MotivationIf you cannot challenge workers, motivationalproblems will result.
Sleeping Giant at Wal-Mart Wakes -- Its VastWorkforceMeasures to Motivate, Mobilize Staff Are Opening up Opportunities forConsumer Brands
Definition¡ Stephen Robbins- Motivation is defines as the willingness to exercise high levels of effort towards organizational goals, conditional by the effortʼ’s ability to satisfy some individual needs.¡ Motivation can also be defined as a condition that is initiated by a physiological or psychological deficiency or need of an individual, which causes the individual to behave in a certain manner in order to achieve a particular goal or incentive.
Importance¡ Motivation coupled with ability leads to performance.¡ Motivated employee is generally more quality oriented.¡ Highly motivated employees are more productive than apathetic workers.¡ Every organization requires human resources.¡ Motivation as a concept represents a highly complex phenomenon that affects, & is affected by a multitude of factors in the organizational milieu.¡ Technological Changes
MotivesSomething that causes a person to act in a certain way, do a certain thing, etc.;incentive.
Classification of motives Primary Motive Primary Motive
Classification of motives Secondary Motive Secondary Motive
Morale¡ Researchers have defined it as “an attitude of satisfaction with the desire and willingness to strive for the goals of a group or organization.¡ Employee morale is defined by the employees outlook, optimism, self- concept, and assured belief in themselves and their organization, its mission, goals, defined path, daily decisions, and employee appreciation
What is Morale?It is defined as the capacity of a group of people to pull togetherpersistently (i.e. tirelessly, patiently) & consistently (again & again) inthe pursuit of a common purpose.
What is Morale?It consists of 3 different aspects:1. Feeling of being accepted by oneʼ’s work group2. Sharing common goals with oneʼ’s group3. Having confidence in the desirability of these goals.
What is Morale?Individual & group morale:§ An individualʼ’s morale is related with knowing oneʼ’s expectations & living up to them.It reflects the individualʼ’s attitude towards life¡ Group morale reflects the group feeling – a group assessment of conditions – esprit de corps (team spirit)
Effects of MoraleRelationship of morale with productivity:There are various schools of thought on this concept.§ Some believe that high morale is related to high productivity & vice- versa.§ Some believe that morale is not related to productivity.
Effects of MoraleMiller & Form have given 4 combinations of morale & productivity:1. High productivity – high morale2. Low productivity – high morale3. High productivity – low morale4. Low productivity – low morale
Effects of MoraleHigh productivity – high morale:ü This situation occurs when group goals (pride in work group, group recognition) & individual goals (freedom on work, good wages, job interest) are satisfied leading to high motivation, high productivity & high morale.
Effects of MoraleLow productivity – high morale:ü Individual goals only are satisfied. Individual behaviour is determined by informal groups causing restriction of output, where supervisors lack technical & administrative skills & where workers lack adequate skills.
Effects of MoraleHigh productivity – low morale:ü In this situation, supervisor is only able to increase productivity through his skills or planning ability by use of penalty (loss of pay or loss of job) rather than motivating the workers.Low productivity – low morale:ü occurs when opposite factors to situation 1 arise.
Morale Indicators1. Organization itself: goals, public reputation, organizational structure2. Nature of work: routine or specialized, stress3. Level of satisfaction: is determined by – opportunity for advancement, job security, opportunity to learn, use new ideas, co-operation of fellow employees, working hours, recognition, communication4. Supervision received: high rate of turnover indicates a poor leadership.5. Perception of the self: Morale of employees who lack self-confidence or who suffer from a poor physical or mental health is generally low.6. Employeeʼ’s perception of past awards & future opportunities for rewards: whether fair, satisfactory7. Employeeʼ’s age: Earlier belief was that there exists a U shaped relation between age & morale – initially high, then low & again high. But, today it is believed that there is a direct relationship – high morale with high age, because of stability, serious attitude towards work, reliability, less absenteeism, sense of responsibility.
Morale Indicators8. Employeeʼ’s educational level & occupational level:Ø Inverse relation exists between educational level & morale. Higher the education, less satisfaction – because employee compares his attainment with others.Ø But a high educational level gives the opportunity to be high in the ladder, hence satisfaction must be derived by the individual.Ø Occupational level: also influences morale. Eg. executives are more satisfied than managers, managers are more satisfied than the subordinates etc.
TO SUM UP…..§ A managerʼ’s success depends on how well he can motivate his subordinates & boost their morale to give their best & also keep them satisfied.§ Motivation is one of the key tools for the success of any enterprise.