Opening CaseThe Key Ingredients of a Successful Team
Groups & Teamsq Group - two or more people with common interests, objectives, and continuing interactionq Work Team - a group of people with complementary skills who are committed to a common mission, performance goals, and approach for which they hold themselves mutually accountable
Difference between Groups and TeamsGroup TeamStrong, clearly focused leader Shared leadership rolesIndividual accountability Individual & mutual accountabilityPurpose is same as a Purpose is broader than whatorganizational mission, and from top, and accepted bypercolates from the top. team members, helping to focus on specific goal that team itself delivers.Productivity is largely as a result Productivity is largely due toof individuals in the group collective team efforts
Difference between Groups and TeamsGroups TeamsMeasure their effectiveness Measure performance directly by indirectly by their influence on assessing collective work output. others (e.g. financial performance of the business, promotions etc)Run efficient meetings Encourage open-ended discussions & active problem- solving meetings
Characteristics of aWell-Functioning, Effective Group Relaxed, comfortable, informal atmosphere Task well understood & accepted Members listen well & participate People express feelings & ideas
Characteristics of aWell-Functioning, Effective Group Conflict & disagreement center around ideas or methods Group aware of its operation & function Consensus decision making Clear assignments made & accepted
Four Stages of Group Developmentq Formingq Stormingq Normingq Performing
Stage 1 - Forming¡ Definition: Stage 1 teams are generally new teams that are learning how to work together¡ Characteristics of stage 1 teams: Members tend to be tentative and polite and to have little conflict¡ Critical skills and activities: Stage 1 teams need to identify their purpose, develop group norms, identify group processes, define roles, build relationships and trust¡ Role of facilitator/leader: Stage 1 teams usually need a strong leader who can help the team go through its forming activities
Stage 2- Storming¡ Definition: Stage 2 teams have moved past the early forming stages and are now encountering some disagreements and/or conflict. This is natural, but teams need to find effective ways to handle conflict before they can move on to stage 3.¡ Group characteristics: Members of stage 2 teams tend to exhibit increased conflict, less conformity and “jockeying” for power.¡ Critical skills and activities: Stage 2 teams need to learn how to resolve conflict; clarify their roles, power, and structure; and build consensus through re-visiting purpose¡ Role of leader(s): Stage 2 teams need leaders and other team members who are willing to identify issues and resolve conflict.
Stage 3 - Norming¡ Definition: Stage 3 teams have successfully moved out of the storming stage and are ready to move to a higher level of communication and problem-solving.¡ Group characteristics: Members of stage 3 teams demonstrate an improved ability to complete tasks, solve problems, resolve conflict.¡ Critical skills and activities: Stage 3 teams need to learn to engage in more sophisticated problem-solving and decision-making, continue the use of effective strategies for conflict resolution and take greater levels of responsibility for their roles¡ Role of leader(s): In stage 3, leaders become less directive, team members feel empowered, and multiple leaders emerge
Performing¡ Definition: Stage 4 teams are at the highest level of performance and can process their strengths and weaknesses while accomplishing their goals.¡ Group characteristics: In stage 4, the team takes a flexible approach to roles and structures depending on the task at hand. The team is able to evaluate its effectiveness and views conflict is viewed as an opportunity. Stage 4 teams tend to be energetic, creative, and fun!¡ Critical skills and activities: Stage 4 teams need to hold high expectations for their performance. They often use sub-groups as well as the large group for decision-making and task completion. Teams also recognize the need to ensure that all members are in agreement with the role and purpose of sub-groups.¡ Role of Leader: In a stage 4 team, itʼ’s often difficult to identify the leader, because everyone is sharing in leadership.
TYPES OF GROUP Formal GroupStanding Task Group Task Group
Standing Task / Command Group¡ The Standing Task group are formed by subordinates reporting directly to the particular manager and are determined by the formal organizational chart. E.g. an assistant regional transport officer and his two transport supervisors form a command group.
Task Group¡ The task groups are composed of people who work together to perform a task but involve a cross- command relationship. Its boundaries are not located within its immediate hierarchical superior. E.g. for finding out who was responsible for causing wrong medication order would require liaison between ward in charge, senior sisters and head nurse.
Types of group Informal Friendship Interest Reference
Interest Group¡ The interest group involves people who come together to accomplish a particular goal with which they are concerned .¡ Office employees joining hands to go to vacation or get vacation schedule changed form an interest group .
Friendship group¡ The friendship group are formed by people having one or more common features . The people coming from a same college ,martial status, political views or having same language to speak belong to a friendship group.
Reference Group§ Based of Interest & Friendship.§ Have in common race, gender, religion, social class, educational level, profession.
Types Of Team TeamsManagement Problem Work Team Virtual Team Team Solving Team
Theories of group formation§ Propinquity theory§ Social System theory§ Balanced theory§ Exchange Theory
Propinquity Theory¡ Most basic theory is of Propinquity which asserts that people tend to affiliate with other because of spatial or geographical closeness. People from the same area or city tend to be more bound to each other.
BALANCE THEORY OF GROUP FORMATION Individual X Individual Y Common Attitude & Values Religion Politics Lifestyle Work
Social System theory¡ The other theory of importance is Social System Theory given by Homans. The theory corporate the interrelatedness of elements of activities , interaction , sentiments and the people usually interact to solve problems, reduce tension , attain goals and achieve balance. The workers interacting in this way in organizational setting tends to form groups.
Exchange Theory¡ The Exchange theory is based on rewards and its cost . The interaction between members is taken as reward and if any relationship which is not rewarding may be costly enough to cause tensions.