sticksg r o c e r y + c a f eprogramming book Angela Williams Fall 2012 ARID 3120 Thom Houser
table of contentsList of Tables & Figures: 2Chapter One: Introduction 3 Chapter Six: Analysis of the Solution 39 Design Problem Statement References 40 User Needs Rationale for the Study Appendix 41-45Chapter Two: Research 4-5 Survey Questionnaire 4 Survey Interpretation 5Chapter Three: Site/ User Analysis 6-10 Georgia 6 Georgia’s Crops 7 Athens 8 Building Site 9 User Analysis 10Chapter Four: Case Studies 11-24 Publix 11-12 Kroger 13-14 Trader Joe’s 15-16 Earth Fare 17-20 Case Study Findings 21-22 Layout Study 23 Case Study Analysis 24Chapter Five: The Program 25-38 Part one 25 Occupancy 26 Part two 27 The program interior 28 Color Research 29 Adjacency diagram 30 Bubble diagram 31-32 Block diagram 33-35 Conceptual images 36 Concept diagram 37 Conceptual sketches 38
List of figures 2List of Tables:4.1 Case Study findings List of Figures:Chapter 22.1 Survey Questionnaire 4.14 Kroger Lighting Example2.2 Survey Results 4.15 Kroger Lighting Example2.3 Survey Results 4.16 Trader Joe’s Logo 4.17 Trader Joe’s Sign ExampleChapter 3 4.18 Trader Joe’s Sign Example3.1 Georgia Cotton Crops 4.19 Trader Joe’s Sign Example3.2 Boll Weevil 4.20 Trader Joe’s Lighting Example3.3 WWII Bombers manufactured in Georgia 4.21 Trader Joe’s Checkout Lanes3.4 Airplane manufacturing plant in Georgia 4.22 Trader Joe’s Merchandising3.5 Georgia Farmland 4.23 Trader Joe’s - Observation of Layout3.6 Georgia Farmland 4.24 Earth Fare Philosophy Sign3.7 Georgia Farmland 4.25 Earth Fare Produce Merchandising3.8 Peaches 4.26 Earth Fare Produce Merchandising3.9 Tomatoes 4.27 Earth Fare Interior3.10 Seasonal Crop Calender 4.28 Earth Fare Interior3.11 Blueberries 4.29 Earth Fare Signage3.12 Corn 4.30 Earth Fare Signage3.13 Strawberries 4.31 Earth Fare Signage3.14 Map of Georgia 4.32 Earth Fare Lighting Examples3.15 Downtown Athens, Georgia 4.33 Earth Fare Lighting Examples3.16 755 Broad Street Apartments 4.34 Earth Fare Lighting Examples3.17 909 Broad Street Apartments 4.35 Earth Fare Hot Bar3.18 Painted UGA Bulldog 4.36 Earth Fare - Observation of Deli and Eatery3.19 Map of Potential Site 4.37 Earth Fare Community/Store Calender3.20 Proximity of Apartments to Site 4.38 Grid Layout Example3.21 University of Georgia Arches 4.39 Store Image & Productivity Diagram3.22 Young Families (target user group)3.23 UGA Students (target user group) Chapter Five 5.1 Existing Floor PlanChapter 4 5.2 ADA Diagrams4.1 Publix Produce Merchandising 5.3 Parking Lot Adjacencies4.2 Publix Customer Service Desk 5.4 Level 2 Existing Building Exterior4.3 Publix Logo 5.5 Level 1 Existing Building Exterior4.4 Publix Store Signage 5.6 Criteria Matrix4.5 Publix Lighting Example 5.7 Color4.6 Publix Lighting Example 5.8 Adjacency Diagram4.7 Publix Interior 5.9 Level 1 Bubble Diagram4.8 Publix Interior 5.10 Level 2 Bubble Diagram4.9 Kroger Logo 5.11 Level 1 Block Diagram4.10 Kroger Interior 5.12 Level 2 Block Diagram4.11 Kroger Interior 5.13 Combined Block Diagram4.12 Kroger Interior 5.14 Conceptual Images4.13 Kroger Lighting Example 5.15 Concept Diagram 5.16 Conceptual Sketches
chapter one - introduction 3The studies included in this booklet were completed to assist in the design process of a grocerystore and cafe located in downtown Athens, Georgia. Numerous research methods were utilized toprovide information about the subject and ultimately provide framework for a functional designsolution.Design Problem Statement: The design problem for the potential grocery store and cafe is to create a space that willadhere to the context of the downtown community and provide a functional and enjoyableatmosphere for the users. The potential design of the grocery store is worth pursuing becausedowntown is lacking a business that satisfies the needed criteria. Knowing this, a thoughtful design could provide a space that would be convenient for downtown residents and profitable for the client. Issues that will be addressed throughout the process include; the layout and circulationof the store, convenience for the user, parking issues, local economic growth, and fit within the downtown community. Although there have been grocery stores downtown, all have failed.Assumptions conclude the stores did not provide an environment in which the residents ofdowntown wanted to spend time or money. The stores could have also had a problemmeshing with the surrounding community. For the grocery store to be an effective project, thedesign should be highly functional, convenient, and provide a place the user will want to go tospend time and money.User needs: The user consists of residents and visitors of the downtown area. This target group includesan age range of 15-45. Currently there is not a store downtown that provides grocery items so theusers have to travel longer distances to fulfill their shopping needs. The potential user needs a store which is close in proximity to their homes and places of employment (University employees)and accommodates their busy lifestyle, but also allows for social gathering and entertainment.Rationale for the Study: The design of the grocery store in this location is important because the residents andvisitors of downtown Athens do not have a store to purchase grocery items that is in closeproximity to the area. The store will provide a space for families, students, and Universityemployees to shop for their needed items without having to travel a far distance. As well asproviding a place to shop, the store will be a space where people can gather, eat, listen to music,and enjoy themselves. Research of the subject will provide information on the layout of the store,what colors are relevent for the design, and what problems might be seen in compairable stores.
chapter two - Research 4 SURVEY Question 1: Have you ever been shopping in a grocery store? Yes / No IfÊ youÊ answeredÊ ÿ Yesÿ Ê toÊ QuestionÊ 1Ê pleaseÊ proceedÊ toÊ QuestionÊ 2. Question 2: How often do you go grocery shopping? Circle one. Less than once/month Once/month More than once/month Question 3: What words would you use to describe a positive shopping experience? Circle all that apply: Modern Dark Organized Cluttered Chaotic Clean Calm Quick Bright Open Frenzied Leisurely Mundane Question 4: What about a grocery store could make the shopping trip more enjoyable? _____________________________________________________________________________________Ê Question 5: What is important when choosing a grocery store to go to? ____Sales/Price ____Brightness ____Fresh products ____Layout ____Friendliness of Staff ____Other (please indicate) ____Cleanliness ____Proximity to home or work _________________________ Question 6: Circle one: 1 disagree, 2 neutral, 3 agree I think going to the grocery store is unexciting. 1-----------2----------3 Question 7: When I go to the grocery store, I try to get in and get out as quickly as possible. 1----------2----------3 Question 8: What do you notice first when entering the grocery store? _____________________________________________________________________________________Ê Question 9: The most frustrating part of going to the grocery store is________________________________________ Question 10: Which of the following images MOST reflect the feeling you would want in your grocery shopping experience? Fig. 2.1 Survey Questionnaire
chapter two - research 5Survey Interpretation: The survey was given to ten subjects with an age range of 18-22. All of the subjects go to the grocery storeat least once a month and most of them had similar thoughts about what would create a positive shoppingexperience. Organization, cleanliness, and openness were the top three choices for a positive experience. Thesubjects felt simple way finding, good customer service, and the color of the store would make for an enjoyable and relaxing space. They also felt that an abundance of self checkout lanes and free samples would also add to theexperience. Cleanliness was selected the number one reason why a store might be chosen for grocery shopping. Salesand price were close behind cleanliness. Although setting the price of items would not be the designer’s job, thethoughtful placement of sale items could have an effect on the user’s experience. Surprisingly, most of the subjectsdo not feel going to the grocery store is unexciting, and a few of them do not try to get out quickly. In my opinion, the initial perception of the store is essential in creating an enjoyable atmosphere. Some ofthe elements first noticed by the subjects include; cleanliness, color, brightness, and the layout of the aisles. A few other elements consisted of the produce, which was the most visually appealing aspect of the store, and the amountof people who were shopping. Again, the amount of people in the store at one time is something that might be outof the designer’s control, but the functional design of circulation can help eliminate the feeling of the space beingover crowded. The subjects were asked about the most frustrating part of the grocery store experience, and eight out of tenstated organization and layout were large contributors of irritation while shopping. Realizing organization andlayout can be the deciding factor of whether or not a customer returns to a store is important. The design shouldallow for the most efficient use of space for the product but also support a simple layout which can be easily maneuvered by the customer. Various images were provided to gain a feeling of how the subjects wanted to feel after or during theirgrocery shopping experience. The images included a social scene, a calm lake, a lady relaxing, a structured flower, and an excited child. The top two picks included the relaxing scene and the excited child. The subjects wanted tofeel relaxed and happy while they were shopping. Using visual stimulation while keeping the layout of the storesimple would help to create a combination of these feelings within the customers. In conclusion, the subjects believed that cleanliness, organization, and brightness were some of the mainfeatures that are important to create a space in which customers want to spend time and money. Way finding and the layout of the aisles should be simple and straightforward, emphasizing sale items and special products tomaximize exposure and profitability. What is the first thing you notice when What is the first thing you notice when going into a grocery store? going into a grocery store? Fig. 2.2 Survey Results Fig. 2.3 Survey Results
chapter three - site analysis 6 Georgia: Georgia was founded in 1742 and became a royal colony in 1752. Throughout history the state has had many difficulties which they had to overcome. War, loss of labor (slaves were 44% of the state’s popula- tion), and poor weather conditions left the state in a economic downfall. Although Georgia struggled with the economy of the state the success of cotton crops in Fig. 3.1 the 1900’s led to economic expansion. Things were fi- Georgia Cotton Crops nally looking up for Georgia until the arrival of the boll weevil in 1911. By 1921 the pest destroyed 45% of the state’s cotton crops. Fig. 3.2 Boll Weevil Georgia’s economy continually struggled through World War I and the Great Depression but finally made progress during World War II. The production of air planes and bombers used in the war afforded thousands of people steady employment. Fig. 3.3 WWII Bombers manufactured in Ga. Today, agriculture in Georgia contributes almost 70 billion dollars to the state’s economy. Over 11 million acres of land are being utilized for farmland and crops. Fig. 3.4 Airplane manufacturing plant in Ga. Fig. 3.5 Georgia Farmland Fig. 3.7 Georgia Farmland Fig. 3.6 Georgia Farmland
chapter three - site analysis 7 Georgia’s Crops: Georgia is a major producer of crops such as peanuts, peaches and pecans. Although these are some of the major crops, they are not the only ones that create profit for the state. Some of the other products include: Tomatoes Onions Poultry Apples Vegetables Goats Blueberries Watermelon Sheep Cabbage Wheat Catfish Corn Strawberries Trout Cotton Dairy Cattle Honeybees Oats Hogs Beef Cattle Being such a rich agricultural state, Georgia should be able to be self sustainable, only outsourcing when products which cannot be produced or manufactured within the state are needed. Buying locally grown products provides the consumer, farmer, local economy and the environment numerous benefits. Not only is the produce fresh when it is local, the proximity of the crops allows for less transportation. This saves fuel and energy and creates a less of an environmental footprint. Fig. 3.11 Blueberries Fig. 3.8 Peaches Fig. 3.12 Corn Fig. 3.9 Tomatoes Fig. 3.10 Seasonal Crop Calender Fig. 3.13 Strawberries
chapter three - site analysis 8 Athens is located in the Northern part of Georgia, about 70 miles east of Atlanta. According to the 2010 census, Athens is home to over 115 thousand people. The majority of the population, about 31%, are from the ages of 18 to 24 and 50% of households are non-families. Given that the University of Georgia is a such a major entity within the community, it is safe to say that much of the population is made up of students.Fig. 3.14 Map of GeorgiaDowntown Athens is made up of numerous historicalbuildings such as Franklin House, which is dated backto 1845. This area is home to a great deal of bars,restaurants, and retail shops.Downtown apartments and hotels are popular due totheir proximity to the University. Many students livein the apartments and walk or ride their bike to campusand families of the students and Alumni fill the hotels every weekend during football season. Fig. 3.15 Downtown Athens, GeorgiaFig. 3.16 755 Broad Street Fig. 3.17 909 Broad Street Fig. 3.18 Painted UGA Bulldog Apartments Apartments
chapter three - site analysis 9 The potential site for the grocery store and cafe is located on the outskirts of downtown and the University’s campus. As seen below there are numerous apartments located downtown. These are in walking or biking distance from the site and could also be easily accessed by students on their way home. In addition to downtown living, there are many residential neighborhoods within a mile radius. These areas are home to many families as well as students. Fig. 3.19 Map of Potential Site An ongoing problem with the downtown area is parking. Although there is a parking deck and a good amount of metered parking spaces, when busy, it is usually hard to find a place to park. An advantage to the potential site is there is adjacent parking lots which are specified for the building users. C: 755 Broad: Luxury apartments D: Whistle Bury Condominiums E: Georgia Gameday Center: Hotel H: 909 Broad: Luxury apartments I: White Columns Hall: Apartments G: Farmers Exchange Lofts Fig. 3.20 Proximity of Apartment buildings to site Potential Site
chapter three - user analysis 10 Athens, Georgia is home to over 34,000 University of Georgia students. This student population spends a good amount socializing, living, and working in the downtown area of Athens. The target user group for the grocery store will be students and young families aged 15-45. The grocery store will be mainly focused towards younger people who attend UGA or live in the downtown area.Fig. 3.21 University of Georgia ArchesStudents are usually funded by parents, loans, orpart-time jobs, so their budgets may be moreconstricted than someone with a full-time job.Young families are generally in the same position asthe students. Knowing this, the store should provideproducts that are affordable housed within a spacewhich is innovative and exciting.Socializing with peers is an important aspect ofcollege life. Students and younger people enjoyhaving a place to relax and unwind after a long dayso the space should include a place for socializationwhere they can come to meet friends, eat, listen to Fig. 3.22 Young Families (target user group)music, and enjoy themselves. Considering the potential users, the space should be a fresh, exciting, and eventful where students and locals can come shop, eat, and socialize. Sustainability is an important aspect of the design so the integrity of the origi- nal building will be salvaged. Sustain- able and energy saving materials and fixtures will be utilized within the space to keep the environmental footprint of the building low.Fig. 3.23 UGA Students (target user group)
chapter four - case study 11 “More and more people today are paying close attention to what they eat. They’re looking for options that are more natural and less processed. They’re trying to avoid additives and chemicals, and seeking products raised in a way they can feel good about. To meet these growing needs, Publix has created Publix GreenWise Market.” (Publix.com)Fig. 4.1 Publix Produce Merchandising The greenwise section of the store is geared towards those who prefer organic products. The branding looks somewhat different from the actual Publix brand but still stays cohesive with the overall look of the store. Going even further, the company has branched out to include Publix Greenwise Markets which consist of primarily organic products.Fig. 4.2 Publix Customer Service DeskPublix uses branding to create a memorable experience for the customer. Using elements such ascolor, font, layout, and lighting, the brand is demonstrated throughout the store.Publix stores usually do not differ considerably from one to another. Stores in different parts ofthe city or country use the branding techniques to create a company profile that users can easily understand.Walking into a Publix store is always enjoyable because of the cleanliness and the friendlyatmosphere. The employees make the experience as well but the design and the layout of thestore give it a open feel.
chapter four - case study 12 Large Supermarket Companies: Signs are placed for added way finding assistance but also to create a cohesive look throughout the store. Fig. 4.3 Logo Fig. 4.4 Signage Fig. 4.5 Publix Lighting Example Fig. 4.6 Publix Lighting Example Publix uses lighting which creates a clean The aisles are spaced far enough apart and inviting atmosphere. for two carts to pass each other which helps with circulation. Departments: Deli Pharmacy / Health Bakery Produce Seafood Meat Dry goods Home goods Dairy Frozen foods Cash registers Customer service Featured products Greenwise (organic foods) Beer/wine Fig. 4.7 Publix Interior Fig. 4.8 Publix Interior Floral
chapter four - case study 13 Kroger was founded in 1882 by Bernard Kroger in Cincinnati, Ohio. Kroger wanted to produce the merchandise within his own store so customers would not have to go somewhere else to for fresh products. Kroger also manufactures their own brands to sell in the stores.Fig. 4.9 LogoCompared to Publix, the design of Kroger is not ascohesive or unified. The branding the company is not readily seen throughout the interior of the stores.For the most part the color palate is neutral colorssuch as brown and tan. Bright colors can be seen forsignage within the various departments, but thisfluctuate between stores. The layout of the stores are similar to Publix and to Fig. 4.10 Kroger Interioreach other. Some Kroger stores include a Starbuckskiosk by the entrance. Kroger utilizes aisle space topromote items that may be on sale at the time. Thisdoes allow for gained visibility by the customer, butcreates circulation problems when the store iscrowded. Another problem with the Kroger layout,at least two I was able to visit, is the proximity of theregisters to the aisles themselves. When the store isbusy, the line backs up and the main aisle is blockedby customers waiting to check out. The registers needto be away from any main aisle to prevent this frombecoming a circulation problem. Fig. 4.11 Kroger InteriorThe lighting within the stores is at an acceptable levelbut with the darker colors used within the space, thestore seems to be somewhat dim and gloomy. If darkercolors had to be used within the design, they couldbe kept for flooring or accent colors throughout the space. Using lighter colors on the walls allows thespace to seem bright and clean. Fig. 4.12 Kroger Interior
chapter four - case study 14Fig. 4.13 Kroger Lighting Example Fig. 4.14 Kroger Lighting ExampleUsing lower ceiling panels delineatesvarious spaces within the store and alsoallows lighting to target specific products within the department.Various display tables used within thestore have a residential look to them.This creates a relaxed and comfortableenvironment and makes the customerfeel at home.Departments:Deli Fig. 4.15 Kroger Lighting ExamplePharmacy / HealthBakery Although there are some positive elements to the design of KrogerProduce stores, the oveall design of the interiors seem outdated. The colorSeafood schemes and materials used could be modernized to create a space thatMeat looks clean and simple. While the stores could vary slightly in design,Dry goods they should have similar qualities within the interior which would addHome goods to the cohesion of the brand and the company.DairyFrozen foods Between the two large supermarkets, I feel Publix comes across as aCash registers well organized company that cares about the appearance and unity ofCustomer serviceOrganic foods their stores. Using bright interiors and simple layouts, Publix appearsBeer/wine friendly and inviting to consumers.Floral
chapter four - case study 15Mid-size organic markets: Trader Joe’s was founded in 1979 by Joe Coulombe. Named after the founder, the company began as a small convenient store and, because of the competition of 7-Eleven stores, doubled its square footage and evolved into a market which was more in demand at the time. Trader Joe’s is a smaller store carrying around 4000 products where a larger supermarket carries around 50,000. Eighty percent of the products sold at Trader Joe’s carry the brand name of the company. Fig. 4.16 Logo Fig. 4.17 Trader Joe’s Sign Example Fig. 4.18 Trader Joe’s Sign Example Trader Joe’s takes pride in their unique signs placed throughout the store and the company hires individuals with artistic talents to complete them. Although these signs are visually interesting for customers and give the store personality, they do not take the place of aisle signage which is usually lacking. The stores are usually smaller in square footage but aisle signs would help with way finding and make it easier for the customers to find the products they needed. Fig. 4.19 Trader Joe’s Sign Example The lighting within the stores is adequate; consisting mainly of fluorescent fixtures. The cold items also have direct lighting illuminating from the top of the case. I don’t feel the lighting adds any interest to the space, it is simply there to pro- vide ambience. Considering how much effort is put into their handmade signs, accent lighting could be used to highlight them. Fig. 4.20 Trader Joe’s Lighting Example
chapter four - case study 16 Trader Joe’s layout is fairly simple. The store is neat and organized, and everything seems to have a place. There are a few displays in the aisles, but they are not too large or overwhelming. It is apparent the company has done their research on the psychology of grocery store layouts, information which is talked about further into the booklet, because everything is done to those standards.Fig. 4.21 Trader Joe’s Checkout Lanes Fig. 4.22 Trader Joe’s Merchandising • The flowers at the front of the store creates fragrance and visual interest as soon as the customer walks in. • The milk and eggs are in the back of the store so the customer has to walk through the rest of the merchandise to get to them, and is more likely to purchase items they did not come in for. • Samples of food and coffee are always readily available in the back of the store. • There are plenty of good things to buy next to the registers so “waiting time becomes buying time”. One of the setbacks of the layout is the registers. There are not enough checkout lanes and when the store is busy, traffic backs up into the merchandise making it hard for other shoppers to get by.Fig. 4.23 Trader Joe’s - Observation of Layout
chapter four - case study 17 Earth Fare, like Trader Joe’s, is a smaller grocery store who’s focus is on fresh and organic foods. The company’s food philosophy, as seen to the left, highlights the importance of selling natural products. Staying with neutral tones gives the store a calm atmosphere and lets the product itself shine through. The colors also work with the organic nature of the products. Brown, green, and yellow are some of the main colors used throughout the space.Fig. 4.24 Earth Fare Philosophy SignFig. 4.25 Earth Fare Produce Merchandising Fig. 4.26 Earth Fare Produce Merchandising
chapter four - case study 18Fig. 4.27 Earth Fare Interior Fig. 4.28 Earth Fare InteriorThe organization of the store is neat and orderly. The circulation of the store is adequate. Thereis not a good deal of clutter in the aisles, but they do get cramped when the store is busy. In mostplaces the aisles are tall so you can not see over them. This could cause the aisles to feel smallerthan they actually are and also prevents visual access to the rest of the store.Fig. 4.29 Earth Fare Signage Fig. 4.30 Earth Fare Signage By using the same fonts, colors, and styles, the signs within the store are extremely cohesive. These coordinating signs add to the branding of the company and are used in many Earth Fare stores. Not only do the signs carry the same fonts and colors, almost all of them use the Earth Fare logo.Fig. 4.31 Earth Fare Signage
chapter four - case study 19 Earth Fare uses several types of lighting fixtures throughout the interior. • Dropped ceiling grids with fluorescent lights are suspended over areas that might want to be emphasized. • Over the produce, track lighting is utilized to create a space that is flexible. The lighting can be directed towards the products even if the layout changes.Fig. 4.32 Earth Fare Lighting Example • Pendant lights are used within the dining area, although they were not lined up with the tables. • Fluorescent lighting fixtures are used to create an ambient light throughout the space.Fig. 4.33 Earth Fare Lighting ExampleThe lighting in the store is thoughtfully used to add focusto the product and allow for a good amount of ambientlight throughout the space. Some area’s of the store can besomewhat dark, because of the interest added by thenumerous fixtures it looks intentional. Overall the lighting adds a nice ambience to the store and creates a cozyatmosphere. Fig. 4.34 Earth Fare Lighting Example
chapter four - case study 20 Earth Fare seems to be well designed with thoughtful use of signage, color and lighting. It is a comfortable atmosphere which places emphasis on the product and the health of the customer. However, I was disappointed by the lack of design elements within the eat in deli area. The circulation of the deli was confusing and almost nonexistent and the sitting area was hidden from the actual deli, which made it seem like an after-thought.Fig. 4.35 Earth Fare Hot Bar The sitting area was blocked by a large cooler of beer and had random items sitting in the corner of it. The art hanging on the faux wood paneling looked like hotel art, and gave the appearance of being dingy. The pendant lights, although interesting by themselves, were not lined up with the tables. The layout and the design of the deli could have been more thoughtful.Fig. 4.36 Earth Fare - Observation of Deli and EateryEarth Fare supplies their customers with opportunities toparticipate in community and store activities throughoutthe month. These activities not only bring the customerstogether in a social setting, it allows them to feel as ifthe store itself is part of the community. Fig. 4.37 Earth Fare Community/Store Calendar
chapter four - case study 21 Store Publix Kroger Tr Type Large Supermarket Large Supermarket Sm Bakery, Deli, Pharmacy, Sushi, Additional spaces Bakery, Deli, Pharmacy Sam Greenwise Locations Eastern U.S. Eastern U.S. Al Lighting Fluorescent Fluorescent Fl Grid layout, sale items by Grid layout, floral, coffee, and Grid layou Layout entrance baked goods by entrance good Signage, varies throughout Way finding Signage, same throughout stores stores Color Green, Orange, Blue Green Orange Blue Varies from store to store Varies from store to store Varies fr Varies fr Cohesive signage, logo, color, Branding Logo, employee uniform Handm fonts, employee uniforms Layout is sometimes cluttered with merchandise in the aisles, Way findin Issues lighting is dim, store design be utilized, could be updated, stores need cohesion Table 4.1 Case Study Findings
chapter four - case study 22 Store Kroger Trader Joes Publix Earth Fare Kroger Tret Large Supermarket Type Large Supermarket Small Market Large Supermarket Small Market Smy, Sushi, Bakery, Deli, Pharmacy, Sushi, Bakery, Deli, Pharmacy Additional spaces Sample counter Deli/Café, Bakery, Juice bar Bakery, Deli, Pharmacy Sam Greenwise Eastern U.S. Locations All over U.S. Eastern U.S. Eastern U.S. Eastern U.S. Al Fluorescent Lighting Fluorescent Track, Pendant, Fluorescent Fluorescent Flms by Grid layout, floral, coffee, and Grid layout, floral and baked Grid layout, sale items by Grid layout, floral, coffee, and Grid layout, more complex, Grid layou Layout baked goods by entrance goods by entrance entrance baked goods by entrance produce first good Signage, varies throughout Signage, varies throughout ut stores Way finding Signage, same throughout stores Signage, same throughout stores stores stores ue Varies from store to store Varies fromColor to store store Varies from store to store Varies from store to store Green, Orange, Blue Green Orange Blue Varies from store to store Varies from store tones Brown, Neutral tones Brown Neutral to store Varies fro Varies froo, color, Cohesive signage, logo, color, Logo, color, cohesive signage, Logo, employee uniform Branding Handmade signs, logo Logo, employee uniform Handmforms fonts, employee uniforms fonts Layout is sometimes cluttered Layout is sometimes cluttered with merchandise in the aisles, Way finding techniques should Café seating was disconnected with merchandise in the aisles, Way finding Issues lighting is dim, store design be utilized, aisle signage is non‐ from café itself, aisles are closely lighting is dim, store design be utilized, could be updated, stores need existent spaced could be updated, stores need cohesion cohesion Table 4.1 Case Study Findings
chapter four - case study 23The layout of the store is important because it determines how the customer will shop. Eggs andmilk are usually located in the back of the store so the customer has to walk through the store to getto them. This causes the customer to navigate through other merchandise, which might lead to morepurchases.The layout can be used to organize similar products together so the customer can find what they are looking for in one place.Exits should be placed so there is an extra step toleave the store to deter shoplifters.Thoughtful placement of monitoring equipmentshould also be a priority.Space within the aisles, visibility, color of fixtures, and merchandise arrangements can affect how thecustomer feels within the store. A space that iscramped or has low visibility can cause anxiety fora customer. Fig. 4.38 Grid Layout ExamplePsychology of grocery store layouts:Entry: Flowers by the entry can add to the customers experience by adding appealing color andfragrance to the space. Produce strategically placed in the front sets the tone for the rest of the storeand lets the customer know the products are fresh.Perimeter: Demonstrations and sample carts slow the customer down while subjecting them to newproducts. Include a deli in this area and hungry customers will have the ability to eat lunch whichwill let them stay in the store for a longer period of time.Center Aisles: Draw the customer in and subject them to products they might have forgotten theyneeded.Back of the store: Dairy, eggs, and meat can be located in the back so customers will have to passthrough the store. Doing so causes a greater change for impulse buying which was otherwise aquick trip.Registers/ checkout: Areas around the registers can be utilized for merchandise. This allowscustomers in line to buy extra products while waiting.
chapter four - case study analysis 24 Completing the case studies for the various grocery stores emphasized the importance of a functional layout, efficient and interesting lighting, and the use of color as well as other thoughtful design elements. Both Publix and Earth Fare use color, font, and signage to promote the brand of the store and create a cohesive design within their interiors. Creating a design that is cohesive throughout the company allows the customer to grow accustom to the same experience in different locations. This process can lead to long lasting customer relationships. The layout of the store should be functional for profitability, but also simple and organized so the customer can easily find the products they are looking to buy. The layout should allow for enough flexibility that the merchandise can be quickly rearranged for changing products. Stores such as Kroger, do not seem to have a flexible layout. The products that are promotional or on sale are usually stocked in the aisles. This creates problematic circulation issues and gives the feeling of over crowding within the aisles. Way finding should always be considered. Aisle signs are the most common way finding features within the grocery stores, but elements such as maps, flooring color, and changes in ceiling heights can be used to help direct customers as well. Lighting has to be thoughtfully considered to create a space that is interesting, but also functional. The use of lighting can be used to highlight products that need to be emphasized and it can also create a space that is inviting to the user. Publix uses high intensity lighting which makes the store appear clean and welcoming. In comparison, Earth Fare uses lower intensity lighting to create an intimate space that feels more homey and comfortable. Earth Fare also uses several different types of luminaries which adds interest to the store. Overall, each store has both strengths and weaknesses. Store layout, signage, lighting, and flexibility of fix- tures are just some of the important features that should be considered while designing a grocery store. The design should allow the customer to feel welcome and create a space where they want to stay for an extended period of time. That being said, the layout should be clear with efficient organization so the customer can find the products easily and promotional items can be highlighted. Primary focus of the store: The focus of the store would be to supply the customer with local produce and meat while keeping the prices reasonable so everyone can afford to be healthy. Using the objectives seen on the left, the store will portray an inviting environment while supporting a functional layout. Using simple way finding techniques, a practical layout, and an efficient circulation pattern, the design of the store will be visually interesting but also highly proficient. Fig. 4.39 Store Image & Productivity Diagram
chapter five - the program 25 Throughout the completion of the research, there were various findings which are of significant importance to the design of the grocery store. The survey allowed insight to how others perceive a grocery store while shopping and what features are important or overlooked. The information which was gathered gave the impression that if the store was clean, bright, and well organized the customer would have a more enjoyable experience. This leads me to the conclusion that the layout of the store and how easy it is to find the merchandise customers are looking for is of utmost importance. Creating visual interest by the main entrance is also a valuable tool in giving the space a welcoming feel and drawing the customer inside. While the layout of the store is important it is irrelevant without the use of signage and other way finding techniques. Thoughtfully placed signs can not only help the customer find their way through the store, but can also serve as a branding element with the use of cohesive colors and fonts. Circulation paths should be clear of unnecessary merchandise to create a clear passage way throughout the space. This allows for easy access to merchandise and keeps the flow of traffic smooth and uncomplicated. Flexibility of store fixtures, signs, and spaces is necessary for continually changing product, especially within the local good department. As seen in Earth Fare, various lighting techniques add ambient light to the space but also allow for an interesting atmosphere. The design will utilize natural lighting, but also add various fixtures throughout the space to add visual interest. Overall, the design of the space should be functional and allow for flexibility within the store. Layout and circulation should be simple and easy for the customer to understand and the use of signage and way finding techniques should be included in the design as well. The use of various lighting fixtures should allow for a high level of luminance and also add interest to the space. Part one: Space square footages Level One existing square footage: 5940 sq. feet Level Two existing square footage: 8645 sq. feet Total: 14585 sq. feet Fig. 5.1 Existing Floor Plan
chapter five - the program 26Occupancy Types:International Building Code:Mercantile - Grocery and Convenient storeA-2 - CafeMaximum floor area allowances per occupant: Area of room/min area per person = max. occupantsGrocery store: Grocery store:Mercantile - 60 sq.ft./ occupant 13000/60 = 216 occupantsStorage/stock/shipping - 300 sq.ft./occupant 1500/300 = 5 occupantsMechanical equipment: 300 sq.ft./occupant 300/300 = 1 occupantCafe: Cafe:Assembly without fixed chairs: 15 sq.ft./ occupant 900/15 = 60 occupantsKitchen: 200 sq.ft./occupant 600/200 = 3 occupantsKey Accessibility Codes:ADAAG 227.2 - Check-out Aisles 308.2.1 - Unobstructed Reach 308.3.1 - Unobstructed Side Reach 403.5.1 - Clear Width 407 - Elevators Fig. 5.2 ADA Diagrams
chapter five - The program 27Part two: Proposed program The program exterior: The exterior of the space will stay the same for the most part. Some windows Broad Street and doors will be expanded or filled in but the building’s main structure will be the same. The proximity to the parking lots is considered uncommon in the downtown area. The amount of parking adjacent to Parking the buildings is an added bonus to the Level One site and will not be changed. Level Two Exterior spaces will be updated to Parking include seating areas in front of both buildings, and a space for music in Deliveries front of the Level one building. Parking Fig. 5.3 Parking Lot Adjacencies Fig. 5.4 Level 2 Existing Building Exterior Fig. 5.5 Level 1 Existing Building Exterior
chapter five - the program 28 The program interior: The square footages will be similar to the existing square footage. There will be a small amount added for a landing within the building for a connection between the floors. Level One existing square footage: 5940 sq. feet Level Two existing square footage: 8645 sq. feet Landing square footage: approx. 200 sq. feet Total: 14785 sq. feetFig. 5.6 Criteria Matrix
chapter five - the program 29 Brown, a neutral color, is sometimes considered dull, but it also can represent friendliness and health. Brown also can stimulate appetite, possibly causing the consumer to buy more food. When used in the background with other neutral colors, brown can make accompanying colors seem more rich and vibrant. Green is abundant in nature and considered representational of growth, renewal, health and environment. Green also has calming qualities that would be essential for the positive experience within the store. Orange as a warm color is a stimulant. It can stimulate emotions and appetite. This color demand attention and can be used to promote products that may be on sale or need quick movement. Orange is mentally stimulating and can be used to get people moving or talking. Blue is a calming color which can be light and friendly. It is a color liked by most people and its calming effect can make time pass more quickly. Using this color in the interior will calm the customers and cause them to spend more time within the store. Ivory is considered a neutral color and can also have a calming effect. It has the pureness and cleanliness of white, but is viewed as warmer and more rich. Used with light greens or browns can create a tranquil environment. Fig. 5.7 Color Palette Based on the found information on the colors, the palette above would create a space that is calm but has interest. The use of brown and orange will stimulate the users appetite, while the blues and green will relax them and make them feel at home. Departments such as produce will stay neutral to accentuate the natural color of the products.
chapter five - the program 30Adjacency Diagram exterior views Fig. 5.8 Adjacency Diagram major adjacency minor adjacency
chapter five - The program 31 Fig. 5.9 Level 1 Bubble Diagram
chapter five - the program 32Fig. 5.10 Level 2 Bubble Diagram
chapter five - the program 33 Fig. 5.11 Level 1 Block Diagram
chapter five - the program 34 Fig. 5.12 Level 2 Block Diagram
chapter five - The program 35 Fig. 5.13 Combined Block Diagram
chapter five - the program 36Fig. 5.14 Conceptual Images
chapter five - the program 37Fig. 5.15 Concept DiagramKey Concepts: Using the concepts found through the initial programming phase merged with elements taken from a weathered barn, a space will be created which encompasses the feeling of a naturalCalming and calming environment. A strong linear emphasis will be used throughout the structuralNatural elements of the space, and allow for a more modern take on the rustic components seenOpen within a barn. The organization and layout will be kept clean and simple with an abundanceOrganized of visual access throughout the interior. Overall the design will allow for an atmosphereLinear which is clean and modern with a cohesive use of line, texture, and color.
chapter five - the program 38 Fig. 5.16 Conceptual Sketches
chapter six - analysis of the solution 39 To create a grocery store that will be successful in the downtown area of Athens,Georgia, various issues should be addressed. Flexibility is crucial within the design of the storeto allow for the change in local crops throughout the seasons. During the winter months locallygrown produce will take up less square footage, therefore, the space should include flexible displays which can be used for supplementary merchandise. The layout of the store should besimple and easy for customers to understand. Way finding techniques such as signage, flooring changes, maps of the store, and changes in ceiling heights will help delineate various spaces. Toaccommodate the busy schedule of the customer a small convenient store will be added to thespace. The store will carry essential items which the customer can grab and go without havingto encounter the regular grocery store traffic. To create a space which corresponds to the downtown community, numerous areas for social gatherings will be integrated into the design.Outdoor spaces will be utilized for dining and listening to local music. Altogether the design ofthe grocery store will provide a functional and flexible space in which customers can come to eat, gather, shop, and enjoy themselves. Design Limitations:Creating an uncomplicated flow through the two existing buildings will have to include the use of expansions joints between them.The connection of the two buildings will also have to include means for the users to get fromthe first floor to the second floor. The store should be accessible from the north side of the building near Broad Street.The original roof and trusses should be kept, although skylights may be added.If possible, the existing windows and doors should be used.ADA guidelines should be considered.
References 40 Websites: EarthFare.com georgiaencyclopedia.org georgiainfo.com Kroger.com Publix.com TraderJoes.com Visitathens.com Articles: Cadwell, D. (2010). The Psychology behind grocery store design. Retrieved from http://frugalforlife.blogspot.com Cherry, K. (2012). Color psychology: How colors impact moods, feelings, and behaviors. Retrieved from www.about.com Grocery store psychology 101. (2012). Retrieved from www.squidoo.com Store Layout and design. Retrieved from http://www.westga.edu/~mrickard/Web%20Stuff/Retailing/PDF/13- Store%20Layout%20&%20Design_New.pdf
appendix - RECRUITMENT LETTER 41 Interview Participants Recruitment I am looking for interview participants of my study: Psychological Effects of Grocery Store Layouts; How a Customer Shops. The purpose of this study is to investigate how the layout of a grocery store affects how a customer interacts with the store and how they feel while shopping. Interview participants can be male or female and have an age range of 18 to 35. Project time frame: October 16-23, 2012 Each interview will last approximately 30 minutes and will be recorded to be transcribed. If you agree to be in this study, the researcher will ask you to do the following things: 1) You will be asked to describe your previous grocery shopping experiences. The questions will focus on your thoughts, feelings, and memories about these personal experiences. 2) You will be asked to discuss certain situations that may arise while shopping, and explain how and why these instances might cause a reaction from you. There will be no compensation for the interview. The interview is part of a research project conducted by Angela Williams. If you are interested in participa- tion, please contact Angela Williams by phone or email. Angela Williams, MFA Candidate Interior Design Department of Art College of Design University of Georgia E-mail: email@example.com Phone: 850-559-0754
appendix - CONSENT FORM 42 CONSENT FORM Psychological Effects of Grocery Store LayoutsYou are invited to be in a research study of Psychological Effects of Grocery Store Layouts. You were se-lected as a possible participant because you meet the standard criteria for the study. We ask that you read thisform and ask any questions you many have before agreeing to be in the study.This study is being conducted by: Angela Williams Department of Art College of Design University of GeorgiaBackground Information:The purpose of this study is: To investigate how the layout of a grocery store affects the emotional state of theuser.Procedures:If you agree to be in this study the researcher will ask you to do the following:1) You will be asked to describe your previous grocery shopping experiences. The questions will focuson your thoughts, feelings, and memories about these personal experiences.2) You will be asked to discuss certain situations that may arise while shopping, and explain how andwhy these instances might cause a reaction from you.The interview will last approximately 30 minutes and be recorded and transcribed.Confidentiality: The records of this study will be kept private. In any sort of report we might publish, we will not include anyinformation that will make it possible to identify a subject. Research records, including the taped interview,will be stored securely and only researchers will have access to the records. They will all be destroyed oneyear after the project completion.Voluntary Nature of the Study:Participation in this study is voluntary. Your decision whether or not to participate will not affect your currentor future relations with the University of Georgia. If you decided to participate, you are free to not answerany question or withdraw at any time without affecting those relationships.
appendix - CONSENT FORM 43 CONSENT FORM CONT’ Contacts and Questions: The researcher conducting this study is Angela Williams. You may ask any questions you have now. If you have questions later, you are encouraged to contact her at 257 W. Broad street, Athens, GA, 30605, phone (850) 559-0754, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org or you may contact Jain Kwon at jainkwon@uga. edu. You will be given a copy of this information to keep for your records. Statement of Consent: I have read the above information. I have asked questions and have received answers. I consent to par- ticipate in the study. Signature: ______________________________________ Date: ________________________ Signature of Investigator: __________________________ Date: ________________________
appendix - INTERVIEW QUESTIONNAIRE 44Interview Questionnaire & Instrument Angela WilliamsINTERVIEW QUESTIONNAIRETitle: The Psychological Effects of Grocery Store Layouts; How a Customer ShopsInterview #:_______ Gender of Interviewee: __________ Age of Interviewee: _________Interview Date:_______________________ Interview Time: ________________________This interview is to ask you about your previous experiences shopping in grocery stores and how theseexperiences affected you. Questions can be rephrased if needed; depending on your answers, some of thefollowing questions may or may not be asked. Please ask the researcher if you have any question or requests.Introduction Questions:1) How many times a month do you visit a grocery store? • What is the average amount of time you usually spend there? 2) What grocery stores do you frequent? • If you have more than one, what are some of the differences and similarities between them?Main Interview Questions:1) How long have you been doing your own grocery shopping? • Can you tell me about the earliest memory you have about visiting a grocery store? What makes the experience memorable?2) Tell me about the worst experience you had in a grocery store? • How did you feel leaving the store? Did you go back? 3) When you enter a grocery store what is the first thing you might notice? • How do you feel this initial perception is important to the set up the rest of the experience?4) When you only have one specific item to buy, how often do you end up buying more items? What would be the reason behind the extra purchases?5) In your experience what elements of a grocery store has made your visit enjoyable and relaxing? • Do you feel these elements governed how much time you spent in the store?6) Have you ever had to spend extra time searching for an item you needed to buy? • If so, how did that experience make you feel? 7) In your experience, have you ever been more inclined to purchase something that was being promoted on theend of the aisle? Why or why not?8) How easy to you feel grocery stores make it for you to get in and get what you need in a timely manner? Why? • How do you feel the stores could do a better job with this?
appendix - INTERVIEW QUESTIONNAIRE 45INTERVIEW QUESTIONNAIRE CONT’9) How does the size of the store affect how you feel when you are shopping?10) How does the layout of the aisles affect how you shop? What do you think might be a more efficient way of organizing the store?Do you have any questions about the interview?