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10 me667 chap4 project scheduling

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  • 1. PROJECT SCHEDULING 1 CHAPTER 4 ME751 ELECTIVE PROJECT MANAGEMENT
  • 2. INTRODUCTION A human being normally would perceive a schedule to be some sort of a time table.  In Project Management, a schedule consists of a list of project terminal elements with an intended start and finish dates.  The project schedule is a calendar that links the tasks to be done with the resources that will do them.  Terminal elements are the lowest elements in a schedule which are not further subdivided. 2
  • 3. ROLE OF SCHEDULING IN PROJECT MANAGEMENT  They provide a basis for you to monitor and control project activities.  They help you determine how best to allocate resources so you can achieve the project goal.  They help you assess how time delays will impact the project.  You can figure out where excess resources are available to allocate to other projects.  They provide a basis to help you track project progress. 3
  • 4. SOME RULES OF THE THUMB Organize tasks concurrently to make optimal use of workforce.  Minimize task dependencies to avoid delays caused by one task waiting for another to complete.  Dependent on project managers intuition and experience.  4
  • 5. INPUTS TO CREATE A PROJECT SCHEDULE     Personal and project calendars – Understanding working days, shifts, and resource availability is critical to completing a project schedule. Description of project scope – From this, you can determine key start and end dates, major assumptions behind the plan, and key constraints and restrictions. You can also include stakeholder expectations, which will often determine project milestones. Project risks – You need to understand these to make sure there's enough extra time to deal with identified risks – and with unidentified risks (risks are identified with thorough Risk Analysis). Lists of activities and resource requirements – Again, it's important to determine if there are other constraints to consider when developing the schedule. Understanding the resource capabilities and experience you have available – as well as company holidays 5 and staff vacations – will affect the schedule.
  • 6. INPUTS TO CREATE A PROJECT SCHEDULE (CONTINUED) risks – You need to understand these to make sure there's enough extra time to deal with identified risks – and with unidentified risks (risks are identified with thorough Risk Analysis).  Lists of activities and resource requirements – Understanding the resource capabilities and experience you have available – as well as company holidays and staff vacations – will affect the schedule.  Project 6
  • 7. THE SCHEDULE FORMULA Duration= Work÷ Resource Units  Duration is the length of working time between the start and finish of a task.  Work is the amount of effort, measured in time units (like hours or days), that a resource needs to complete the task. The total work for a task is the sum of all those time units, no matter how many resources are assigned to the task.  Resource Units indicate how much of a resource's available time, according to the resource calendar, is being used to work on a particular task. Resources are the people, equipment, or other materials that are applied to completing a task. 7
  • 8. BUILDING THE PROJECT SCHEDULE Allocate resources to the tasks:  The first step in building the project schedule is to identify the resources required to perform each of the tasks required to complete the project.  A resource is any person, item, tool, or service that is needed by the project that is either scarce or has limited availability.  Many project managers use the terms “resource” and “person” interchangeably, but people are only one kind of resource. 8
  • 9. BUILDING THE PROJECT SCHEDULE Identify the Interdependencies: 9
  • 10. WBS - DEFINITION Logical breakdown of project into components and parts and is constructed by dividing project into major parts with each being divided into subparts. 10
  • 11. HOW DOES WBS HELP? 1.Effective planning by dividing the work into manageable elements which can be planned, budgeted and controlled 2. Assignment of responsibility for work element to project personnel and outside agencies 3. Development of control and information system 11
  • 12. WBS - GUIDELINES  1. Should reflect how the Project Manager plans to manage the project  2. Emphasis must be on meeting project objectives  3. The larger or more complex the project, the more levels in the WBS  4. If work is needed that requires effort or funding, it should be included in the WBS  5. It should reflect the total effort 12
  • 13. PRINCIPLES FOR CREATING WBS  The WBS must be mutually exclusive  The WBS must follow  Know 100% rule when its enough 13
  • 14. MUTUALLY EXCLUSIVE  No overlap between two work packages 14
  • 15. THE 100% RULE  The sum of all work packages must include 100% of the scope of work Applies to all levels of WBS  The sum of WBS element at lower level must equal to  100% of parent level  The WBS must not include any work that is not included in the scope of work 15
  • 16. KNOW WHEN ITS ENOUGH Stop when the package full fills these criteria : 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. You can create accurate estimate Only one type of resource is required per work package There is no significant separation of time between activities inside the work package There is no activity mixed with other activity inside work package that contains a risk that requires special attention There is no need to create separate cost estimate for activities inside the work package 16
  • 17. A TYPICAL WORK BREAKDOWN STRUCTURE 17
  • 18. 18
  • 19. PROJECT MANAGEMENT TOOLS  PERT Chart- designed to analyze and represent the tasks involved in completing a given project  Gantt Chart - popular type of bar chart that illustrates a project schedule 19
  • 20. BAR CHARTS/GANTT CHART  Most projects, however complex, start by being depicted on a bar chart. The principles are very simple: Prepare list of project activities  Estimate the time and resources needed  Represent each activity by a bar  Plot activities on a chart with horizontal time scale showing start and end  20
  • 21. GANTT CHART 21
  • 22. ESTIMATING ACTIVITY TIME  Time     to complete a task is random: Skill levels and knowledge of the individuals Machine/equipment variations Material availability Unexpected events Illness  Strikes  Employee turnover and accidents  Changed soil/site conditions  22
  • 23. ESTIMATING ACTIVITY TIME  We know unexpected events and occurrences will happen but are unable to predict the likelihood with any confidence  We must however account for the possibility of the occurrence of these events 23
  • 24. ESTIMATING ACTIVITY TIME  Optimistic Completion Time - is the time the activity will take if everything goes right  Pessimistic Completion Time - is the time the activity will take if everything that can go wrong does go wrong but the project is still completed  Most Likely Completion Time - is the time required under normal circumstances  It can also be the completion time that has occurred most frequently in similar circumstances 24
  • 25. ESTIMATING ACTIVITY TIME To compute the expected duration time the following formula is used:  E = (O+4M+P)/6  E = Expected duration time  O = Optimistic time  M = Most likely time  P = Pessimistic time  25
  • 26. SEQUENCING ACTIVITIES  Bar chart  Produce a Logical Network  Critical Path Method   Arrow Diagrams Precedence Diagrams  Identify Critical Activities  Locate the Critical Path  Determine Floats 26
  • 27. PERT CHART 27
  • 28. CPM: CRITICAL PATH METHOD  Graphic network based scheduling technique   Arrow Diagrams Precedence Diagrams  Use activities created by the WBS process  Analysis of timing and sequencing logic  Aids in identifying complex interrelationship of activities 28
  • 29. CPM: CRITICAL PATH METHOD Allows for easy revision of schedule and simulation and evaluation of the impact of changes  Also used as a control tool during execution of the project  29
  • 30. STEPS IN PRODUCING A NETWORKS List the activities  Produce a logical network of activities  Assess the duration of each activity  Produce a schedule - determine the start and finish times and the float available for each activity  30
  • 31. STEPS IN PRODUCING A NETWORKS  Determine the time required to complete a project and the the longest path on the network   The longest path is the Critical Path Assess the resources required 31
  • 32. ACTIVITY SEQUENCING  ACTIVITY  A B C D           E F G H I J K IMMED. PRED. Set conference date Establish theme/program Select conference site A Obtain speakers 6.0 Develop brochure C,D Obtain mailing labels C,D Mail brochure E,F Obtain speaker materials D Receive registrations G Confirm all arrangements H,I Prepare conference kits J TIME(WEEKS) (E) 2.0 5.0 5.0 B 9.0 5.0 2.0 4.0 6.0 1.0 2.0 32
  • 33. SAMPLE NETWORK a c e g start i j k end f b d h 33
  • 34. ACTIVITY TIMES/CRITICAL PATH 0 2 2 a2 7 11 e9 c5 4 6 6 11 20 11 20 22 20 g2 Start 11 16 0 5 5 b5 0 11 d6 5 5 f5 15 20 11 22 28 i6 20 22 22 28 11 15 28 29 29 31 j1 k2 End 28 29 29 31 h4 24 28 34
  • 35. CRITICAL PATH  Calculations for precedence diagrams and arrow diagrams are essentially the same  Critical path is where there is zero slack time  If an activity takes longer than estimated on the critical path then the project will be delayed  The critical path can change if there is a delay that make an alternative path longer 35
  • 36. FLOAT (SLACK)  Slack or float time is amount of delay that could be tolerated in the start or completion time without causing a delay in completion of the project  Total float or calculations to determine how long each activity could be delayed without delaying the project  Total float = LF - ES - duration 36
  • 37. SUMMARY Critical path identifies the project time requirements  Slack or float time is amount of delay that could be tolerated in the start or completion time without causing a delay in completion of the project  Zero slack time equals the critical path  37