Community Approach towards Restoration of Bamboo Resources in Tripura

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The bamboo resource has a unique livelihood importance among majority of the population in Tripura and has been observed to deplete year by year since last decade. Sacrifice of bamboo patches within and outside the forests for other cash crops is one of the major reasons of depletion. The recent flowering phenomenon in few dominant species provided a space for the communities to expand and encroach by planting crops particularly rubber. Looking into the depletion of bamboo and popularity of alternate plantations, a huge effort for restoration of bamboo patches in the state is of great demand today.
In view of above scenario, the efforts on restoration through conservation, propagation and afforestation need mobilization of the communities for their awareness and participation in all aspects. In spite of difficulties faced due to lack of bamboo resource, the communities need to be convinced for clump management for sustainable production and nursery management for propagation. Organizing field demonstrations frequently and liaison meetings with buyer agencies were helpful to make them willing to establish small scale nurseries in participatory mode. This presentation deals with success of the farmers’ bamboo nurseries and change in their attitude towards promotion of bamboo on farmlands besides generating income by contributing planting stock to the state owned programs in coming years.

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Community Approach towards Restoration of Bamboo Resources in Tripura

  1. 1. Community approach towards Restoration of Bamboo Resources in Tripura CENTRE FOR FOREST-BASED LIVELIHOOD & EXTENSION SHAL BAGAN FOREST CAMPUS, P O – GANDHIGRAM, AGARTALA - 799012, TRIPURA Pawan K Kaushik
  2. 2. Booming Bamboo Based Economy Growth trend & future of bamboo sector in Tripura From the turnover of Rs. 27.9 Crores in FY 2006 the sector has grown by over 240% to a total turnover of Rs. 93.05 crores as on 31st March, 2011. Source: Tripura Bamboo Mission
  3. 3. Demand Supply Mismatch Current Consumption of Bamboo: 2,70,000 MT (2011-12) Incense Sector : 90,000 MT Handicrafts and Furniture : 80,000 MT Domestic Consumption : 1,00,000 MT Projected Consumption of Bamboo by 2014: 3,74,000 MT Bamboo Park : 60,000 MT Existing Commercial and Domestic: 3,14,000 MT Gap between D-S by next year - 87,000 MT Area to be planted - 8680 ha Plants required - 40 lakhs Source: Tripura Bamboo Mission
  4. 4. Need For Species Diversification in Tripura Plantations till date in the state Financial Year Muli Plantations (ha) Non-Muli plantations (ha) Total Plantations % of Non-Muli against Muli plantations 2005-06 3091.41 0.0 3091.41 0 2006-07 1207.45 335.8 1543.25 27.81 2007-08 5200.37 704.8 5905.17 13.55 2008-09 4805.99 748.4 5554.39 15.57 2009-10 4787.7 207.0 4994.7 4.32 2010-11 6403.92 625.25 7029.23 9.76 2011-12 7270.11 357.07 7627.18 4.91 Total 32674.01 2978.22 35745.23 91.66% 8.44% 100% Source: Tripura Bamboo Mission
  5. 5. Tripura scenario Recognition and vesting of Forest Rights  Total forest land in Tripura: 6293 sq km  Patta to Traditional Forest Dwellers: 1.20 lakh Households  Forest area vested: 1760 sq km  About 28 % of forestland  Highest percentage in the country  Land use promoted in forestland so vested :  Paddy cultivation for achieving self-sufficiency over at least 10%  Horticulture intercropping over 20% & Creation of water bodies for fishery  Rest for bamboo and other plantations
  6. 6. Rubber Plantations Replacing Forests
  7. 7. Juvenile Teak Plantation Replaced by Rubber
  8. 8. Steep fall in revenue from bamboo in 2012-13 Year Timber Bamboo 2004-05 122 121 2005-06 142 155 2006-07 188 160 2007-08 178 142 2008-09 178 212 2009-10 206 224 2010-11 209 228 2011-12 198 232 2012-13 189 63 Forest Revenue for Timber & Bamboo Rs./lakh 0 50 100 150 200 250 Revenue from bamboo Rs./Lakh Source: Forest Department, Tripura
  9. 9. Sharp Decline in Bamboo Stick Production for Agarbatti sticks in Tripura Year Bamboo stick production in MT 2009-10 28589 2010-11 23178 2011-12 21393 2012-13 17490 (reduced to 60 % within last 4 years)
  10. 10. Muli bamboo Market price in Rupees of one Muli at Nalchhar 2008: 5-8 2009: 10-15 2010: 20-25 2011: 20-30 2012: 25-40; and 2013: 30-50 Sale price increased by > 5 times within last 5 years
  11. 11. 1st Meeting : Results of SWOT Analysis on taking up Bamboo Nurseries - Strengths Weaknesses Opportunities Threats Suitable Site Condition Lack of availability of plant material High demanding for domestic purpose No proper market Highly dependable Lack of awareness Increased sale value Less profitable than other commercial crop Variety of Species can be grown Transportation and marketing problem High market demand T. P. will be required in transport. No buy back guarantee Bamboo plant will flower and will die at a time Low income People are not in Bamboo based cottage industry Termite attack
  12. 12. 2nd Meeting : Results of SWOT Analysis on taking up Bamboo Nurseries - Strengths Weaknesses Opportunities Threats Suitable Site Condition Transportation and marketing problem High demanding for domestic purpose Termite attack at nursery stage Highly dependable No buy back guarantee Increase sell value Sporadic and gregarious flowering of Bamboo Variety of Species can be grown Hard work and less income generation High market demand New Industries are coming up Prospect of new industry Market for raw Incense sticks Promotion of new products Govt. is providing quality planting material Bamboo handicrafts are exported outside of the state.
  13. 13. Training and Demonstration
  14. 14. 3rd Meeting : Results of SWOT Analysis on taking up Bamboo Nurseries - Strengths Weaknesse s Opportunities Threats Edible shoots Bamboo Flowering Industries are looking for good quality Bamboo Unreliable plant material Versatile uses Transit pass is relaxed within the local area High Industrial demand Quality planting materials are available culms suitable for construction Bamboo treatment techniques are available Cottage Industry Selling nursery seedlings Export Facility Demands for making Bamboo furniture Mother stock of different plant materials are available
  15. 15. Muli Bamboo – 2013 Zero Year Collection of 19 - Bamboo Species
  16. 16. Bambusa tulda (Mirtinga) Schizostachyum dullooa (Dolu) Dendrocalamus longispathus (Rupai ) Bambusa pallida (Makal) Bambusa nutan (Kai) Bambusa straita (Tiger) Bambusa wamin (Buddha Bailey) Guadua angustifolia (Guadua) Bambusa vulgaris (Bari) Dandrocalamus hamiltoni (Pecha) Thyrsostachys oliveri (Kanakaich) Bambusa multiplex (Nana) Bambusa japonica Bambusa balcooa (Barak) Melocana baccifera (Muli) Bambusa polymorpha (Paura) Bambusa cacharensis (Bom) Dendrocalamus sikkimensis (Rawmi) D. giganteus (Giant Bamboo) Bamboos Species under multiplication
  17. 17. INTRODUCING CONCEPT OF CLNs (Community Livelihood Nurseries) The Nurseries – raised with participatory approach by a Community to help them earn livelihood besides contributing for plant materials required under programs on restoration of forest-based livelihood resources
  18. 18. CLNs – Setting of Participatory Objectives: • Promotion of public participation in potential production of planting material in terms of quantity, reliability and diversity. • Providing income generation option besides meeting demand of plant material of the state as well as individual’s requirement. • Restoration of natural resource based livelihoods in the state.
  19. 19. Community Approach Mechanism • Identification of prospective farmers • Hands on training on bamboo nursery techniques, field demonstration - Propagation through vegetative cuttings - Macro-proliferation techniques • Involved local youth groups for execution and monitoring • Initially, prepared 3 to 5 beds (annual capacity 2000 – 5000 plants) • Primary material support – Mother plants, chemicals for soil treatment, Low-cost Vermicomposting Units • Regular technical support • 1000 polybags to facilitate sale of plants and generate initial income • Institutional support to develop market linkages • Regular participatory monitoring • Maintenance of records for certification while selling to the agencies.
  20. 20. Advantages of CLNs: • Avoid huge investment in infrastructure and manpower as in case of Centralized Nurseries. • Reduced transportation cost • Avoid shock to the plants by minimizing transition time when planted within same climatic conditions. • Ensure public participation and awareness and thus, may develop social barriers to protect plantations. • Individual’s requirements may be fulfilled from their own or nearest nurseries, and thus damage to the adjacent plantations from biotic interferences may be minimized. • The participatory mechanism so developed may become an asset to the state for handling mega programs and related challenges in future.
  21. 21. Sl. No. Villages No. 1. Nalchar, Melaghar 18 2. North Taibandal, Anandpur 8 3. Bodhjungnagar,Kamalghat 18 4. Naogaon, Bamotia, Taltala 35 Total 79 Status of Community Livelihood Nurseries (CLNs) Under CFLE Agartala As on – December, 2013
  22. 22. SL.N o Name of Species Stock as on 31/07/13 23. Homalomena aromatica (Gandhaki) 4511 Nos. 1. Bambusa tulda (Mirtinga) 2762 Nos. 24. Cajanus cajan (L) Mill (Arhar) 2000 Nos. 2. Dendrocalamus longispathus (Rupai ) 2250 Nos. 25. Flemingia macrophylla (willd) prain exMerr (Flemingia) 2000 Nos. 3. Bambusa pallida (Makal) 2400 Nos. 26. Terminalia bellirica Roxb. (Bahera) 3068 Nos. 4. Bambusa nutan (Kali) 830 Nos. 27. Dillenia indica Linn. (Chalta) 1880 Nos. 5. Bambusa straita (Tiger) 140 Nos. 28. Clittoria ternatea, Linn. (Aparajita) 530 Nos. 6. Bambusa wamin (Buddha Balley) 130 Nos. 29. Abelmoscus moschatus (Kasturi bindi) 150 Nos. 7. Guadua angustifolia (Guadua) 245 Nos. 30. Terminalia arjuna (Arjun) 80 Nos. 8. Bambusa vulgaris(Bari) 713 Nos. 31. A.marmelos (Bael) 21 Nos. 9. Dandrocalamus hamiltoni (Pecha) 14610 Nos. 32. Oroxylum indicum (Kanaidinga) 150 Nos. 10. Thyrsostachys oliveri (Kanakaich) 450 Nos. 33. Clinogyne dichotoma (Mutrak) 112 Nos. 11. Bambusa multiplex (Nana) 90 Nos. 34. Melia dubia (baken) 760 Nos. 12. Bambusa javanica 36 Nos. 35. Mucuna pruriens 161 Nos. 13. Bambusa balcooa (Barak) 80 Nos. 36. Acacia nilotica (babul) 112 Nos. Nursery Stock as December 2014 )
  23. 23. 14. Melocana baccifera (Muli) 2217 Nos. 37. Thysanolaena maxima (Broom grass) 180 Nos. 15. Bambusa polymorpha (Paura) 230 Nos. 38. Citronella 83 Nos. 16. Bambusa cacharensis (Bom) 67 Nos. 39. Acorus calamus (Bach) 48 Nos. 17. Schizostachyum dullooa (Dullooa) 264 Nos. 40. Basak plant 14 Nos. 18. Dendrocalamus giganteus (Rawpui) 03 Nos. 41. Toko palm 22 Nos. 19. Bambusa bamboos (Kanta Bans) 03 Nos. 42. Canes (6 species) 50 Nos. 20. Dendrocalamus sikkimensis (Rawmi) 03 Nos. 44. Areca catechu 04 Nos. Total Bamboo plants = 27614 Nos. 45. Parkia roxburghii 04 Nos. 21. Capsicum chinensis (Naga Chilli) 410 Nos. Total = 16505 Nos.
  24. 24. Demonstration of Boucherie Apparatus to SHGs Radha Krishna SHG, Borjush Bamutia Village Cluster, Tripura
  25. 25. Demonstration and Opening of ‘Neermahal Bamboo Treatment Demo Centre’ June 30, 2013 Demo Village – Khas Chawmoni Melaghar Cluster, Tripura
  26. 26. Introducing Guadua Bamboo in Tripura Current Efforts and Future Prospects The species is performing well in Tripura conditions. Also respond to sphagnum based air layering (Paper published @ Indian Forester) Tulakona Plantation Agartala known as timber bamboo Narsingh Garh Nursery, Agartala
  27. 27. Conclusion Restoration of community based approach has been much effective so far. Important to consider other issues of concern - Species preference - Certified mother stock - Propagation and Nursery – Technical Knowhow - Proper species tagging - Developing linkages with buyer agencies - Assurance of income generation (disposal of plants) •Livelihood generation •Restoration of Bamboo Resources

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