia is in east-central Africa, bordered on the west by the Sudan, the east by Somalia and Djibouti, the south by Kenya, and the northeast by Eritrea. - Highest Ras Dashan at 15,158 ft (4,620 m).
    • > Archeologists findings (Ardipithecus ramidus kadabba (c. 5.8–5.2 million years old) and Australopithecus anamensis (c. 4.2 million years old). ) Lucy > Originally called Abyssinia, HISTORIC ETHIOPIA > According to tradition, the Ethiopian kingdom was founded (10th cent. B.C.) by Solomon's first son, Menelik I, whom the queen of Sheba is supposed to have borne.
      • The first kingdom for which there is documentary evidence is that of Aksum (Axum), a
      • kingdom which probably emerged in the 2d cent. A.D., thus making Ethiopia the oldest independent
      • country in Africa and one of the most ancient in the world.
    • > With the rise of Islam in the 7th cent. Aksum declined, > Coptic Christianity was brought to the region in A.D. 341, and a variant of it became Ethiopia's state religion. Ancient Ethiopia reached its peak in the 5th century, then was isolated by the rise of Islam and weakened by feudal wars.
    • TIME CHART AKSUMAITE KINGDOM ZAGWE KINGDOM SOLOMONIC LINE HAILE SELLASIE I Tewodros II Yohannis IV Menelik II Zawditu 1200 A.D - 1200 MARXIST REGIME 750 INTERNATIONAL ISOLATION MENGISTU EPDRF PRESENT MODERN PERIOD
    • > Modern Ethiopia emerged under Emperor Menelik II, > Haile Selassie, called the “Lion of Judah,” - outlawed slavery and tried to centralize his scattered realm, -In 1931, he created a constitution, revised in 1955, that called for a Parliament with an appointed senate, an elected chamber of deputies, and a system of courts. But basic power remained with the emperor. MODERN ETHIOPIA
      • The current nation is a consolidation of smaller kingdoms that owed feudal allegiance
      • to the Ethiopian emperor.
      > King Haile Selassie ( Ras Tefferi –established the famous Kingdome)
    • > On Sept. 12, 1974, Haile Selassie was deposed, the constitution suspended, and Ethiopia proclaimed a Socialist state under a collective military dictatorship called > the Provisional Military Administrative Council (PMAC), also known as the Derg. U.S. partnership stopped, and Cuban and Soviet aid and partnership began. Lt. Col. Mengistu Haile Mariam became head of state in 1977. > By far the darkest part of the country position. Traditions and Cultures: > People usually greet each other by bowing heads. A greeting in Ethiopia can be a long and lively process- the longer the greeting, the closer the friends. > Another custom is to kiss the cheek of your friend three times when you greet them. The coffee ceremony is a sacred tradition in Ethiopia, where the beverage originated and is an integral part of the Ethiopian lifestyle. --- COFFEE CEREMONY ---
      • Performing the ceremony is almost a requirement when you have a visitor at any time of the day. The special coffee ceremony can take up to a few hours.
      • The beans are roasted by hand and then ground in a special way.
    • BUSINESS PRACTICES IN ETHIOPIA
      • In Ethiopia you don’t feel the level of time sensitivity that you see in the US.
      • time and quality of job , Ethiopians tend to rather take their time and come up with ‘better’ result than compromise the level/quality of the result in favor of faster action .
      • When you take business decisions, Ethiopian managers are likely to take more time and ‘over’
      • analyze their alternatives (relatively speaking) before making decisions.
      • Like any third world country, financial resources are very scarce. Decision makers give higher
      • importance to minimizing/avoiding risks than timely decision. Unfortunately, time is the only
      • resource that we have at par with.   
      • VALUES:
      • Relationships and trust have strong value within Ethiopian business communities.
      • business deals are usually made with personal words and hand shakes than formal negotiations and legal papers.
      • People have to trust their relationship and connection to do business.
      • Legal papers and protections are usually used as a last resort. The above is, in general, true for the private business sector .
      • When it comes to government enterprises , considering the government still owns a
      • big chunk of the country’s business, formal negotiations and legally binding agreements are mandatory.  
      • Business entertainment plays an important role in building relationships and networking.
      • In the old days, gifts and give-aways were used to show appreciation and establish connection.
      • > However currently, business entertainment has become more effective.  
      • Protocols:
      • Business executives and managers are expected to dress up formally -suit and tie. This is also true for other staffs who are in direct contact with business partners -customers and suppliers.
      • Ethiopians use first name to address each other – formally or informally. There is no family name as such. Generally, formal addressing is preferred with ‘Mr.’ or ‘Ato’ as a prefix. Hand shake is also customary when meeting someone for business or pleasure. And standing up to show respect and for elderly , higher authority and guest is customary.  
    • Ethiopian Airlines is an all-Boeing aircraft operator except for some turbo-prop airplanes that are not produced by Boeing. Boeing and Ethiopian relationship is way back since the early 60’s when Ethiopian Airlines purchased its first 707 in 1961. Since then, Ethiopian has bought and operated all of the Boeing jets except the 747 and 777. The airline was established in 1946 with the help of TWA (one of the major US airlines) under management contract. The airline has been fully managed by Ethiopians since early 70’s. Currently, it operates about 30 airplanes, and flies to some 45 international and 30 domestic destinations. The technical division of the airline is fully self-sufficient in that it develops in-house maintenance for all of its airplanes; and provides training to its pilots, technicians and cabin staff. In addition, it provides aircraft maintenance services to most of the African operators. BOEING AND ETHIOPIAN AIRLINES
    • At the beginning of the year Ethiopian airlines singed an agreement to purchase the 10 Boeing 787 airplanes. And became a launching customer. ETHIOPIAN_AIRLINE OTHER HIGHLIGHTS MERKATO : the biggest open market in Africa COFFEE : Ethiopia’s gold – Google search Marathon : Ethiopian runners hold a world record in Marathon, 10,000 and 5,000 AU : Ethiopia is the founder and the home of African Union (used to be called OAU) PARKS: Wild life and biggest parks reside outside of the major cites
    •  
      • Amharic is the official language of Ethiopia, while English, French and Italian are widely spoken,
      • especially in business and academic circles. In fact, there are over 80 different languages with 200
      • dialects spoken around the country. The many languages can be broken down into four main groups: - Semitic ,
      • - Hametic ,
      • - Omotic and Nilo-Saharan .
      The Semitic languages are related to both Hebrew and Arabic. They are mostly spoke in the Northern and Central parts of the country. The principal Semitic language is Amharic. The Hametic languages are found mainly in the East, West, and South. Of this group, Oromiffa is the predominant language. The Omotic group of languages are spoken in the Southwest and have been given that name in recent years because they are spoken in the general area of the Omo River. Finally, the Nilo-Saharan languages are spoken in a wide area along the Sudan frontier. Some of the written languages use the Ge'ez alphabet, the language of the of the ancient Axumite kingdom. As a matter of fact, Ge'ez is the only indigenous written language in all of Africa. Today some of the written languages in Ethiopia are using the Latin alphabet. ETHIOPIAN FIDEL----
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    • GEOGRAPHY of ETHIOPIA IN AFRICA
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    • PICTURES
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