Teacher Challenges   in 21st Century:Pedagogy, Standardized Testing      and Pay Checks                    Ora Kwo        ...
Tensions in our Education:                 Impact of     Standardized Testing
Education for All:       Education for What?Conversations with university students:“We have made it, until the nextcompeti...
UNESCO’s Delors Report,Learning: The Treasure Within            (1996)
But are these just high-sounding          aspirations?            What is the reality for             our young people?
What is the role of theexamination system?       What sorts of students          are we producing?
The shadow education   system of privatesupplementary tutoring
• 54% Grade 9     • 29% lower         • 12% primary      • 25% lower• 72% Grade 12      secondary         • 8% secondary  ...
In-your-face marketing
Hong Kong ‘Star’ Tutors“The Godfather of Science”“Brand-A Tutor”“Queen of English”
More subtle European approaches?
A Shadow Education SystemWhy a shadow?• Private tutoring only exists  because the mainstream  exists.• As the size and sha...
What sorts of     supplementary tutoring?one-to-onesmall groupslarge classesinternet
Who provides tutoring?• Teachers, on a supplementary basis after  school hours• University and secondary school  students•...
In the school sector:How many teachers are providingtutoring:• to their own pupils?• to pupils of other teachers in theirs...
What about the amateur tutors?• What do parents and families get  for their money?• How can the consumers recognise  quali...
Back to the Delors Report        (1996)
Different types have different        implications?
pressure onyoung people
corruption  If you agree to   If you agree to    take private     take privatetutoring lessons, tutoring lessons,sit down…...
Good luck Sherif,  Good luck Sherif,my son…please domy son…please doyour best…you’re your best…you’reobviously not blind o...
Does not necessarily increase student           achievement                               Look at the                     ...
Issues  Consumes household resourcesMay reduce stress on students, but may also increase itCan undermine as well as suppor...
Balance  between the positive & the negativeInquire into the causes before identifying the remedies…               Inadequ...
Vicious Cycle?(Chris Wong, HKU BEd LS Year 4)                    Socio-      University                  economic      adm...
Teacher Professionalism:Accountability & Autonomy Power & Responsibilities
EFA: “more training & better training!”But how well are systems co-ordinated? Where are the gaps between the desirable    ...
Conflicting Discourses (1)Quality of education for 21st century!  education reform as a worldwide phenomenon  expectatio...
Conflicting Discourses (2)Performance indicators!  scoring by students  scoring by teachersTyranny of measurement? (vs p...
Teacher Images?             Huberman & Guskey (1995)pedagogy & refresher training…passive, inadequate, disempowered?
Teachers’ Inner Powercoming from…self-understanding,whereas collective understanding ofinner power will advanceself-empowe...
Towards a Culture       for Learning Together• completed ‘thesis’      authenticity of inquiry• “brought together”      ...
Pedagogical Innovation                       Pedagogical                      Principles and                      Strategi...
Pedagogical Innovation as a   Collaborative Venture                          Pedagogical                         Principle...
Challenges to Academicsasymmetrical relationship betweenresearch and teaching•research and publication are keyed intorewar...
Scholarship ofScholarship of teaching and learning    Teaching & Learning (SoTL)(SoTL)  Boyer (1990):     problem of teach...
Making TeachingMaking ‘Community Property’        teaching ‘community property’• SoTL is not really finished until it has ...
Individual Inquiry Enhanced           in a SoTL Community                                          Personal               ...
Three Key Characteristics of SoTL•   It should be public,•   susceptible to critical review and    evaluation, and•   acce...
Relationships         Relationshipsinin the learning community   the Learning Community                    (Palmer, 1998, ...
Critical Questions on UnityA critical questionLearning is never void of values…   What is this ‘subject’ in the centre?   ...
Diversity asEnrichingHKU Vision Learning         Resources for     How are our core values actualized              in a di...
Voices of Reconnections       HKU VisionTeacher learning is about the processesof teachers’ engagement to takechallenges a...
Methodology Unity from Diversity:    Seeking      a Process of Joint Inquiry  •   narrative inquiry as a tool for SoTL    ...
Policy Implication (1)Empowerment in dialogues:Through actualization of teachers’voices amidst internal / externaldialogue...
Policy Implication (2)A collective moral drive:  in unity  with respect of diversity
Policy Implication (3)Learning to live together:  conflicts  inquiry / research  understanding  conflict-resolution
Policy Implication (4)Learning to be…  as a sustainable process of  identity renewal  as a process of relationship-  build...
Leadership as a Moral Quest                 (Kwo 2010)  Learning to be is like a timeless goal  for moral development in h...
Perspectivesfrom Comparative Studies         Kwo, Ora (Ed) (2010). Teachers as         Learners: Critical Discourse on    ...
Thank you -          Thank you -let’s pursue this timeless goal!let’s pursue this timeless goal!     Comparative Education...
REFERENCESBoyer, E. (1990). Scholarship reconsidered: Priorities for the professoriate.Princeton, NJ: Carnegie Foundation ...
Huber, M. T. & Hutchings, P. (2005). The advancement of learning: Building theteaching commons. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass...
AcknowledgementThis presentation has benefitted from:(1) photographs & data used in the    inaugural speech of Mark Bray f...
Connectivity:Challenges for the 21 st              Century
Iron Cage?Aspirations for   liberation of human resources…Challenges as  inertia?  vested interest?  ???
Identify and re-visit…Principles underpinning accountability    systems?Impact?Gaps between aspirations and reality?
LegitimacyLegitimacy is a generalized perception or   assumption that the actions of an entity   are desirable, proper, or...
LegitimacyLegitimacy is also treated as an intangible   resource conferred by both internal and   external stakeholders.Th...
A Flourishing Life
Thailand policy forum.conclusion
Thailand policy forum.conclusion
Thailand policy forum.conclusion
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Thailand policy forum.conclusion

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Thailand policy forum.conclusion

  1. 1. Teacher Challenges in 21st Century:Pedagogy, Standardized Testing and Pay Checks Ora Kwo The University of Hong Kong 1
  2. 2. Tensions in our Education: Impact of Standardized Testing
  3. 3. Education for All: Education for What?Conversations with university students:“We have made it, until the nextcompetition!” The drive in schooling? Competition Competition Competition
  4. 4. UNESCO’s Delors Report,Learning: The Treasure Within (1996)
  5. 5. But are these just high-sounding aspirations? What is the reality for our young people?
  6. 6. What is the role of theexamination system? What sorts of students are we producing?
  7. 7. The shadow education system of privatesupplementary tutoring
  8. 8. • 54% Grade 9 • 29% lower • 12% primary • 25% lower• 72% Grade 12 secondary • 8% secondary secondary • 33% upper secondaryHong ChinaKong (Mainland) UK France• West Bengal, • 16% Primary 1; • 88% elementary 57% primary • 65% Secondary 3 • 72% middle• Kerala, • 60% high 72% secondaryIndia Japan Korea
  9. 9. In-your-face marketing
  10. 10. Hong Kong ‘Star’ Tutors“The Godfather of Science”“Brand-A Tutor”“Queen of English”
  11. 11. More subtle European approaches?
  12. 12. A Shadow Education SystemWhy a shadow?• Private tutoring only exists because the mainstream exists.• As the size and shape of the mainstream changes, so does that of the shadow.
  13. 13. What sorts of supplementary tutoring?one-to-onesmall groupslarge classesinternet
  14. 14. Who provides tutoring?• Teachers, on a supplementary basis after school hours• University and secondary school students• Professional tutors, working as individuals or for companies
  15. 15. In the school sector:How many teachers are providingtutoring:• to their own pupils?• to pupils of other teachers in theirschools?• to pupils from other schools?And with what implications?
  16. 16. What about the amateur tutors?• What do parents and families get for their money?• How can the consumers recognise quality?• And what are the risks?
  17. 17. Back to the Delors Report (1996)
  18. 18. Different types have different implications?
  19. 19. pressure onyoung people
  20. 20. corruption If you agree to If you agree to take private take privatetutoring lessons, tutoring lessons,sit down…if you sit down…if you don’t, show me don’t, show me your palms!!! your palms!!!
  21. 21. Good luck Sherif, Good luck Sherif,my son…please domy son…please doyour best…you’re your best…you’reobviously not blind obviously not blindto the effects your to the effects your private tutoring private tutoringlessons have had lessons have had on our family on our family
  22. 22. Does not necessarily increase student achievement Look at the Look at the consequence consequence of your private of your private tutoring tutoring lessons!!! lessons!!!
  23. 23. Issues Consumes household resourcesMay reduce stress on students, but may also increase itCan undermine as well as support the school teachers Inadequate indicators of quality Exacerbates social inequalities
  24. 24. Balance between the positive & the negativeInquire into the causes before identifying the remedies… Inadequacies in schools? Social competition?
  25. 25. Vicious Cycle?(Chris Wong, HKU BEd LS Year 4) Socio- University economic admission inequalities The Crisis
  26. 26. Teacher Professionalism:Accountability & Autonomy Power & Responsibilities
  27. 27. EFA: “more training & better training!”But how well are systems co-ordinated? Where are the gaps between the desirable and the routines in practice? And balance between supervision and teachers’ autonomy? Human relationships in the systems?
  28. 28. Conflicting Discourses (1)Quality of education for 21st century!  education reform as a worldwide phenomenon  expectation of ‘critical thinking’ & ‘moral responsibilities’What about modelling from the adult world?
  29. 29. Conflicting Discourses (2)Performance indicators!  scoring by students  scoring by teachersTyranny of measurement? (vs policy development)Validity of measuring instruments?What principles are being carried? Impact?
  30. 30. Teacher Images? Huberman & Guskey (1995)pedagogy & refresher training…passive, inadequate, disempowered?
  31. 31. Teachers’ Inner Powercoming from…self-understanding,whereas collective understanding ofinner power will advanceself-empowerment as a profession.
  32. 32. Towards a Culture for Learning Together• completed ‘thesis’  authenticity of inquiry• “brought together”  converging, driven by… values• disciplinary expertise  inter-disciplinary quest
  33. 33. Pedagogical Innovation Pedagogical Principles and Strategies (I) Values / Beliefs Pedagogical Pedagogical Principles and Principles and Strategies (III) Strategies (II)
  34. 34. Pedagogical Innovation as a Collaborative Venture Pedagogical Principles and Strategies (I) Values / Beliefs Pedagogical Pedagogical Principles and Principles and Strategies (III) Strategies (II) Collegiality and Peer Support for Paradigm Shift
  35. 35. Challenges to Academicsasymmetrical relationship betweenresearch and teaching•research and publication are keyed intoreward incentives for promotion and salaryincrease (Nicholls, 2005:29)•research and teaching are in competitionfor time, resources and space (Brew 2007:1)
  36. 36. Scholarship ofScholarship of teaching and learning Teaching & Learning (SoTL)(SoTL) Boyer (1990): problem of teaching and learning as absence of inquiry  incorporate teaching into scholarship as scholarship of teaching and learning (SoTL) 39
  37. 37. Making TeachingMaking ‘Community Property’ teaching ‘community property’• SoTL is not really finished until it has been captured in ways that others can see and examine. (Huber and Hutchings 2005:26)• SoTL is moving teaching from a mostly private enterprise to a place where teaching can be documented, shared, and built upon as ‘community property’. (Shulman, 1993: 7)
  38. 38. Individual Inquiry Enhanced in a SoTL Community Personal Other Literature reflection Influences… reading Personalexperience collaborative inquiry interwoven with individual inquiry Individual Individual inquiry inquiry Individual Individual developing teacher inquiry inquiry knowledge: personal practical knowledge (PPK) 41
  39. 39. Three Key Characteristics of SoTL• It should be public,• susceptible to critical review and evaluation, and• accessible for exchange and use by other members of one’s scholarly community. (Shulman, 1998)
  40. 40. Relationships Relationshipsinin the learning community the Learning Community (Palmer, 1998, p.102)
  41. 41. Critical Questions on UnityA critical questionLearning is never void of values… What is this ‘subject’ in the centre? For what are colleagues convergent – what do we care most beyond the individual space? What core values are being actualized when we learn together?
  42. 42. Diversity asEnrichingHKU Vision Learning Resources for How are our core values actualized in a diversity of: contexts of practice perspectives & foci levels of articulation receptivity in listening experiences & maturity ????
  43. 43. Voices of Reconnections HKU VisionTeacher learning is about the processesof teachers’ engagement to takechallenges as opportunities for learning,with thoughtful reconnections within theirinner worlds to address thedisequilibrium raised by the challenges. (Kwo 2010, p.325)
  44. 44. Methodology Unity from Diversity: Seeking a Process of Joint Inquiry • narrative inquiry as a tool for SoTL (refer to handout) • self-study & social action (Pithouse,, Mitchell & Moletsane 2009). 47
  45. 45. Policy Implication (1)Empowerment in dialogues:Through actualization of teachers’voices amidst internal / externaldialogues, learning is empoweredas recognised struggles.
  46. 46. Policy Implication (2)A collective moral drive: in unity with respect of diversity
  47. 47. Policy Implication (3)Learning to live together: conflicts inquiry / research understanding conflict-resolution
  48. 48. Policy Implication (4)Learning to be… as a sustainable process of identity renewal as a process of relationship- building for sharing responsibilities
  49. 49. Leadership as a Moral Quest (Kwo 2010) Learning to be is like a timeless goal for moral development in humanity, which is articulated, re-visited and reinforced in the hearts of the committed educators whose persistent moral choices for learning demonstrate a form of living… bring together educators across generations and cultural traditions.
  50. 50. Perspectivesfrom Comparative Studies Kwo, Ora (Ed) (2010). Teachers as Learners: Critical Discourse on Challenges and Opportunities. Hong Kong and Dordrecht: Springer. 349 pp. This book can be ordered from: cerc@hku.hk Website: www.hku.hk/cerc/Publications
  51. 51. Thank you - Thank you -let’s pursue this timeless goal!let’s pursue this timeless goal! Comparative Education Research Centre Faculty of Education University of Hong Kong wykwo@hku.hk
  52. 52. REFERENCESBoyer, E. (1990). Scholarship reconsidered: Priorities for the professoriate.Princeton, NJ: Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching, Universityof Princeton.Brew, A. (2006). Research and teaching : Beyond the divide. Houndmills,Basingstoke, Hampshire ; New York: Palgrave Macmillan.Connelly, F. M., & Clandinin, D. J. (1988). Teachers as curriculum planner:narrative of experience. New York: Teachers College Press.Connelly, F. M., Clandinin, D. J., & He, M. F. (1997). Teachers personalpractical knowledge on the professional knowledge landscape. Teaching andTeacher Education, 13(7), 665-674.Huberman, M. & Guskey, T. (1995), The diversities of professionaldevelopment, in T. Guskey & M. Huberman (Eds.), Professional development ineducation: New paradigms and practice. New York: Teachers college Press.269-272.
  53. 53. Huber, M. T. & Hutchings, P. (2005). The advancement of learning: Building theteaching commons. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Kwo, O. (2010). Teachers as learners: A moral commitment. In O. Kwo (Ed.),Teachers as learners: Critical discourse on challenges and opportunities. HongKong: Springer.Nicholls, G. (2005). The challenge to scholarship: Rethinking learning, teachingand research. New York: Routledge.Palmer, Parker J. (2009). The courage to teach: exploring the inner landscapeof a teacher’s life. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Pithouse, K., Mitchell, C. & Moletsane, R. (2009). Making connections: Self-study & social action. New York: Peter Lang.Shulman, L. (1993). Teaching as community property: Putting an end topedagogical solitude. Change, 25(6), 6-7.Shulman, L. (1998). The Course Portfolio. Washington, DC: AmericanAssociation for Higher Education.
  54. 54. AcknowledgementThis presentation has benefitted from:(1) photographs & data used in the inaugural speech of Mark Bray for the launch of UNESCO Chair at University of Hong Kong, 18 May 2012; and(2) references compiled by a doctoral student Yang Weijia, University of Hong Kong.
  55. 55. Connectivity:Challenges for the 21 st Century
  56. 56. Iron Cage?Aspirations for liberation of human resources…Challenges as inertia? vested interest? ???
  57. 57. Identify and re-visit…Principles underpinning accountability systems?Impact?Gaps between aspirations and reality?
  58. 58. LegitimacyLegitimacy is a generalized perception or assumption that the actions of an entity are desirable, proper, or appropriate within some socially constructed system of norms, values, beliefs, and definitions. (Suchman, 1995, p.574)Suchman, M. C. (1995). Managing Legitimacy: Strategic and Institutional Approaches. The Academy of Management Review, 20(3), pp. 571-610
  59. 59. LegitimacyLegitimacy is also treated as an intangible resource conferred by both internal and external stakeholders.Therefore, the link between organizational legitimacy and accountability is that the recognition from key stakeholders certainly increases one organization’s accountability.
  60. 60. A Flourishing Life
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