• Identify the basic principle of infection control
• Define terms related to infection control
• Identify reasons why infection prevention and
control are important
• Identify factors that promote growth of
• Identify ways pathogenic microorganisms are
• To reduce the number and hinder the transfer
of microorganisms from one person to another
or from one place to another
Importance of Infection
Control and Prevention
• Microorganisms are always present – some
cause disease/infection (pathogens).
• Those more susceptible to pathogens are the
young, old, & those with chronic diseases.
• Safety of the environment increases when we
decrease the of number of microorganisms and
prevent their transfer/spread.
• The actions of the health care team are to
protect residents, family and staff from
Factors that Promote the
Growth of Microorganisms
Germs and Their Spread
– Body Fluid
Through the Air (Droplets)
Through a Vehicle
– Contaminated Food, Drugs, etc.
Contact with Animals or Insects
– Bites or stings
Infectious Agents: Pathogens
– A type of pathogen treated with antibiotics
– Aerobic or anaerobic
• Aerobic applies to the bacteria requiring free oxygen in order to live. Anaerobic applies
to the bacteria able to live and survive in the absence of oxygen or air.
– Common examples include MRSA, E.Coli; Salmonella, Strep Throat (Streptococcus) Lyme
– This type pathogen depends on a host to survive, grow, and reproduce; treat symptoms
– Examples include the common cold; Chicken Pox; Mono; Measles, Flu
– This type of pathogen grows in the intestinal tract of insects, and requires a living cell to
grow and multiply; bloodsucking insects such as lice, mites, and ticks carry to humans
– Example is Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever
– This type of pathogen thrives in warm, moist environments; treated with anti-fungal
– Examples include yeast infections (thrush), Athletes Foot
– This type of pathogen is a one-celled organism that love moisture and typically spread
infection through contaminated water.
• Any place an infectious agent can survive, grow or
• Medical Equipment
Portals of Exit
• Path by which an infectious agent leaves the
– Body fluids
– Mouth & Nose
Modes of Transmission
• 4 modes of transmission
– Through the Air (Droplets)
– Through a Vehicle
• Contaminated Food, Drugs, etc.
– Contact with Animals or Insects
• Bites or stings
Portals of Entry
• Path by which an infectious agent enters the host
– Any opening in the body can be a portal (entry)
• Barriers to infection are compromised (weak
• How likely?
– Nutritional status
– Pre-existing conditions
• Nosocomial Infection
– An infection acquired while in or visiting a
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