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Introduction of C++ By Pawan Thakur

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C++ is an object-oriented programming language. It was developed by Bjarne Stroustrup …

C++ is an object-oriented programming language. It was developed by Bjarne Stroustrup
at AT and T Bell Laboratories USA, in the early 1980’s. Stroustrup, an admirer of
Simula67 and a strong supporter of C wanted to combine the best of both the languages
and create a more powerful language that could support object-oriented programming
features and still retain the power and elegance of C. The result was C++

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  • 1. INTRODUCTION OF C++, DATA TYPES AND OPERATORS 5-1 LEARNING OBJECTIVES At the end of this chapter you will be able to understand : Introduction and Feature of C++ Character and Token Precedence and Associativity Program Structure Data Types and Operators Variables and Their Scope Expressions 5.1. INTRODUCTION OF C++ C++ is an object-oriented programming language. It was developed by Bjarne Stroustrup at AT and T Bell Laboratories USA, in the early 1980’s. Stroustrup, an admirer of Simula67 and a strong supporter of C wanted to combine the best of both the languages and create a more powerful language that could support object-oriented programming features and still retain the power and elegance of C. The result was C++. L C++ is an object-oriented computer language used in the development of enterprise and commercial applications. 5.1.1. Feature of C++. C++ is a superset of the ‘C’ programming language. It contain following feature : 1. Object-oriented. The object-oriented features in C++ allow programmers to build large programs with clarity, extensibility and ease of maintenance incorporating the spirit and efficiency of C. The most important facilities that C++ adds on to C are classes, inheritance, function overloading and operator overloading. 2. Classes. C++ support the concept of classes. A class is a user defined type. Classes provide data hiding, initialization of data, dynamic typing, user controlled memory
  • 2. 5-2 INTRODUCTION OF C++, DATA TYPES AND OPERATORS management. Classes extend the built-in capabilities of C++ able you in representing and solving complex, real-world problems. A class is an organization of data and functions which operate on them. Data structures are called data members and the functions are called member functions, the combination of data members and member functions constitute a data object or simply an object. 3. Data Abstractions. In C++, classes use the concepts of abstraction and are define as a list of abstract attributes such as size, height, width, cost and methods that operate on these attributes. 4. Inheritance. The mechanism of deriving a new class form a base class is called inheritance. C++ support the feature of inheritance. It is the capability of one of the thing to inherit capabilities or properties from another class. 5. Polymorphism. Polymorphism is one of the C++ polymorphism is the concept that supports the capability of an object of class to behave differently in response to a message action. 6. Portability. C++ and its standard libraries are designed for portability. The current implementation will run on most systems that support C. C libraries can be used from a C++ program, and most tools that support programming in C can be used with C++. 7. Versatile. C++ is a versatile language for handling very large programs. It is suitable for virtually any programming task including development of editors, compilers, databases, communication systems and any complex real-life application systems. 5.2. CHARACTER SET C++ programs are a collection of character set, keywords, identifiers, literals, operators and white space etc. L Character set is valid set of characters. A character set represent any letter, digit or any other sign. C++ has the following character set: Letter A-Z and a-z. Digits 0 to 9. Special Symbols +,-,/,,(),{},[],=,!=<,>,"",;,&,$,?,-<=,>=,% etc and other characters. White space characters Space, horizontal, vertical, tab, newline 5.3. TOKEN In a passage of text, individual words and punctuation marks are called token or lexical elements. L The smallest individual unit of a C++ program is known as a token or a lexical unit.
  • 3. INTRODUCTION OF C++, DATA TYPES AND 5-3 OPERATORS C++ has following token: 1. Keywords. 2. Identifier. 3. Literals. 4. Separators. 5. Operators. 1. Keywords. In C++, Keywords are the reserved word that have special meaning to the language compiler. We cannot use any of the following as identifiers in your programs. L Keywords are the reserved word that have special to the language compiler they cannot use as identifiers in your program. The C++ programming contain following keywords as shown in Table 5.1: Table 5.1 C++ Keywords asm auto bad_cast bad_typeid bool break case catch char class const const_cast continue default delete do double dynamic_cast else enum except explicit extern false finally float for friend goto if inline int long mutable namespace new operator private protected public register reinterpret_cast return short signed sizeof static static_cast unsigned struct switch template this throw true try type_info typedef typeid typename union unsigned using virtual void volatile wchar_t while 2. Identifiers. An identifier may be in any sequence of uppercase and lowercase letters, numbers or underscore. • They must not begin with number. • C++ is case sensitive programming language, so A is different identifier then a.
  • 4. 5-4 INTRODUCTION OF C++, DATA TYPES L AND OPERATORS Identifiers are used to represents the names of classes, functions and variables constant, etc. in C++. Some of the example of identifier is as following: IndiaCon number value4 $my this_is_val Not/right this is my var Invalid identifier names include: 2Val number-val 3. Constant. A constant value in C++ is created by using a literal. L Constants are data items that never change the value during the execution of program. C++ allows several kinds of literals: Integer Constant: 1000, 45, 32, 34, -12, -45. Character Constant: ‘x’, ‘a’, ‘v’, ‘p’ Floating Constant: 99.8, String Constant: “Hello C++”,“GGGC Bhopal” Escape Sequences Constant: An escape can be included in double-quotes as “n”, or as part of a string. 67.567, 456.78, -908.98, 987.23 4. Separators. In C++ there are some characters that are used as separators. For Example, one of the most important separators in C++ is parentheses, which is used to contain the list of parameters in functions definition and method invocation. The table 5.2 shown the different separators name, symbol used, and their use in C++ technology. Table 5.2 Separators in C++ Symbol Separator Name Descriptions ; Semi-colon Used to terminates the C++ Statements. () Parentheses Represent properties of function parameters. {} Braces Used to define a block of code for classes, functions, and scopes. [] Bracket Used to declare array types. , Comma Used for the separation of identifier in C++. . Dot Used to separate package name form sub packages name and classes. = Equal to sign. Used for variable initializations.
  • 5. INTRODUCTION OF C++, DATA TYPES AND 5-5 OPERATORS 5. Operators. Operators are special symbols that perform mathematical or logical operations on one, two, or three operands, and then return a result. For example : +, –, *, ÷ etc. 5.4. PRECEDENCE AND ASSOCIATIVITY Precedence and Associativity Rules together determine in what order the variables are evaluated in an expression. The Table 5.3 describes Precedence and Associativity rules of variable. Table 5.3 Precedence and Associativity rules for variables Operator Type Operators Postfix Operators x++, x-- Unary prefix operators Associativity Unary postfix increment and decrement operators associate left to right, other unary operators associate right to left ++x ,--x ,+x ,-x ~ ,! Right to left *, / ,% Left to right + ,- Left to right Shift << ,>> Left to right Equality = =, != Left to right Bitwise/Logical AND & Left to right Bitwise/Logical XOR ^ Left to right Bitwise/Logical OR | Left to right && Left to right Conditional OR || Left to right Conditional ?: Right to left Assignment = ,+= ,-=, *= ,/= ,%= , <<= ,>>=, &= ,^= |= Right to left Multiplicative Additive Conditional AND
  • 6. 5-6 INTRODUCTION OF C++, DATA TYPES AND OPERATORS 5.5. PROGRAM STRUCTURE In C++, the structure of program looks like this: // This Program is Written By Pawan Thakur // comment section #include<iostream.h> #include<conio.h> // preprocessor directives void main () // Main function { clrscr(); cout<<"Hello, world."<<endl; // body of Main function getch(); } // End of Main function Output: Hello, world. 1. Comment section. The programmer can use comment section for short explanations of the source code itself or other comment. In above program the comment section display the following comment: // This Program is Written By Pawan Thakur // comment section 2. Preprocessor directive. Lines beginning with a hash sign (#) are directives for the preprocessor. They are not regular code lines with expressions but indications for the compiler's preprocessor. For Ex. #include<iostream.h> In this case the first directive #include <iostream.h> tells the preprocessor to include the iostream.h standard file. 3. Main function definition. The main function is the point by where all C++ programs start their execution, independently of its location within the source code. It is essential that all C++ programs have a main function. void main() { ------------------} body of main This line corresponds to the beginning of the definition of the main function. The word main is followed in the code by a pair of parentheses (). That is because it is a function. 4. Body of main. It contains the set of statements. A statement is a simple or compound expression that can actually produce some effect. C++ uses curly-braces {} to group things together. cout represents the standard output stream in C++, and the meaning of the entire statement is to insert a sequence of characters into the standard output stream.
  • 7. INTRODUCTION OF C++, DATA TYPES AND OPERATORS 5-7 cout<<"Hello, world."<<endl; In this case, Hello World is the sequence of characters which display on screen. The statement ends with a semicolon character (;). This character is used to mark the end of the statement and in fact it must be included at the end of all expression statements in all C++ programs. 5.6. DATA TYPES There are five basic data type in C++: char, int, float, double and void. All other data type in C++ is based upon on of these basic data types. Such data types are called derived data types. L Data type specifies the size and type of values that can stored in computer memory. C++ support flowing data types : 1. Basic data type. 2. User defined data type. 3. Derived data type. Data types in C++ under various categories are shown in Fig. 5.1 Fig. 5.1. Data Type in C++.
  • 8. 5-8 INTRODUCTION OF C++, DATA TYPES AND OPERATORS 5.6.1. Basic data type Basic data types are also called fundamental or built in data type. The built data types in C++ are categorized in to numeric and non-numeric. In further, numeric data type are of two types: 1. Integer Type 2. Floating - Point 1. Integer Types. C++ supports the integer data type as they are short, int and long. (a) Short Integers. The smallest integer you can store in a word is declared with the short keyword followed by a name. Because a short integer is signed by default, it can store a value that ranges from -32768 to 32767. The program 5.1 displays the example short integer. Program 5.1. Example of Short Integer Data Type #include <iostream.h> #include<conio.h> void main() { clrscr(); short number1, number2; cout << "Enter a number between -32768 and 32767: "; cin >> number1; cout << "Enter another number: "; cin >> number2; cout << "nThe numbers you entered weren"; cout << "tNumber 1: " << number1 << "n"; cout << "tNumber 2: " << number2 << "n"; getch(); } Output: (b) Integers. In C++, an integer is variable whose values are between 2,147,483,648 and 2,147,484,647. The value is also said to fit in a 32-bit range. The program 5.2 displays the example integer data type.
  • 9. INTRODUCTION OF C++, DATA TYPES AND OPERATORS 5-9 Program 5.2. Example of Integer Data Type #include <iostream.h> #include<conio.h> void main() { clrscr(); int coordX, coordY, coordZ; cout << "Enter the coordinates of point An"; cout << "Horizontal X = "; cin >> coordX; cout << "Vertical Y = "; cin >> coordY; cout << "Depth Z = "; cin >> coordZ; cout << "nOn a cartesian system, point A is located at"; cout << "ntX = " << coordX; cout << "ntY = " << coordY; cout << "ntZ = " << coordZ; getch(); } Output-: (c) Long Integers. An integer variable whose value should be positive can also be declared with the long keyword. The long keyword is a positive 32-bit integer whose value ranges from 0 to 4,294,967,295. The program 5.3 displays the example integer data type. Program 5.3. Example of Long Integer Data Type #include <iostream.h> #include<conio.h> void main() { clrscr(); long UArea; unsigned long Population; cout << "What is the area of the U? "; cin >> UArea; cout << "What is the population of the U? "; cin >> Population; cout << "nCharacteristics of the U";
  • 10. 5-10 INTRODUCTION OF C++, DATA TYPES AND OPERATORS cout << "ntArea = " << UArea<< "ntPopulation = " << Population; getch(); } Output-: 2. Floating - Point. The integers we have used so far have the main limitation of not allowing decimal values. C++ provides floating identifier values that would solve this problem. Floating point is another type of integer, used to hold numbers containing decimal parts such as 34.456 and -12.780, 15.89 etc. Float and Double are two types of floating point variables in C++. (a) Float. The most fundamental floating variable is declared with the float keyword. The value typically fits in 32 bits (4 bytes). To declare a variable that would hold decimal values we can use the float data type. The program 5.4 displays the example of float data type. Program 5.4. Example of Float Data Type #include<iostream.h> #include<conio.h> void main() { clrscr(); float side, perimeter, area; cout<<"Enter the side of the square: "; cin>>side; perimeter = side * 4; area = side * side; cout<<"Characteristics of the square:"; cout<<"nSide: "<<side; cout<<"nPerimeter: "<<perimeter; cout<<"nArea: "<<area; getch(); }
  • 11. INTRODUCTION OF C++, DATA TYPES AND OPERATORS 5-11 Output-: (b) Double. When a variable is larger than the float we can use double identifier. The double-precision identifier is an 8 Byte. The program 5.5 displays the example of double data type. Program 5.5. Example of Double Data Type #include<iostream.h> #include<conio.h> void main() { clrscr(); double side, perimeter, area; cout<<"Enter the side of the square: "; cin>>side; perimeter = side * 4; area = side * side; cout<<"Characteristics of the square:"; cout<<"nSide: "<<side; cout<<"nPerimeter: "<<perimeter; cout<<"nArea: "<<area; getch(); } Output : 3. Void. The void was introduce in ANSI C. It is use to specify the return type of function when it is not returning any value and indicate and empty argument list to a function. For example : void getsum (void) ; 5.6.2. Non-numeric data types Non-numeric data types are of two kinds:
  • 12. 5-12 INTRODUCTION OF C++, DATA TYPES AND OPERATORS (a) Character Type. C++ provide char data type, which is used to store character value in computer memory. If the character is of a signed category we declare it as a signed character. This type of variable would be an 8-bit integer whose value can range from – 128 to + 127. The program 5.6 displays the example char data type. Program 5.6. Char Data Type #include<iostream.h> #include<conio.h> void main() { char Satisfaction, Answer; signed char AgeCategory, size; cout<<"From A to Z, enter a char : "; cin>>Satisfaction; cout<<"Age category(t=teen/a=Adult/s=Senior): "; cin>>ageCategory; cout<<"Are you drunk(y=Yes/n=No)? "; cin>>answer; cout<<"Enter your size(s=Small/m=Medium/l=Large): "; cin>>size; cout<<"nSatisfaction: "<<Satisfaction; cout<<"nAge category: "<<AgeCategory; cout<<"nYour answer: "<<Answer; cout<<"nYour size: "<<Size; getch(); } Output-: (b) Boolean Type. In C++, Boolean data type is used for logical values. It can have only one value of two possible values, true or false. The program 5.7 displays the example of boolean data type. Program 5.7. Boolean Data Type #include<iostream.h> #include<conio.h> void main() { clrscr();
  • 13. INTRODUCTION OF C++, DATA TYPES AND OPERATORS 5-13 bool MachineIsWorking = true; cout<<"Since this machine is working, its value is" <<MachineIsWorking<<endl; MachineIsWorking = false; cout<<"The machine has stopped operating." <<"Now its value is "<<MachineIsWorking<<endl; getch(); } 5.6.3. User define data type. User defined data type are those data type which is defined by user. C++ support following user defined data type : (a) Class. A class is user define data type, a C++ program can have definition of different classes. A class contains variables and functions. Variables are called instances and functions are called method. Class is a template, which declare and define methods that are called by the objects of the classes. (b) Structure. A structure is a collection of different types of variables works under one name, providing a convenient means of keeping related information. For example a student record is a collection of rollno, name, class, marks, grade etc. (c) Union. A union is a memory location that is shared by two or more different variables at different times. (d) Enumeration. An alternative method for naming integer constants is often convenient then constant. This can be achieved by creating enumeration using keyword enum. For example, enum{Start, Pause, Play}. 5.6.4. Derived data type. From the built in data types other data type can be derived by using the declaration operations. C++ support following non-primitive derived data type: (a) Arrays. An array is a derived data type. It is a container object that holds a fixed number of values of a single type. (b) Function. Function is a derived data type. The brief introduction of function is in 6 chapter. (c) Pointer. Pointer is special type of variable which hold the address of another variable. 5.7. VARIABLES A variable is a place to store information. A variable is a location in your computer’s memory in which you can store a value and from which you can later retrieve that value. L Variable represents named storage locations, whose value can be manipulated during the execution of program. There are some rules for variables declaration in C++. The name of a variable: (a) They starts with an underscore "_" or a letter, lowercase or uppercase, such as a letter from a to z or from A to Z. Examples are Name, gender, _Students, pRice.
  • 14. 5-14 INTRODUCTION OF C++, DATA TYPES AND OPERATORS (b) They can include letters, underscore, or digits. Examples are: keyboard, Master, Junction, Player1, total_grade, _Score_Side1. (c) They can not include special characters such as !, %, ] or $. (d) They can not include an empty space. (e) They can not be any of the reserved words. The syntax to declare a new variable is to write the specified of the desired data type (like int, bool, float.) followed by a valid variable identifier. For example: int a; float mynumber; These are two valid declarations of variables. The first one declares a variable of type int with the identifier a. The second one declares a variable of type float with the identifier mynumber. Once declared, the variables a and mynumber can be used within their scope in the program. The program 5.8 displays the example of variables. Program 5.8. Example of variables #include<iostream.h> #include<conio.h> void main() { clrscr(); int a, b; int result; a = 5; b = 2; a = a + 1; result = a - b; cout<<result; getch(); } 5.7.1. Scope of variables All the variables that we want to use in a program must have been declared with its type specifier. We have declared that a, b, and result were of type int, in the previous code at the beginning of the body of the main(). A variable can be either of global or local scope. (a) Global variable. A global variable is a variable declared in the main body of the source code, outside all functions. Global variables can be used anywhere in the code, after its declaration. (b) Local variable. A local variable is one declared within the body of a function or a block. The scope of local variables is limited to the block enclosed in braces {} where
  • 15. INTRODUCTION OF C++, DATA TYPES AND OPERATORS 5-15 they are declared. For example, if they are declared at the beginning of the body of a function their scope is between its declaration point and the end of that function. The Fig. 5.2 displays the scope of local and global variables. Fig. 5.2. Scopes of Variables. 5.8. OPERATORS IN C++ C++ provides rich collections of operator. The operations being carried out on data are represented by operators. L Operators are special symbols that perform mathematical or logical operations on one, two, or three operands, and then return a result. Let us discuss these operators in details. 1. Arithmetic operators ( +, -, *, /, % ). The five arithmetical operations are supported by the C++ language, as shown in table 5.4. Table 5.4 Arithmetic operators Operator Descriptions + addition or unary plus - subtraction or unary minus * multiplication / division % modulus or module division The operations of addition, subtraction, multiplication and division are done by the mathematical operators.
  • 16. 5-16 INTRODUCTION OF C++, DATA TYPES AND OPERATORS 2. Relational operators and equality. The equality and relational operators are used if one operand is greater than, less than, equal to or not equal to another operand. The Table 5.5 describes the equality and relational operators and their descriptions. Table5.3 Equality and Relational operators Operator Descriptions == Equal to != Not equal to > Greater than >= Greater than or equal to < Less than <= Less than or equal to The program 5.9 displays the example of relational operators. Program 5.9. Example of relational operator #include<iostream.h> #include<conio.h> void main() { clrscr(); int a=10, b=3; if(a>b) cout<<"A is Greater"; getch(); } Note: Keep in mind that you must use "==", not "=", when testing if two primitive values are equal. 3. Assignment operator (=). The assignment operator assigns a value to a variable. For Example: a = 5; This statement assigns the integer value 5 to the variable a. The program 5.10 displays the example of assignment operator. Program 5.10. Example of assignment operator #include<iostream.h> #include<conio.h> void main() { clrscr(); int a, b;
  • 17. INTRODUCTION OF C++, DATA TYPES AND 5-17 OPERATORS a = 10; b = 4; a = b; b = 7; cout<<"a:"; cout<<a; cout<<" b:"; cout<<b; getch(); } 4. Increment and decrement operator (++, --). In C++, the increase operator (++) and the decrease operator (--) used to increase or reduce by one the value stored in a variable. They are equivalent to +=1 and to -=1, respectively. Thus: c++; c+=1; c=c+1; The above three statements are all equivalent in its functionality increase by one the value of c. A characteristic of this operator is that it can be used both as a prefix and as a suffix. That means that it can be written either before the variable identifier (++a) or after it (a++). Although in simple expressions like a++ or ++a both have exactly the same meaning. But other expressions in which the result of the increase or decrease operation is evaluated as a value in an outer expression they may have an important difference in their meaning: Notice the difference in table 5.6: Table 5.6 Increase and decrease operator Example 1 Example 2 B=3; A=++B; // A contain 4, B contain 4 B=3; A=B++; // A contain 3, B contain 4 In above table Example 1, B is increased before its value is copied to A. While in Example 2, the value of B is copied to A and then B is increased. 5. Logical operators ( !, &&, || ). The && (AND), || (OR) and | (NOT) operators perform Conditional-AND, Conditional-OR and Conditional-NOT operations on two Boolean expressions. For example: ((5 = = 5)&&(3 > 6))//evaluates to false (true && false) ((5 = = 5)||(3 > 6))//evaluates to true (true || false)
  • 18. 5-18 INTRODUCTION OF C++, DATA TYPES AND OPERATORS 6. Conditional operator (? :). The conditional operator evaluates an expression returning a value if that expression is true and a different one if the expression is evaluated as false. Its format is: condition ? result1 : result2 If condition is true, the expression will return result1, if it is not true it will return result2. The program 5.11 displays the example of conditional operators. Program 5.11. Example of conditional operators #include<iostream.h> #include<conio.h> void main () { clrscr(); int a,b,c; a=2; b=7; c = (a>b) ? a : b; cout << c; getch(); } In this example a is 2 and b is 7, the expression being evaluated (a>b) was not true, thus the first value specified after the question mark was discarded in favor of the second value (the one after the colon) which was b, with a value of 7. 7. Compound assignment (+=, -=, *=, /=, %=, >>=, <<=, &=,^=, |=). When we want to modify the value of a variable by performing an operation on the value currently stored in that variable we can use compound assignment. The program 5.12 displays the example of assignment operator. Program 5.12. Example of compound assignment operator #include<iostream.h> #include<conio.h> void main() { clrscr(); int a, b=3; a = b; a+=2; // equivalent to a=a+2 cout<<a; getch(); } 8. Bitwise operators ( &, |, ^, ~, <<, >> ). Bitwise operators modify variables considering the bit patterns that represent the values they store as shown in Table 5.7.
  • 19. INTRODUCTION OF C++, DATA TYPES AND 5-19 OPERATORS Table 5.7. Bitwise Operators Operator Equivalent Description & AND Bitwise AND | OR Bitwise Inclusive OR ^ XOR Bitwise Exclusive OR ~ NOT Unary Complement << SHL Shift Left >> SHR Shift Right 9. The size of() operator. This operator accepts one parameter, which can be either a type or a variable itself and returns the size in bytes of that type or object: a = sizeof(char); This will assign the value 1 to a because char is a one-byte long type. The value returned by sizeof is a constant, so it is always determined before program execution. 5.9. EXPRESSIONS IN C++ In C++, anything that evaluates to a value is an expression. An expression is said to return a value. Thus, 3 + 3 returns the value 6 and so is an expression. All expressions are statements. L An expression in C++ is any valid combination of operators, constant and variables. A example of expression in C++: x = a + b; This is an expression not only adds a and b but also assigns the result to x and returns the value of that assignment (the value of x) as well. y = x = a + b; This line is evaluated in the following order: Add a to b. Assign the result of the expression a + b to x. Assign the result of the assignment expression x = a + b to y. If a, b, x, and y are all integers, and if a has the value 2 and b has the value 5, both x and y will be assigned the value 7. The program 5.12 displays the example of expressions.
  • 20. 5-20 INTRODUCTION OF C++, DATA TYPES AND OPERATORS Program 5.13. Example of Expressions #include<iostream.h> #include<conio.h> void main() { clrscr(); int a=0, b=0, x=0, y=35; cout<<"a: "<<a<<" b: "<<b; cout<<" x: "<<x<<" y: "<<y<< endl; a = 9; b = 7; y = x = a+b; cout<<"a: "<<a<<" b: "<<b; cout<<" x: "<<x<<" y: "<<y<< endl; getch(); } POINTS TO REMEMBER (i) C++ is not a pure object oriented language. (ii) Pure object oriented language purely deals with classes objects which means you can not write even very simple program without using a class. If you want to display “Hellow World” you have to write this with in class. (iii) Java is pure object oriented language. (iv) If you want to convert one data type to another data type you have to use type cast. (v) The small individual unit of C++ program is known as a token. (vi) A constant value in C++ is created by using a literal. (vii) Data type specifies the size and type of values that can stored in computer memory. (viii) The range of short integers is from – 32768 to 32767. (ix) Class is user define data type. (x) Operators are special symbols that perform mathematical or logical operation. KEY TERMS ❍ Character set ❍ Identifiers ❍ Basic data type ❍ Integer type ❍ Boolean ❍ Token ❍ Constant ❍ User defined data type ❍ Floating type ❍ Character type
  • 21. INTRODUCTION OF C++, DATA TYPES AND 5-21 OPERATORS ❍ Derived data type ❍ Operator ❍ Increment and decrement ❍ Associativity and precedence ❍ Arithmetical and logical ❍ Assignment operator MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS 1. A byte can store a relatively small amount of data (a) One single character (b) Double character (c) Integer between 0 and 3267 (d) None of above 2. The smallest integer you can store in a word is declared with the (a) Integer (b) Short keyword (c) Long integer (d) None of above 3. The float is a real number of (a) 2 Byte (c) 8 Byte (b) 4 Byte (d) 16 Byte 4. The double is a real number of (a) 2 Byte (c) 8 Byte (b) 4 Byte (d) 16 Byte 5. To declare a variable as a character use the keyword (a) String (b) Char (c) Character (d) Array 6. The Boolean data type is used to declare a variable whose value would be set as (a) Numeric or character (b) True (1) or False (0) (c) Negative or positive (d) None of above 7. A named location that stores a value is called (a) Variable (b) Character (c) String (d) Function 8. A global variable is a variable declared in the (a) Main body of the source code (b) Inside the main function (c) Inside a class (d) Inside a user function 9. Anything that evaluates a value in C++. (a) Statement (b) Expression (c) Method (d) Operator 10. The symbol used to perform the Boolean operation NOT is. (a) || (b) && (c) ! (d) << >> ⎫ ⎭
  • 22. 5-22 INTRODUCTION OF C++, DATA TYPES AND OPERATORS ANSWERS 1. (a) 6. (b) 2. (b) 7. (a) 3. (b) 8. (a) 4. (c) 9. (b) 5. (b) 10. (c) UNSOLVED QUESTIONS 1. What is C++ ? Explain the features of C++. 2. Explain different token in C++. 3. Write down the structure of C++ program. 4. What do you mean by data type ? Explain different data type in C++. 5. What is the different between user defined and derived data type ? 6. Explain basic data type in C++. 7. What is variable ? Explain the scope of variables in C++. 8. What is operator ? Explain different type of operators in C++. 9. Explain the concept expression in C++. 10. What is the difference between C and C++ ? ❍❍❍