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Thermodynamics for gas turbine cycles 1of2

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    Thermodynamics for gas turbine cycles 1of2 Thermodynamics for gas turbine cycles 1of2 Presentation Transcript

    • Introduction to Thermodynamics for GasTurbine Cycles & Cycle Simulation ToolsA  Cycle  Innova-ons  Tutorial  Session  byPavlos  K.  Zachos  -­‐  Luis  Sanchez  de  LeonDepartment  of  Power  &  PropulsionCranfield  University,  UKASME Turbo Expo 2013San Antonio, US1
    • CRANFIELD UNIVERSITYDEPARTMENT OF POWER & PROPULSIONThese slides have been prepared by Cranfield University for thepersonal use of tutorial attendees. Accordingly, they may not becommunicated to a third party without the express permission of theauthor(s). The slides are intended to support the tutorial in which theyare to be presented. However the content may be more comprehensivethan the presentations they are supporting.Some of the data contained in the notes/slides may have been obtainedfrom public literature. However, in such cases, the correspondingmanufacturers or originators are in no way responsible for the accuracyof such material.All the information provided has been judged in good faith as appropriatefor the course. However, Cranfield University accepts no liabilityresulting from the use of such information.Disclaimer2
    • Who we are...Pavlos K. ZachosLecturer in Aerothermal Performance of TurbomachineryDepartment of Power & PropulsionCranfield University, UKp.zachos@cranfield.ac.ukLuis Sanchez de LeonDoctoral Researcher in Advanced Cycle PerformanceDepartment of Power & PropulsionCranfield University, UKl.sanchezdeleon@cranfield.ac.ukThermodynamics for Gas Turbine Cycles & Cycle Simulation ToolsASME Turbo Expo San Antonio,Texas, 6th June 20133
    • PART I - Thermodynamics in our every day life.Thermodynamics for Gas Turbine Cycles & Cycle Simulation ToolsASME Turbo Expo San Antonio,Texas, 6th June 20134
    • PART II - A little bit of modelling.Thermodynamics for Gas Turbine Cycles & Cycle Simulation ToolsASME Turbo Expo San Antonio,Texas, 6th June 20135
    • PART III - A whole lot of modelling.Thermodynamics for Gas Turbine Cycles & Cycle Simulation ToolsASME Turbo Expo San Antonio,Texas, 6th June 20136
    • Why do you care ?Thermodynamics for Gas Turbine Cycles & Cycle Simulation ToolsASME Turbo Expo San Antonio,Texas, 6th June 20137
    • The science.The people.The product.Thermodynamics for Gas Turbine Cycles & Cycle Simulation ToolsASME Turbo Expo San Antonio,Texas, 6th June 20138
    • Thermo dynamicsθέρμη (therme)heatδυναμικήpower=theory of relationship between heat and mechanical energyAeolipile (or Hero engine)Hero of Alexandria1st century AD[source: Encyclopedia Britannica]9
    • source: WikipediaThermodynamics for Gas Turbine Cycles & Cycle Simulation ToolsASME Turbo Expo San Antonio,Texas, 6th June 201310
    • 1650Otto von Guerickeinvents the vacuum pump1656Boyle & Hookenotice a correlation betweenpressure, temperature and volume185017501824Carnotcorrelates heat , power, energy & engine efficiencyRankine - Clausius - Lord Kelvin1st & 2nd Laws of Thermodynamics1750Saverybuilds the first steam piston engineto be later improved by WattFather ofThermodynamicsequation ofstateThermodynamics for Gas Turbine Cycles & Cycle Simulation ToolsASME Turbo Expo San Antonio,Texas, 6th June 201311
    • Entropy, sTemperature,T1 234Entropy, sTemperature,T1234Entropy, sTemperature,T1234v =const.v = const.P = const.v = const.Entropy, sTemperature,T1234P =const.P = const.Carnot cycle Ideal Otto cycleIdeal Diesel cycle Ideal Brayton cycleThermodynamics for Gas Turbine Cycles & Cycle Simulation ToolsASME Turbo Expo San Antonio,Texas, 6th June 201312
    • 13
    • Why do you care ?EAT.BREATH.TRAVEL.Thermodynamics for Gas Turbine Cycles & Cycle Simulation ToolsASME Turbo Expo San Antonio,Texas, 6th June 201314
    • Case study:London to New York5,526 km100 days in 1866 by sailing ship15 days in 1910 by early steam ships3 days in 1960 by the fastest steam ship< 8 hrs today by plane !!Thermodynamics for Gas Turbine Cycles & Cycle Simulation ToolsASME Turbo Expo San Antonio,Texas, 6th June 201315
    • = £475 per kg[source: http://www.bullionbypost.co.uk on 21.5.2013]=Courtesy of Rolls-Royceper kgThermodynamics for Gas Turbine Cycles & Cycle Simulation ToolsASME Turbo Expo San Antonio,Texas, 6th June 201316
    • aerodynamics materialsfuelsemissionsmechanicalintegritymarket research&logisticssystemintegrationcyclethermodynamicscontrols17
    • Entropy, sTemperature,T1234P =const.P = const.George Brayton1830 - 1892Sir Frank Whittle1907 - 1996Dr Hans von Ohain1911 - 1998Courtesy of Rolls-RoyceThermodynamics for Gas Turbine Cycles & Cycle Simulation ToolsASME Turbo Expo San Antonio,Texas, 6th June 201318
    • Here’s to the crazy ones.The misfits.The rebels.The troublemakers.The ones who see things differently.They are not fond of rules.And they have no respect for the status quo.You can praise them, disagree with them, quote,disbelieve them, glorify or vilify them.About the only thing you can’t do...Apple advertising campaignSeptember 199719
    • ...is ignore them...20
    • ...because they change things21
    • ...and also the way WE see things...22
    • Let’s talk about today...Thermodynamics for Gas Turbine Cycles & Cycle Simulation ToolsASME Turbo Expo San Antonio,Texas, 6th June 201323
    • 6 Trillion kg CO2source: ClimateCrisis.netThermodynamics for Gas Turbine Cycles & Cycle Simulation ToolsASME Turbo Expo San Antonio,Texas, 6th June 201324
    • 20,000 kgCO2 per year and person4,500 kgCO2 per year and personsource: ClimateCrisis.netThermodynamics for Gas Turbine Cycles & Cycle Simulation ToolsASME Turbo Expo San Antonio,Texas, 6th June 201325
    • 26
    • 27
    • 28
    • 450 ppmsource: ClimateCrisis.netThermodynamics for Gas Turbine Cycles & Cycle Simulation ToolsASME Turbo Expo San Antonio,Texas, 6th June 201329
    • 10% less rainfallsource: ClimateCrisis.netThermodynamics for Gas Turbine Cycles & Cycle Simulation ToolsASME Turbo Expo San Antonio,Texas, 6th June 201330
    • Dust storm approaching Stratford,TEXAS - April 1935source: http://www.weru.ksu.edu31
    • aerodynamics materialsfuelsemissionsmechanicalintegritymarket research&logisticssystemintegrationcyclethermodynamicscontrols32
    • Thermodynamics for Gas Turbine Cycles & Cycle Simulation ToolsASME Turbo Expo San Antonio,Texas, 6th June 201333
    • PART II34
    • Families of thermodynamic cyclesPowercyclesRefrigerationcyclesGascyclesVaporcyclesClosedcyclesOpencyclesThermodynamics for Gas Turbine Cycles & Cycle Simulation ToolsASME Turbo Expo San Antonio,Texas, 6th June 201335
    • Families of thermodynamic cyclesPowercyclesRefrigerationcyclesGascyclesVaporcyclesClosedcyclesOpencyclesThermodynamics for Gas Turbine Cycles & Cycle Simulation ToolsASME Turbo Expo San Antonio,Texas, 6th June 201336
    • Basic considerations in the analysis of power cycles1. Study the ideal cycle firstNo frictionNo heat lossesQuasi-equilibrium compressions & expansions2. Neglect kinetic and potential energies3. Use P-v or T-s diagramsThermodynamics for Gas Turbine Cycles & Cycle Simulation ToolsASME Turbo Expo San Antonio,Texas, 6th June 201337
    • • Air as working fluid• Ideal gasAir standard assumptionsEquation of State: PV = RTCpCv= γ R = Cp - Cv• Semi-perfect gasCp / Cv functions of Temperatureγ= 1.33 - Turbinesγ= 1.40 - CompressorsThermodynamics for Gas Turbine Cycles & Cycle Simulation ToolsASME Turbo Expo San Antonio,Texas, 6th June 201338
    • Internal Energy=The total energy contained by a thermodynamic systemThermodynamics for Gas Turbine Cycles & Cycle Simulation ToolsASME Turbo Expo San Antonio,Texas, 6th June 201339
    • Internal Energy = u(T)Thermodynamics for Gas Turbine Cycles & Cycle Simulation ToolsASME Turbo Expo San Antonio,Texas, 6th June 201340
    • u(T) + pV = EnthalpyThermodynamics for Gas Turbine Cycles & Cycle Simulation ToolsASME Turbo Expo San Antonio,Texas, 6th June 201341
    • u(T) + pV = Enthalpyu(T) + RT = Enthalpy = h(T)Thermodynamics for Gas Turbine Cycles & Cycle Simulation ToolsASME Turbo Expo San Antonio,Texas, 6th June 201342
    • Specific Heat Capacity at ConstantVolumeThermodynamics for Gas Turbine Cycles & Cycle Simulation ToolsASME Turbo Expo San Antonio,Texas, 6th June 201343
    • Specific Heat Capacity at ConstantVolume=CvThermodynamics for Gas Turbine Cycles & Cycle Simulation ToolsASME Turbo Expo San Antonio,Texas, 6th June 201344
    • Specific Heat Capacity at ConstantVolume=Cv =dudTThermodynamics for Gas Turbine Cycles & Cycle Simulation ToolsASME Turbo Expo San Antonio,Texas, 6th June 201345
    • Specific Heat Capacity at Constant PressureThermodynamics for Gas Turbine Cycles & Cycle Simulation ToolsASME Turbo Expo San Antonio,Texas, 6th June 201346
    • Specific Heat Capacity at Constant Pressure=CpThermodynamics for Gas Turbine Cycles & Cycle Simulation ToolsASME Turbo Expo San Antonio,Texas, 6th June 201347
    • Specific Heat Capacity at Constant Pressure=Cp =dhdTThermodynamics for Gas Turbine Cycles & Cycle Simulation ToolsASME Turbo Expo San Antonio,Texas, 6th June 201348
    • Ideal Gas ModelPV = RTInternal Energy = u(T) = Cv TEnthalpy = u(T) + RT = h(T) = Cp TCpCv=γγ= 1.33 - Turbinesγ= 1.40 - CompressorsThermodynamics for Gas Turbine Cycles & Cycle Simulation ToolsASME Turbo Expo San Antonio,Texas, 6th June 201349
    • Wilcock R. C.,Young J. B., and Horlock J. H., 2002,“Gas properties asa limit to gas turbine performance.”Kyprianidis K., SethiV., Ogaji S. O., PILIDIS P., Singh R., and KALFAS A. I., 2009,“Thermo-Fluid Modelling for Gas Turbines-Part I:Theoretical Foundation andUncertainty Analysis.”Kyprianidis K., SethiV., Ogaji S. O., PILIDIS P., Singh R., and KALFAS A. I., 2009,“Thermo-Fluid Modelling for Gas Turbines-Part II: Impact on PerformanceCalculations and Emissions Predictions at Aircraft System Level.”Thermodynamics for Gas Turbine Cycles & Cycle Simulation ToolsASME Turbo Expo San Antonio,Texas, 6th June 201350
    • Entropy, sTemperature,T1234P2 =const.P1 = const.heat inheat outworkinmaximum cycle pressurelimited by compressortechnologymaximum cycletemperaturelimited by turbinetechnologywork outUsefulwork(Net)Thermodynamics for Gas Turbine Cycles & Cycle Simulation ToolsASME Turbo Expo San Antonio,Texas, 6th June 201351
    • Entropy, sTemperature,T1234P2 =const.P1 = const.heat inheat outworkinworkoutCompressor TurbineCombustionchamberIdeal Brayton cycle processes:1-2: Isentropic compression2-3: Constant pressure heat addition3-4: Isentropic expansion4-1: Constant pressure heat rejectionThermodynamics for Gas Turbine Cycles & Cycle Simulation ToolsASME Turbo Expo San Antonio,Texas, 6th June 201352
    • Thermodynamics for Gas Turbine Cycles & Cycle Simulation ToolsASME Turbo Expo San Antonio,Texas, 6th June 201353
    • winThermodynamics for Gas Turbine Cycles & Cycle Simulation ToolsASME Turbo Expo San Antonio,Texas, 6th June 201354
    • winqin+Thermodynamics for Gas Turbine Cycles & Cycle Simulation ToolsASME Turbo Expo San Antonio,Texas, 6th June 201355
    • winqin+wout-Thermodynamics for Gas Turbine Cycles & Cycle Simulation ToolsASME Turbo Expo San Antonio,Texas, 6th June 201356
    • winqin+wout-qout-InletEnthalpyOutletEnthalpy(qin - qout) + (win - wout) = 0= -wnetwnet = qin - qoutSteady-flow process energy balance on a unit-mass basis:-=57
    • wnet = qin - qoutqin = h3 - h2 = cp (T3 - T2)qout = h4 - h1 = cp (T4 - T1)Thermodynamics for Gas Turbine Cycles & Cycle Simulation ToolsASME Turbo Expo San Antonio,Texas, 6th June 201358
    • Entropy, sTemperature,T1234P2 =const.P1 = const.heat inheat outworkinworkoutCompressor TurbineCombustionchamberFreshairFuelExhaustgaseswork outwnet = qin - qoutqin = h3 - h2 = cp (T3 - T2)qout = h4 - h1 = cp (T4 - T1)ηthermal =wnetqin= 1-qoutqinusing...T2T1=P2P1( )γ-1/γ=P3P4( )γ-1/γ=T3T4ηthermal = 1-1P2P1γ-1/γThermodynamics for Gas Turbine Cycles & Cycle Simulation ToolsASME Turbo Expo San Antonio,Texas, 6th June 201359
    • Entropy, sTemperature,T1234P2 =const.P1 = const.heat inheat outworkinworkoutCompressor TurbineCombustionchamberFreshairFuelExhaustgaseswork outηthermal = 1-1P2P1γ-1/γηthermal Pressure ratioIs this right ?Thermodynamics for Gas Turbine Cycles & Cycle Simulation ToolsASME Turbo Expo San Antonio,Texas, 6th June 201360
    • Entropy, sTemperature,T12s4s2ain reality...- no compression/expansion isisentropic &- some pressure loss is inevitable4a3ηcomprηturb==h2s - h1h2a - h1h3 - h4ah3 - h4sComponent isentropicefficiencies:notefor preliminary cyclemodelling componentefficiencies can be guessedor estimatedThermodynamics for Gas Turbine Cycles & Cycle Simulation ToolsASME Turbo Expo San Antonio,Texas, 6th June 201361
    • Case  study  #1:Effect  of  compressor  efficiency  on  cycle  performanceCompressor TurbineCombustionchamber- Standard air assumptions- Standard ISA conditions:288.15K @ 1 bar- Constant ηt,is- T3 = 1600K- Combustion efficiency=0.98- Account for cooling flowsisentropicIsentropic0.90.850.8Thermodynamics for Gas Turbine Cycles & Cycle Simulation ToolsASME Turbo Expo San Antonio,Texas, 6th June 201362
    • 0.650.70.750.80.850.90.9511 3 5 7 9 11 13 15OVERALL PRESSURE RATIOISENTROPICEFFICIENCYPOLYTROPIC EFFICIENCY = 0.900.850.8Thermodynamics for Gas Turbine Cycles & Cycle Simulation ToolsASME Turbo Expo San Antonio,Texas, 6th June 201363
    • Case  study  #2:Effect  of  Turbine  Entry  Temperature  on  cycle  performanceCompressor TurbineCombustionchamber- Standard air assumptions- Standard ISA conditions:288.15K @ 1 bar- Constant ηt,is- Combustion efficiency=0.98- Account for cooling flowsAssuming a value for the polytropic efficiency ofour compressor a new isentropic efficiency iscalculated for every pressure ratio based on:TET = 1000 K1200 K1400 K1600 K 1800 KThermodynamics for Gas Turbine Cycles & Cycle Simulation ToolsASME Turbo Expo San Antonio,Texas, 6th June 201364
    • Cycle  design  in  a  gas  turbine  performance  solverUse  of  “BRICKS”Compressor TurbineCombustionchamberThrustper unit flowIntakeFreshairALTITUDEMACH No.Rel. HumidityPRESSURERECOVERYFACTORPRESSURERATIOPOLYTROPICEFFICIENCYBLEED FLOWSCOMBUSTIONEFFICIENCYPRESSURELOSSTURBINE ENTRYTEMPERATURE(TET)ISENTROPICEFFICIENCYCOOLINGFLOWSNozzleThermodynamics for Gas Turbine Cycles & Cycle Simulation ToolsASME Turbo Expo San Antonio,Texas, 6th June 201365
    • Cycle  design  in  a  gas  turbine  performance  solverUse  of  “BRICKS”Compressor TurbineCombustionchamberIntakeFreshairALTITUDEMACH No.Rel. HumidityPRESSURERECOVERYFACTORPRESSURERATIOPOLYTROPICEFFICIENCYBLEED FLOWSCOMBUSTIONEFFICIENCYPRESSURELOSSTURBINE ENTRYTEMPERATURE(TET)ISENTROPICEFFICIENCYCOOLINGFLOWSOutput Powerper unit flowThermodynamics for Gas Turbine Cycles & Cycle Simulation ToolsASME Turbo Expo San Antonio,Texas, 6th June 201366
    • Case  study  #3:Single  spool  gas  generator  design  space  exploraIonCompressor TurbineCombustionchamberIntakeFreshairALTITUDEMACH No.Rel. HumidityPRESSURERECOVERYFACTORPRESSURERATIOPOLYTROPICEFFICIENCYBLEED FLOWSCOMBUSTIONEFFICIENCYPRESSURELOSSTURBINE ENTRYTEMPERATURE(TET)ISENTROPICEFFICIENCYCOOLINGFLOWSOutput Powerper unit flow0.90.985%0.91SpecificFuelConsumption=Fuel flow [kg/s]definitionsor SFCSpecificPower=Net Output [J/s]Net Output [J/s]Mass flow [kg/s]Thermodynamics for Gas Turbine Cycles & Cycle Simulation ToolsASME Turbo Expo San Antonio,Texas, 6th June 201367
    • PR = 3PR = 6PR = 15TET = 1000 KTET = 1200 KTET = 1400 KTET = 1600 KLarge sizeHigh weightSmall sizeLow weightLowtechnologyHightechnologyThermodynamics for Gas Turbine Cycles & Cycle Simulation ToolsASME Turbo Expo San Antonio,Texas, 6th June 201368
    • Compressor TurbineCombustionchamberIntakeFreshairALTITUDEMACH No.Rel. HumidityPRESSURERECOVERYFACTORPRESSURERATIOPOLYTROPICEFFICIENCYBLEED FLOWSCOMBUSTIONEFFICIENCYPRESSURELOSSTURBINE ENTRYTEMPERATURE(TET)ISENTROPICEFFICIENCYCOOLINGFLOWSThrustper unit flowNozzleThermodynamics for Gas Turbine Cycles & Cycle Simulation ToolsASME Turbo Expo San Antonio,Texas, 6th June 201369
    • HighPressureCompressorCombustionchamberLowPressureCompressorLowPressureTurbineHighPressureTurbineCOMING UP NEXT...Thermodynamics for Gas Turbine Cycles & Cycle Simulation ToolsASME Turbo Expo San Antonio,Texas, 6th June 201370
    • HighPressureCompressorCombustionchamberLowPressureCompressorLowPressureTurbineHighPressureTurbineCOMING UP NEXT...Thermodynamics for Gas Turbine Cycles & Cycle Simulation ToolsASME Turbo Expo San Antonio,Texas, 6th June 201371
    • HighPressureCompressorCombustionchamberLowPressureCompressorLowPressureTurbineHighPressureTurbineCOMING UP NEXT...Thermodynamics for Gas Turbine Cycles & Cycle Simulation ToolsASME Turbo Expo San Antonio,Texas, 6th June 201372
    • HighPressureCompressorCombustionchamberLowPressureCompressorLowPressureTurbineHighPressureTurbineCombustionchamberCOMING UP NEXT...Thermodynamics for Gas Turbine Cycles & Cycle Simulation ToolsASME Turbo Expo San Antonio,Texas, 6th June 201373
    • HighPressureCompressorCombustionchamberLowPressureCompressorLowPressureTurbineHighPressureTurbineCombustionchamberCOMING UP NEXT...Thermodynamics for Gas Turbine Cycles & Cycle Simulation ToolsASME Turbo Expo San Antonio,Texas, 6th June 201374
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    • Introduction to Thermodynamics for GasTurbine Cycles & Cycle Simulation Toolsfurther  info,  compliments  &  complaints  to  be  addressed  to:p.zachos@cranfield.ac.uk  ASME Turbo Expo 2013San Antonio, US77