• Antibody- Protein produced by exposure to antigen.
• Antigen- Substance that stimulates the formation of
• Antiserum- Serum containing antibodies.
• Blood Group- Classification based on the presence
or absence of A or B antigens on the red blood cells.
• Blood Type- Classification based on the presence or
absence of the Rh (D) antigen on the red blood
• Compatibility Test/ Crossmatch- Procedure that matches patient
and donor blood prior to a transfusion.
• Cryoprecipitate- Component of fresh plasma that contains
• Fresh Frozen Plasma- Plasma collected from a unit of blood and
• Immunohematology- The study of blood cell antigens and their
• Packed Cells(RBCs) – Blood from which the plasma has been
• Platelet Concentrate- Platelets from several units of blood
combined in a single packet.
• Unit of Blood- 405 to 495 ml of blood collected from a donor for
Packed Cells (RBCs)
Unit of Blood
Fresh Frozen Plasma
• Ab- Antibody
• ABO- Blood Groups
• Ag- Antigen
• AHG- Antihuman Globulin
• BB- Blood Bank
• CPD-A- Citrate Phosphate Dextrose Adenine
• DAT- Direct Antihuman Globulin (AHG) Test
• Rh- The D ( Rhesus) Antigen on Red Blood Cells
• T & C- Type and Crossmatch
• X-match- Crossmatch (compatibility test)
What is the Blood Bank?
• Part of the laboratory.
• Blood is collected
• Blood is stored
• Blood is prepared for transfusion
• The Blood Bank is also called the
Immunohematology because the
testing procedures involve red blood
cellantigens (Ag) and antibodies (Ab).
What happens in the Blood Bank?
• Patients and donors are tested for:
• Blood Group
• The presence and identity of abnormal
• Compatibility for use in a transfusion.
• Units of blood are collected from donors, tested for:
• Blood-borne Pathogens
• Hepatitis Viruses
• Human Immunodeficiency virus
• Units of blood are stored for transfusions.
• Donor Blood can be separated in components such as:
• Packed Cells
• Fresh Frozen Plasma
What happens in Blood Banks Continued…
• Donor blood is stored separately.
• It is used for patients with specific needs.
• Patients may come to the blood bank to donate their own blood so that
they can receive an autologous transfusion if blood is needed during
• Blood Bank specimens are collected in plain red or pink top tubes.
• Serum separator tubes containing gel are not acceptable , the gel coat
will coat the red blood cells and interfere with testing.
• Hemolysis will also interfere with the interpretation of test results.
• Patient identification is critical in the blood bank
• Phlebotomists must carefully follow all patient identification and
specimen labeling procedures to ensure that a patient does not receive a
transfusion with an incompatible blood type.
What are some test that are performed in the Blood Bank Section?
• Tests that are most frequently performed and their
• Antibody (Ab) Screen- It detects abnormal
• Direct antihuman globulin test (DAT)- It detects
abnormal antibodies on red blood cells.
• Group and Type- ABO and Rh typing.
• Panel- Identifies abnormal antibodies.
• Type and crossmatch (T&C)- ABO, Rh typing, and
• Type and screen- ABO, Rh typing, and antibody