Computer in hindi I
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Computer in hindi I Document Transcript

  • 1. (Computer Organization) 1.1 ifjp; (Introduction) euq"; esa lwfu;ksftr dk;Z laiknu] thou’kSyh vkSj fujarj [kkst o vfo’dkj djus dh izo`fr vf/kd rhoz gksrh gSA blh dkj.k euq"; us fofHkUu ;qxksa esa u;s&u;s vfo"dkj djrs gq;s ekuo tkfr dks ,d fodflr :Ik fn;k gSaA bu lHkh esa ls ,d gS dEI;wVj tSlk dh fp´ Øekad&1.1 esa n'kkZ;k x;k gSa A dEI;wVj e’khu vkSj blls lacaf/kr lHkh rduhdksa ds fodkl us fodkl nj dks mRizsfjr fd;k gS vkSj fodkl dks ,d bZdkbZ ,oa vfr rhoz xfr iznku dh gSA dEI;wVj ,d bysDVªkfud e'khu gS tks funsZs'kksa ds fua;=.k esa MkVk ij Process dj ifj.kke izLrqr djrh gSA dEI;wVj esa MkVk Lohdkj djus ds fy;s input device gksrh gS tcfd fØ;k ls izkIr ifj.kke dks izLrqr djus ds fy;s output device gksrh gS A Processing dk dk;Z ftl device eas gksrk gS mls CPU dgrs gS A dEI;wVj ,d bysDVªkfud ;qfDr gS tks xf.krh; x.kuk dj ldrh gS ,oa rkfdZd QSlyss ldrh gS A dEI;wVj ,d bysDVªkfud e'khu gS tks funsZ'kksa ds lewg ds fu;a=.k (control) esa MkVk ;k y{; ij fØ;k (process) djds lwpuk (information) mRiUu (generate) djrk gS A fp´ &1.1 dEI;wVj (lax.kd) dEI;wVj dks vkjaHk esa x.kuk djus ds fy;s fodflr fd;k x;k Fkk ysfdu vkt bldh lgk;rk ls yxHkx lHkh {ks=ksa ds dk;Z lEiUu fd;s tkus yxs gSaA thou ds izR;sd {ks= esa tSls & oSKkfud] 'kkjhfjd] 'kS{ksf.kd] O;olkf;d] 'kSk/k fofHkUu fMtkbfuax esa dEI;wVj dk vkf/kiR; c<+us ls bls dsoy x.kuk ;a= ugh dgk tk ldrk cfYd ;g ,d ,slh ;qfDr gS tks lwpuk ,oa MkVk dks la'kksf/kr dj fdlh leL;k ds lek/kku es enn djrh gS A dEI;wVj CykWd Mk;xzke (Block diagram of Computer)
  • 2. dEI;wVj es nks rjg dh lwpuk;sa enter dh tkrh gSA ,d rks izksxzke vkSj nwljh MkVk izksxzke fuf'pr~ funsZ'kksa ds ml dze dks dgrs gS ftlds vuqlkj dEI;wVj dks dk;Z djuk gS MkVk og lwpuk gS ftl ij fd izksxzke ds vuqlkj dk;Z ¼x.kuk]rqyuk ;k fo'ys"k.k½ fd;k tk;sxkA tSls ;fn Nk=ksa ds ijh{kk ifj.kke dEI;wVj }kjk cuk;s tkrs gSA rks ifj.kke fdl rjg cuk;s tk;sa ;s funsZ'k nsus ds fy;s izksxzke fy[kk tk;sxk ,oa Nk=ksa ds uacj] uke irk bR;kfn dks MkVk dgk tk;sxkA ;fn vklku :i esa lkspk tk, rks dEI;wVj dks fuEu pkj Hkkxksa esa ckaV ldrs gSA 1. buiqV midj.k 2. lsUVªsy izkslsfalax ;wfuV 3. vkmViqV midj.k 4. eseksjh 1. buiqV ;qfuV (Input Unit). ;g unit MkVk vkSj instruction dks dEI;wVj ds vanj ys tkus ds dk;Z dks laiUu djrh gSA buiqV ;qfuV ds }kjk gh MkVk vkSj instruction command e'khu ds le>us yk;d Hkk"kk esa convert gksrs gSA blesa data computer dh eseksjh ls electric pulses ds :i esa transmit gksrs gSA 2. lsUVªsy izkslsfalax ;wfuV(CPU). lsUVªy izkslsflax ;wfuV dEI;wVj dk fnekx gksrk gS bldk eq[; dk;Z izksxke dks execute djuk gSA CPU dEI;wVj ds lHkh Hkkxksa tSls & memory, input or output device ds dk;ksZ dks fu;af=r djrk gS A Program vkSj Data blds fu;a=.k esa lsUVªsy izkslsfalax ;wfuV Main memory (RAM) dUVªksy ;qfuV ,- ,y- ;q buiqV ;qfuV vkmViqV ;qfuV Secondary Memory
  • 3. eseksjh esa LVksj gksrs gSA blh ds fu;a=.k esa output screen ij fn[kkbZ nsrk gS ;k printer ij print gS ACPU ds fuEufyf[kr Hkkx gksrs gS %& (i). dUVªksy ;qfuV (Control Unit). ;g lHkh ;qfuV ds dk;ksZ dks fu;af=r (control) djrk gSA ;g main memory esa stored program ls funZs'kksa dks izkIr djrk gSA ;g input/output fØ;kvksa dks fu;af=r djrk gSA rFkk vU; funsZ'kksa dks electric signals esa ifjofrZr djds ;g mfpr device rd igqpkrk gSA control unit ALU dks ;g crkrh gS fd process ds fy;s data memory esa dgk¡ mifLFkr gSA rFkk D;k process djuh gSA process ds ckn result memory esa dgk¡ stored gksuk gSA (ii). ,- ,y- ;q- (A.L.U.). ;g bdkbZ (unit) funsZ'kksa dks fØ;kfUor (execute) djrh gSA lHkh arithmetic calculation vkSj logical operation tSls comparison vkSj decision vkfn dk;Z blh ;wfuV ds }kjk laiUu gksrs gSA MkVk vkSj funZs'k izkbejh eseksjh (primary memory) ls ALU dks Hkssts tkrs gSA ifj.kke mRiUu (generate) gksdj ALU }kjk temporary ls primary memory esa Hksts tkrs gSA ;g dk;Z processing [kRe gksus ls igys vfr'kh?kz gksrk gSA vkmViqV ;qfuV (Output Unit) % bldk dk;Z buiqV ;qfuV ds fcYdqy foijhr gSA ;g ifj.kke nsrk gSA ;g CPU }kjk Hksts x;s ifj.kke dks accept djrk gSA vkSj ;g ifj.kke dks euq"; ds le>us yk;d Hkk"kk esa ifjofrZr djrk gSA Storage unit eseksjh (memory) computer dk dk;Zdkjh laxzg (working storage) gSA ;g dEI;wVj dk lcls egRoiw.kZ Hkkx gS tgk¡ data, information vkSj program process ds nkSjku fLFkr jgrs gS vkSj vko';drk iM+us ij rRdky miyC/k (Quick Available) gksrs gSA Input input unit }kjk fy;k tkrk gS og processing ds igys stored djuk iM+rk gSA vkSj output unit }kjk result produced djus ls igys storage device esa stored djuk iM+rk gSA Input device ;wtj ls MkVk ,oa funZs'k dks Lohdkj dj CPU dks nsrk gSA Output device dk mi;ksx dEI;wVj esa buiqV fd;s x;s MkVk dh processing ls mRiUu fjtYV dks izkIr djus ds fy;s fd;k tkrk gSA 3.1 buiqV midj.k Input device ;wtj ls MkVk ,oa funZs'k dks Lohdkj dj CPU dks nsrk gSA dEI;wVj dks fn;s tkus okys data ,oa instructions dks machine language vFkkZr Binary language esa convert djrk gS] D;ksfd dEI;wVj flQZ ;gh Hkk"kk le> ldrk gSA fofHkUu izdkj ds input
  • 4. dks binary :i esa cnydj lhih;w dks fn;s tkus dk dk;Z input device }kjk fd;k tkr gSAdqN izeq[k input devices fuEufyf[kr gS %& 1. Keyboard: - Keyboard on line input device gS MkVk vkSj instructions keyboard ds }kjk dEI;wVj esa buiqV fd;s tkrs gSA ;g device typewritter tSlk gksrk gSA bles keys dh la[;k typewritter ls vf/kd gksrh gS ;g MkVk dks 0 vkSj 1 ds :i esa cny dj lhih;w dks nsrk gSA blesa fofHkUu izdkj dh dht gksrh gSSA function key, special purpose key (like Ctrl, Alt, Del ,Ins ) cursor movement key & numeric key 2. Mouse ¼ekml½ %ekml ,d on line input device gS ftls ge vius gkFk esa idM+dj dke djrs gSA bldk mi;ksx eq[;r% instructuon dks input djus ds fy;s fd;k tkrk gSA ;g device plastic dk cuk gksrk gSA tks dlZj dks control djrk gS blds mi;ksx ls LØhu ij dlZj dks fdlh Hkh fn'kk esa pyk ldrs gSA ekml ds lery lrg (plain space) ij ekml dks fgykus ls bles uhps yxh ckWy ?kwerh gS tks ekml esa yxs NksVs&NksVs Roelers dks laosfnr djrh gSA ;g xfr digital value es cny dj ;g show djrh gS fd ekml fdl
  • 5. direction esa xfr dj jgk gSA mouse esa nks ;k nks ls vf/kd button gksrs gS ekml ds button dks mxyh ls nckus dh fØ;k click dgykrh gSA 3. OMR (Optical Mark Reader) vkIVhdy ekdZ jhMj %& ;g device izdk’k laosnh fl|kar ij dk;Z djrk gS ,oa bldk mi;ksx eq[;r% izfr;ksxh ijh{kkvksa eas vad fu/kkZj.k ds fy;s fd;k tkrk gS A ge ,d dkxt ij fo’ks"k izdkj dh isafly ;k isu ls iz’uksa ds mRrj gsrq dkxt ij cus gq, xkssys Hkjrs gSa A OMR esa bl dkxt ds vkj&ikj rst izdk'k iqat (light beam) Qsdk tkrk gSA ftlls izdk’k dk ijkorZu ls vadksa dk fu/kkZj.k iwoZ fu/kkZfjr izksxzke ds vk/kkj ij fd;k tkrk gS A 4. MICR (Magnetic Ink Character Reader) eSXusfVd bad dsjsDvj jhMj %& bls laf{kIr esa MICR ds uke ls tkuk tkrk gS budk mi;ksx magnetic ink ls fy[ks x;s character i<+us es gksrk gSA cSadks ds cheque No., Bank/Branch code. vkfn magnetic ink ls fy[ks gksrs gSS ftuds v{kjks dh cukoV fo'ks"k izdkj dh gksrh gS bUgs bl device dh enn ls lh/ks i<+dj dEI;wVj
  • 6. dks fn;k tk ldrk gSA MICR reader pSd ij Nis character dks magnetic coil ds laosnu ls i<+rk gS A 5. Joystick tk;fLVd % ;g [ksy [ksyus ds dke esa vkus okyh input device gSA tk;fLVd ds ek/;e ls LØhu ij mifLFkr VVZy (tertle) ;k vkd`fr dks blds handle ls idM+ dj pyk;k tk ldrk gSA bldk mi;ksx cPpksa }kjk izk;% dEI;wVj ij [ksy [ksyus ds fy;s fd;k tkrk gSA blesa ge ,d fLVd ds }kjk dlZj dks daVªksy djrs gSa A 6. Track Ball Vªsd cky %&;g tk;fLVd ds leku gh dk;Z djrh gSA ysfdu ;s NksVs cPpksa ds [ksyus esa T;knk mi;ksx dh tkrh gSA ekml dks mYVk dj nsus ij ;g Vªsd cky ds leku gks tkrk gSA ekml dks pykus ds fy;s est (table) ij txg dh vko’;drk gksrh gS A ijUrq VªSd cky ,d txg fLFkr jgrh gS ,oa cky dks jksVsV djds ge dlZj dh iksft’ku fu/kkZfjr djrs gS A bles vU; lHkh fØ;k;sa ekml dh rjg gh gksrh gSA
  • 7. 7. Light Pen ykbV isu %& ykbV isu dk dEI;wVj LØhu ij dksbZ Hkh vkd`fr draw djus ds fy;s mi;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA ykbV isu esa ,d photo sell gksrk gSA ykbV isu dh lip ls tc dEI;wVj LØhu ds Åij dksbZ fiDpj ;k vkd`fr cukbZ tkrh gS rks mldh pulse screen ls transmitt gksdj processor ds vanj izos'k dj tkrh gSA ykbV isu dks ekml esa fn;s x;s options dks pquus o vkd`fr cukus ds fy;s iz;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA 8. Digilizing Tablet: - Digilizing Tablet dk mi;ksx uD'ks cukus ¼ map making ½ ds fy;s fd;k tkrk gS A digilizing tablet dks digilizer Hkh dgrs gSA ;g vyx&vyx vkdkj (size) esa miyC/k jgrh gSA tablet dh working surface NksV&NksVs wires ds tky (grid) ls covered jgrh gSA grid ds Åij drawing dh tkrh gSA tl ij ,d isu yxk gksrk gSA bldh drawing surface ij isu ;k ekml dks pykus ls ladsr dEI;wVj esa pys tkrs gSA bldk mi;ksx gkFkksa }kjk printed characterd dks lh/ks dEI;wVj esa Hkstus ds fy;s fd;k tkrk gSA rFkk bldk fuekZ.k dqN microprocessor ij
  • 8. vk/kkfjr VscysV ds fy;s fd;k tkrk gSA tks fd fof'k"V fMtkbu (special design) ds dke vkrk gSA 9. Scanner: - ;g Hkh ,d input device gS ;g scanning device text ds image, drawing, and photos dks digital form es convert djrh gSA ;g ,d direct entry device gS A ;g cgqr tYnh vkSj ,dne 'kq) data entry ds dke vkrh gSA 10. Digital Camera: - Digital Video Camera ,d ,slk mobile input device gS tks fd fdlh Hkh n`'; pyfp= vkfn dks LVksj djus ds dke vkrk gSA blds ek/;e ls ge n`'; dks LVksj djrs le; n`'; dks dSejs ds LØhu ij Hkh ns[k ldrs gS digital video camera cgqr NksVs vkdkj (small size) dk input device gS ftldks ,d LFkku ls nwljs LFkku ij vklkuh ys tk;k tk ldrk gS A bleas best fdlh eseksjh fpi ;k vU; LVksjst fMokbl eas LVksj gksrh gS ftls ge ,d dscy dh lgk;rk ls dEI;wVj eas Mkmu yksM dj nsrs gS rFkk fizaV izkIr dj ysrs gSA
  • 9. 11. OCR (Optical Character Recognition): - OCR ,d ,slh rduhd gS ftlesa igys ls Nis character (preprinted characters) ds ijLij QdZ (distinguisb) ns[kdj OCR ekud djsDVlZ (standrad characters) ls igpku dh tkr gSA OCR device typewritter ls Nis gq;s character, cash register ds djsDVj vkSj credit card ds character dks i<+ ysrk gSA OCR ds font computer esa LVksj jgrs gS ftUgs OCR standard dgrs gS bueas OCR-A, OCR-B vf/kd yksdfiz; gSA 3.2 vkmViqV midj.k (OUTPUT DEVICE) Output device okLro esa oks fMokbl gS ftudh lgk;rk ls dEI;wVj ls vkmViqV ;k result izkIr fd;k tk ldrk gSA bu output device dk mi;ksx dEI;wVj esa buiqV fd;s x;s MkVk dh processing ls mRiUu fjtYV dks izkIr djus ds fy;s fd;k tkrk gSA ;g dEI;wVj ds central processing unit }kjk fn;s tkus okys ladsrksa dks ml :i eas cny nsrk gS ftl :i esa ge budk iz;ksx djuk pkgrs gSA bu ladsrksa dks /ofu (voice), graph o n`'; ds :i esa ns ldrs gSA ;s device computer vkSj human ds chp ,d ek/;e dk dk;Z djrh gSA Output nks izdkj ls izkIr fd;k tkrk gS %& 1. Soft Copy Output:- Soft Copy Output og Output gksrk tks Temporary gksrk gS rFkk ftls ge ns[k ldrs gSa rFkk lqu ldrs gSa ijUrq fdlh vU; txg ys ugha tk ldrs gSa A 2. Hard Copy Output :- ;g Output Permanent Output gksrk gS ftls ge Hkfo"; ds fy;s lqjf{kr j[k ldrs gSA fuEufyf[kr output device bl izdkj gS %& 3.3 Printers Printer ,d vkmViqV fMokbl tks fd Data, Program and result dk printed output dkxt ij nsrk gSA vkmViqV dh ;g copy hardcopy dgykrh gS dEI;wVj ls izkIr digital
  • 10. ladsr ¼0 ;k 1 ds fcV½ izkd`frd Hkk"kk (hindi,english) vkfn esa cnydj hardcopy ds :i esa Nirs gSA ftls ekuo i<+ ldrk gSA dEI;wVj esa mi;ksx gksus okys fizaVlZ dks ge nks izdkj ls oxhZd`r dj ldrs gS% Impact Printer and Non Impact Printer. 1. Impact Printer.Printing dh ;g fof/k type writter dh fof/k ds leku gksrh gS ftlesa ,d /kkrq dk hammer ;k print head dkxt o ribbon ij Vdjkrk gS impact printing esa character soid fonts ;k dot matrix fof/k ls isij ij mHkjrs gSA bu fizaVlZ eas fuEu fizaVj vkrs gS (i). Daisy wheel Printer (ii). DMP (Dot Matrix Printer) (iii). Line Printer a. Chain Printer b. Drum Printer c. Band Printer 2. Non Impact Printer. ;s Printer Electrothermal Electro static rduhd ds vk/kkj ij PrintOut iznku djrs gSA bu Printer esa fuEu Printers vkrs gS%& 1- Inkjet Printer 2- Laser Printer 3.3.1 Impact Printer
  • 11. 1. Daisy Wheel Printer. bl fizaVj esa wheel dh enn ls fiazV fd;k tkrk gS ;g wheel daisy ds flower tSl fn[krk gSA blfy;s bls daisy wheel printer dgrs gSA bl wheel dh gj rhyh (spolee) ds fljs ij ,d v{kj ;k fpUg cuk gksrk gS wheel dks motor ds }kjk ?kqek;k tkrk gS vkSj ftl v{kj ;k fpUg dks Nkiuk gks dkxt ij igq¡prs gh ,d fo|qrh; gFkkSM+k (electric hammer) bl v{kj dks L;kgh yxs ribbon ij /kDdk nsdj dkxt ij Nki nsrk gSA ;g 20 & 90 v{kj ,d lsdaM esa fiazV djrk gSA 2. Drum Printer.;g ,d impact line printer gS ;g pressure ls isij ij ,d le; es ,d ykbZu fizaV djrs gSA bles drum yxk gksrk gS ftl ij fiazfVax djus okys lHkh character Nis jgrs gSA ;g character drum dh iwjh yackbZ rFkk pkSM+kbZ ij yxs gksrs gSa fizaV djus dh ftruh fLFkfr;ka gksrh gS mruh gh rjg ds band yxs gksrs gSA ftu ij character cus gksrs gSA Mªe ds ?kweus ls isij ij character print gksrs gSA printing ds le; isij ij ihNs ls pressure iM+rk gS Mªe rsth ls ?kwerk gS vkSj ,d rotation esa ,d ykbZu Nkirk gSaA ;g
  • 12. 2000 lines per minute dh LihM ls Nki ldrk gSA tc fizafVax lekIr gks tkrh gS rks Mªe ?kweuk can dj nsrk gSA 3. Chain Printer.;g Hkh ,d impact line printer gS vFkkZr~ ;g pressure ls paper ij ,d le; es dsoy ,d ykbZu fizaV djrk gSA bl fizaVj esa rst ?kweus oky ,d pSu gksrh gS ftls print chain dgrs gSA chain esa character gksrs gS izR;sd dM+h (link) esa ,d character dk font gksrk gSA ;g chain dfM+;ksa (links) dh ,d J`a[kyk (series) ls cuh gksrh gsA tks fd cgqr rst xfr ls ?kwerh gSA gFkkSM+s (hammer) ds }kjk dkxt o ribbon dks nck;s jgus ls isij ij character print gksrk gSA chain printer dh print quality vPNh gksrh gSA ijUrq ;s graphics dks print ugh dj ldrs A muds }kjk printing dsoy ,d gh vkdkj ;k izdkj ls gksrh gSA 4. Dot Matrix Printer. Dot Matrix Printer impact type dk character printer gS tks fd processor ls isij ij ,d le; esa dsoy ,d character print djrk gSA
  • 13. blds dk;Z djus dh i)fr blds uke ds gh vuq:i gS ;g izR;sd dot dks matrix ds }kjk character dks print djrk gSA blfy;s bls dot matrix printer dgrs gSA pwafd ;g printer character dks MkWV dh enn ls cukrk gS blfy;s blls dksbZ Hkh fiDpj ;k xzfQDl fizaV fd;k tk ldrk gSA Dot Matrix Printer dh printing quality mlds print head ls cgqr T;knk izHkkfor gksrh gSA vyx&vyx print head okys fizaVj dh print quality vyx&vyx gksrh gSA dot matrix printer generaly 9 pin rFkk 24 pin ds print head okys gksrs gS A 9 fiu okys fiazVj fd print head esa 9 fiu ,d gh iafDr esa gksrh gSA rFkk 24 fiu okys fizaVj esa 12 fiuksa dh nks iafDr;ka ikl&ikl esa gksrh gSA ftlds dkj.k 24 fiu okys fizaVj dh printing quality 9 pin okys fizaVj dh vis{kk T;knk vPNh gksrh gSA dot matrix printer dk ewY; vU; fizaVj dh vis{kk dkQh de gksrk gSA 3.3.2 Non Impact Printer 1. Inkjet Printer. ;g ,d non impact character printer gS vFkkZr~ ;g without pressure paper ij character dks fiazV djrk gS bldh dk;Z i)fr blds uke ds gh vuq:i gS ;g bad dh eghu spray ls dkxt ij character dks fiazV djrs gSA blfy;s bUgs inkjet printer dgrs gSA
  • 14. inkjet printer esa ,d nozal gksrk gSA ftlesa bad Hkjh jgrh gSA ftldh enn ls Nirk gSA inkjet printer es coloured nozal dk use djds blls coloured printing Hkh dh tk ldrh gSA bl fiazVj dh printing quality rFkk printing speet dot matrix printer dh rqyuk esa dkQh vPNh gksrh gSA 2.Laser Printer. ;g ,d not impact page printer gS vFkkZr~ ;g without pressure paper ij character dks fizaV djrk gSA bUgs laser printer blfy;s dgk tkrk gS D;ksfd ;g laser beam dh enn ls character dks isij ij fizaV djrs gSA ftl izdkj Inkjet printer esa ink nozal use gksrk gS Bhd mlh izdkj laser printer esa cgqr gh eghu powder ftls toner dgk tkrk gS mi;ksx gksrk gSA blesa lcls igys fiazV fd;s tkus okys isij ij toner fxjk;k tkrk gS blds ckn mlds Åij laser beam Qsadh tkrh gS ftlls isij ij yxk gqvk toner xeZ gksdj character dk :i ys ysrk gS laser printer dh printing speed lHkh fizaVj ls vf/kd gksrh gS ;s 120 page per minute print dj ldrs gS bldh printing quality lcls vPNh gksrh gSA bldh lgk;rk ls text ds lkFk&lkFk graphics ;k picture Hkh fiazV fd;k tk ldrk gSA bldh mRre quality rFkk printing speed ds dkj.k bldk ewY; vU; printer dh vis{kk dkQh vf/kd gksrk gS buls izkIr printing dh dher Hkh cgqr vf/kd gksrh gSA laser printer esa lcls vPNh ckr ;g gksrh gS fd buesa printing ds le; vkokt mRiUu ugh gksrh A 3.6. Plotter.;g ,d output device gS tks Charts, Drawings, Maps (Three dimensional illustrations) f=&foHkh; js[kk fp= vkSj vU; izdkj dh hardcopy izLrqr djus ds dk;Z djrk gSA
  • 15. D;ksfd ;g cM+s&cM+s drawings, graphics vkfn dks vR;f/kd dq'kyrk o ljyrk ls fiaazV dj ldrk gS tcfd bu dk;ksZ dks printer ugh dj ldrk A printer rFkk plotter es lcls eq[; varj ;g gS fd ,d fizaVj dsoy left to right ds lkFk & lkFk top to bottom gh print dj ldrk gSA plotter esa fofHkUu jaxksa ds isu dk mi;ksx djds coloured output Hkh izkIr fd;k tk ldrk gSA Plotter rhu izdkj ds gksrs gS %& 1. Drum Plotter. ;g ,d ,slh output device gS ftlesa pen use gskrs gS tks xfr'khy gksdj dkxt dh lrg ij fd vkd`fr (shape) rS;kj djrs gSA paper ,d drum ij p<+k jgrk gSA tks vkxs f[kldrk tkrk gS pen computer }kjk (control) gksrk gSA dbZ pen plotter esa fiber tipped pen gksrs gSA ;fn mPp quality dh vko';drk gks rks rduhdh Mªkf¶Vax isu (technical drafting pen) use fd;k tkrk gSA isu dh LihM ,d ckj es ,d bap ds gtkjosa fgLls ds cjkcj gksrh gSA dbZ coloured plotter es pkj ;k pkj ls vf/kd isu gksrs gSA plotter ,d laiw.kZ fp= (drawing) dks dqN inch per second dh nj ls plat djrk gSSA 2. Flatbed Plotter. blesa ,d fLFkj ploting lrg gksrh gS ftlls isij fLFkj jgrk gSA
  • 16. blesa pen paper ij x rFkk y nksuksa fn'kkvksa esa ?kwedj drawing cuk ldrk gSA computer pen dks x-y axis dh direction esa control djrk gS vkSj dkxt ij vkd`fr cukrk gSA 3. Electrostatic Plotter:- ;g Plotter electrostatic charge ds }kjk NksVs NksVs Dots cukdj Special Paper ij Out put nsrk gS ;g lcls Fast Plotter gksrk gS 3.4 Monitor Monitor dks VDU ds uke ls Hkh tkuk tkrk gSA VDU dk iwjk uke video display unit gSA ;g ekWfuVj dEI;wVj esa mi;ksx fd;k tkus okyk ,d loZJs"B izpfyr vkmViqV fMokbl gS VDU esa television dh LØhu ds leku Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) yxh jgrh gSA bl CRT dh enn ls gh LØhu ij fp= v{kj fn[kk;h nsrs gS A VDU ls izkIr gksus okyk output softcopy output dgykrk gSA ;g vLFkk;h gksrk gS A 3.4.1 Type of Monitor 1. Colors ds vk/kkj ij (i).Monochrome. Monochrome monitor nks colour display djrk gSA ,d background ds fy;s rFkk ,d foreground ds fy;s ;s colour black & white, green and white or amber and white gks ldrs gSA (iii). Gray scale. Gray scale monitor ,d fo'ks"k izdkj monochrome monitor gS tks gray colour ds different shade dks display djus dh {kerk j[krk gSA
  • 17. iii. Color .Colour monitor 16 ls 1 million rd fofHkUu color display dj ldrk gSA dyj ekWuhVj dks RGB monitor Hkh dgk tkrk gSA D;ksfd ;s rhu vyx&vyx signal - Red, Green, Blue dks accept djrk gSA 2. Display Screen dh rduhd ds vk/kkj ij (i). CRTs (Cathode Ray Tubes): - Display screen dk lcls common form gS CRT Video Display terminal or computer esa display screen esa cathode ray tube dk mi;ksx gksrk gS tks fd ,d fuokZr V~;qc (vaccme tube) gSaA LØhu ij Image individual dotes or picture element ds }kjk show gksrh ftls pixel dgrs gSA Pixer ,d smallest unit tks LØhu ij fn[kkbZ nsrh gS rFkk dEI;wVj ds [kqyus vkSj can gksus fofHkUu izdkj ds shades nsrh gSA dEI;wVj ls bits dh ,d stream tks fd image dsk define djrh gSA CRT electron gun dks Hksth tkrh gSA tgk¡ bits element esa convert gks tkrh gSA CRTs screen dh lrg phosphor ls coated jgrh gSA tc electron gun ls electron beam phosphor dks hit djrh gSA ftls pixel ij light iM+rh gSA blls image screen ij mRiUu (generate) gksrh gSA (ii). Flat Panel Display. Flat Panel Display cgqr vf/kd iryk (much thinner) cgqr de Hkkj okyk rFkk de power consume djus okyk gksrk gSA tks fd portable computer esa cgqr vf/kd mi;ksxh gSA
  • 18. flat panel display esa rhu izdkj dh technology use gksrh gSA Liquid Crystel display, electro luminescent display or gas plasma display 3.4.2 Monitor Features 1. Resolution: - Resolution image dh clarity or sharpness dks n'kkZRkk gSA ekWuhVj dk resolution ;g lwfpr (indicate) djrk gS fd pixel dSls packed jgrs gSA lkekU;r% vf/kd pixels image dks vf/kd sharp djds show djrk gSA 2. Lines of Resolution: - Monitor eas Pixrels dh Quantity dks ge Pixel dh line ls ekirs gS A Monitor eas Horizantal and vertical fdruh lines gksxh mlls Resolution izHkkfor gksrk gSA 3. Refresh Rate: - Monitor eas Display eas fn[k jgh best ,d fuf’pr le; ds i’pkr~ curh rFkk feVrh gS ijUrq ;g dk;Z bruh rsth ls gksrk gS fd best dh rhozrk gess ges’kk fn[kkbZ nsrh jgrh gS best cuus rFkk feVus ds jsV dks ge Refresh Rate dgrs gSa A dEI;wVj LØhu ij image ck;s ls nk;s rFkk Åij ls uhps electron gun ds }kjk ifjofrZr gksrh jgrh gSA ekWuhVj dh refresh rate dks Hurtz eas ukik tkrk gSA 4. Band Width :- ,d lsdsUM es Electron gun ds }kjk Display Screen ij Data dh ek=k dks Band Width dgrs gSa A Band Width MkVk ds movment, position vkSj firing dks control djrs gSA 5. Dot Pitch :- Dot pitch ,d izdkj dh ekiu rduhd (measurement technique) gS tks ;g show djrh gS fd izR;sd pixel ds e/; fdruk vertical difference gSA dot pitch dk measurement M.M.(Mili Meter) esa fd;k tkrk gS A
  • 19. 3.4.3 Video Adaptor Display Screen ij fn[kk, tk jgs fMLIys dks ge ,d LVSaMMZ ds }kjk le>rs gSa ftls fofM;ksa LVSaMMZ dgrs gSA fofM;ksa LVSaMMZ dk fu/kkZj.k video display adaptor ds }kjk fd;k tkrk gS A video display adaptor dks graphics adaptor card Hkh dgrs gSA ;g ,d circuit board gS tks fd display screen ij image ds vfr'kh?kz fn[kkbZ nsus dyj dh la[;k rFkk resolution dks determine djrh gSA video display adaptor viuh memory chip ls attach gksdj vkrh gS tks ;g determine dh image fdruh vf/kd 'kh?kzrk ls rFkk fdrus vf/kd colour display djrh gSA ,d video display adaptor tks 256 KB memory dh gksrh gS og 16 dyj iznku djrh gSA 1. VGA (Video Graphics Array). VGA dk fuekZ.k IBM company us fd;k FkkA vktdy cgqr lkjs VGA monitor iz;ksx esa yk;s tk jgs gSA VGA monitor dk resolution bles mi;ksx gksus okys dyj ij fuHkZj djrk gSA vki 16 colour 640x480 pixel ij ;k 256 colour 320x200 pixel ij NkaV ldrs gSA lkjs IBM compitable computer VGA display system dks enn iznku djrs gSA 2. XGA (Extended Graphics Array). Extended Graphics Array display system dk fuekZ.k IBM us lu~ 1990 es fd;k FkkA ;g display screen ij successor ds :i esa] tks 4814/A display Fkk iznf'kZr gksrk FkkA bldk vxyk laLdj.k XGA-2 16 million colour esa 800x600 pixel dk resolution rFkk 65536 million colours esa 1024 x 768 pixel dk resolution iznf'kZr djrk FkkA 3. SVGA (Super Video Graphics Array). vktdy lkjs PC SVGA graphics display system ds :i esa fcd jgs gSA okLro esa SVGA dk vFkZ gS VGA ls different A ijarq ;g ,d single standard ugh gSA Video Electronics standard association }kjk ,d standard programming interface dk fuekZ.k fd;k tks fd SVGA display esa enn djrk gSA