Sutherland.Malad Audit Results Electrical.Final.17 Mar 08

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Sutherland.Malad Audit Results Electrical.Final.17 Mar 08

  1. 1. Results from Electrical Audit of Sutherland’s Malad Facility, Mumbai Presentation to Mr. K.P. Nair & Mr. Ramunni Nair Version 2 March 17, 2008
  2. 2. About This Report <ul><li>Choice Solutions is submitting this report of findings and insights based on our electrical audit of Sutherland’s Malad facility in Mumbai. </li></ul><ul><li>We estimate significant opex and capex savings through capacity optimization and wastage control measures. We also make strong recommendations for changes in the electrical distribution systems. </li></ul><ul><li>As the next step, we recommend implementing the suggested changes followed by maintenance of the electrical infrastructures. </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Audit Scope of Work </li></ul><ul><li>Contract Demand Diversity Factor </li></ul><ul><li>Capacity vs. Utilization (Infrastructure Optimization) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DG </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>UPS </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Consumption (End Loads) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>LDB </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>AHU </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chiller Plant </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Potential Power Savings (Infrastructure Optimization) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MD </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DG </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>UPS </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Potential Power Savings (Wastage Control) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>LDB </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Desktop </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>AHU and Chiller Plant </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Power Quality </li></ul><ul><li>Facility Observations </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusions and Next Steps </li></ul>Agenda
  4. 4. Audit Scope of Work ATS LDB Panel UPS SBP 3 x 60 kVA HVAC Panel UPS SBP 20 KVA DB1 DB2 DB3 DB2 DB3 DB4 DB2 DB3 DB4 DB1 DBI DB4 DG Backup DB5 500 kVA DG-1 Energy Meter Chiller Plant DB5 DB5 Sever Room Main LT Panel PFC-1 100 KVAR Chiller Distribution AMF-1 AMF-2 AMF Panels Main LT Panel APFC 250 kVA 250 kVA First Floor End to End Power Distribution System End Loads Intermediate Loads 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
  5. 5. Audit Scope of Work LTG Panel UPS SBP 3 x 40 kVA 2 x 60 kVA HVAC Panel DB1 DB2 DB3 DB2 DB3 DB4 DB2 DB3 DB4 DB1 DBI DB4 DB5 DB5 DB5 ATS DG Backup 500 kVA DG-2 Energy Meter Main LT Panel PFC-1 100 KVAR AMF-1 AMF Panels Main LT Panel APFC Second Floor End to End Power Distribution System 2 x 225 kVA Intermediate Loads End Loads 1 1 1 1 1
  6. 6. Reliance Power Audit Activities <ul><li>Check CMD allotted, utilization and cable size </li></ul><ul><li>Check cable temperature, % loss across the cable from starting to end point </li></ul><ul><li>Measure power factor </li></ul><ul><li>Check for loads connected </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Measure phases and neutral current </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Check for load balancing </li></ul><ul><li>Check for body and neutral earthing </li></ul><ul><li>Check for PCC </li></ul><ul><li>Check for PCC panel Bus bar conductor size </li></ul>
  7. 7. DG Audit Activities <ul><li>Measure phase and neutral current </li></ul><ul><li>Check for load balancing </li></ul><ul><li>Measure load power factor </li></ul><ul><li>Ascertain same cable and lug material </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Copper or aluminum </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Check for gland and gland plates </li></ul><ul><li>Check for cable routing, bunching and termination </li></ul><ul><li>Check for generator capacity, utilization, and age </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Engine and alternator </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Check for loads connected </li></ul><ul><li>Continued... </li></ul>
  8. 8. DG Audit Activities <ul><li>Continued… </li></ul><ul><li>Check for AMF panel and transfer time </li></ul><ul><li>Check generator battery’s age and condition </li></ul><ul><li>Check for body and neutral earthing </li></ul><ul><li>Check for earth resistance </li></ul><ul><li>Measure current rating of MCBs and sockets </li></ul><ul><li>Check for MCB enclosure </li></ul><ul><li>Check for emergency lighting in critical and common areas </li></ul>
  9. 9. Load Balancing on EB and DG Audit Activities <ul><li>Loads on EB </li></ul><ul><li>Check load on R-phase current </li></ul><ul><li>Check load on Y-phase current </li></ul><ul><li>Check load on B-phase current </li></ul><ul><li>Loads on DG </li></ul><ul><li>Check load on R-phase current </li></ul><ul><li>Check load on Y-phase current </li></ul><ul><li>Check load on B-phase current </li></ul>
  10. 10. AMF Panel Audit Activities <ul><li>Check terminations of changeover </li></ul><ul><li>Check for inter locking system between EB and DG </li></ul><ul><li>Check for connection status of APFC while on DG </li></ul><ul><li>Check for glands and gland plates </li></ul><ul><li>Check for switchgear neutral contact rating </li></ul><ul><li>Check for cable size and bus bar capacity </li></ul><ul><li>Check for body earthing </li></ul>
  11. 11. APFC Audit Activities <ul><li>Check for automatic/manual correction </li></ul><ul><li>Check for faulty capacitors </li></ul><ul><li>Check for sufficient number of capacitors </li></ul><ul><li>Check for capacitor bank fuses </li></ul><ul><li>Check for PF being close to unity </li></ul><ul><li>Check cable size </li></ul><ul><li>Check whether capacitors connected as per load requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Check for body earthing </li></ul><ul><li>Check for power factor which causes incentive/penalty </li></ul>
  12. 12. Power Distribution Panels Audit Activities <ul><li>Assess power in the panel </li></ul><ul><li>Check routing, bunching and termination of cables </li></ul><ul><li>Check MCCB/ACB ratings </li></ul><ul><li>Check for Bus bar size </li></ul><ul><li>Check for neutral size </li></ul><ul><li>Check earth cable size </li></ul><ul><li>Check for body earthing </li></ul><ul><li>Check for emergency lighting in critical and common areas </li></ul>
  13. 13. UPS Audit Activities <ul><li>Check for UPS input power factor </li></ul><ul><li>Check UPS input harmonics (VTHD and ITHD) </li></ul><ul><li>Check input filter inside the UPS </li></ul><ul><li>Check for efficiency and backup </li></ul><ul><li>Check for loads connected </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Measure phases and neutral current </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Check routing, bunching and termination of cables </li></ul><ul><li>Check for body and neutral earthing </li></ul><ul><li>Check for heat dissipation of UPS </li></ul><ul><li>Check ventilation for air circulation in the UPS room </li></ul><ul><li>Check for emergency lighting in critical and common areas </li></ul><ul><li>Check whether UPS are in parallel redundant mode </li></ul>
  14. 14. Other Loads Audit Activities <ul><li>Check lightning load </li></ul><ul><li>Check AC and chiller plant load </li></ul><ul><li>Check elevator load </li></ul><ul><li>Check routing, bunching and termination of cables </li></ul><ul><li>Check for body and neutral earthing </li></ul><ul><li>Check for load protections </li></ul>
  15. 15. FIRST FLOOR
  16. 16. <ul><li>Audit Scope of Work </li></ul><ul><li>Contract Demand Diversity Factor </li></ul><ul><li>Capacity vs. Utilization (Infrastructure Optimization) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DG </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>UPS </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Consumption (End Loads) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>LDB </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>AHU </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chiller Plant </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Potential Power Savings (Infrastructure Optimization) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MD </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DG </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>UPS </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Potential Power Savings (Wastage Control) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>LDB </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Desktop </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>AHU and Chiller Plant </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Power Quality </li></ul><ul><li>Facility Observations </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusions and Next Steps </li></ul>Agenda
  17. 17. Loads and their Maximum Consumption Reliance Power 500 kVA MD Total: 346.53 kVA Max Electricity Bill Unit = 1kW 3x60 kVA UPS (For Facility) 20 KVA UPS (For Server Room) AHU (AHU 33.69 kVA) LDB (For Lighting) Current: 54.89 kVA Current: 75.3 kVA Current: 6.34 kVA Current: 50.4 kVA Current: 159.6 kVA Chiller Plant (1X80, 1X60 TR)
  18. 18. Capacity vs. Utilization MD (Off-Peak Load) <ul><li>MD is more than required; diversity factor should be close to 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunity to save on opex by lowering MD to 400 kVA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Includes cushion of ~10% on name plate </li></ul></ul>500 kVA MD Utilization = 333/(500+125) = 53.28% Diversity Factor = 370/500 = 0.74 333 TOTAL 0.95 0.95 0.95 PF 36.62 472.8 475.5 485.4 Current (A) 2.072 N 110 233.4 B 110 231.4 Y 113 233.5 R kVA Voltage (V) 500 kVA
  19. 19. Capacity vs. Utilization MD (Peak Load) <ul><li>Peak load consumption is as per name plate </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunity to save on opex by lowering MD to 400 kVA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Includes cushion of ~10% on name plate </li></ul></ul>500 kVA MD Utilization = 370/500 = 74% 370 TOTAL 0.94 0.95 0.93 PF 41.53 498.7 511.9 503.3 Current (A) 0.858 N 121 243.8 B 126 244.4 Y 123 243.9 R kVA Voltage (V) 225 kVA
  20. 20. <ul><li>Audit Scope of Work </li></ul><ul><li>Contract Demand Diversity Factor </li></ul><ul><li>Capacity vs. Utilization (Infrastructure Optimization) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DG </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>UPS </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Consumption (End Loads) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>LDB </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>AHU </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chiller Plant </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Potential Power Savings (Infrastructure Optimization) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MD </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DG </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>UPS </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Potential Power Savings (Wastage Control) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>LDB </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Desktop </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>AHU and Chiller Plant </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Power Quality </li></ul><ul><li>Facility Observations </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusions and Next Steps </li></ul>Agenda
  21. 21. Capacity vs. Utilization Generator (DG-1) DG utilization = 382/500 = 76.4% <ul><li>Over 23.6% capacity unutilized – not recommended for 500 kVA DG </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunity to save on opex by switching to a 400 kVA DG </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lower diesel expenses </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Opportunity to save on capex also </li></ul><ul><li>Need to add capacitors to reduce generator kVA rating </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Full load on DG is 341 kW at PF 0.95; so required DG capacity is 360 kVA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Addl. capacitor required is = 341{Tan[Cos -1 (0.9)]-Tan[Cos -1 (0.95)]} = 60 kVAR </li></ul></ul>341 114 114 113 kW 382 TOTAL 0.90 0.89 0.89 PF 531.5 535.7 518.6 Current (A) 127 238.7 B 128 239.2 Y 127 237.8 R kVA Voltage (V) 500 kVA
  22. 22. Capacity vs. Utilization UPS (3 x 60 kVA Facility) <ul><li>Opportunity for opex and capex savings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Requirement met by 3 x 40 kVA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The sizing can be further lowered by switching off unused systems; currently, 35% of the systems are left switched on even when unused </li></ul></ul>UPS Utilization = 75.3 /180 = 41.7% 75.3 TOTAL 0.85 0.86 0.87 PF 103.6 113.5 116.6 Current (A) 23.5 225.9 B 25.6 225.8 Y 26.2 223.6 R KVA Voltage (V) 3x60 kVA
  23. 23. Capacity vs. Utilization UPS (20 kVA Server) <ul><li>20 kVA is dedicated for server; facility UPS is another source </li></ul><ul><li>In absence of facility UPS, load on 20 kVA is 12.68 kVA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Utilization is 63.4 % </li></ul></ul>UPS Utilization = 6.34 /20 = 31.7% 6.34 TOTAL 0.99 0.99 1.00 PF 8.66 7.49 10.19 Current (A) 2.08 239.2 B 1.80 240.4 Y 2.46 241.0 R KVA Voltage (V) 20 kVA
  24. 24. <ul><li>Audit Scope of Work </li></ul><ul><li>Contract Demand Diversity Factor </li></ul><ul><li>Capacity vs. Utilization (Infrastructure Optimization) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DG </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>UPS </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Consumption (End Loads) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>LDB </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>AHU </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chiller Plant </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Potential Power Savings (Infrastructure Optimization) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MD </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DG </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>UPS </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Potential Power Savings (Wastage Control) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>LDB </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Desktop </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>AHU and Chiller Plant </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Power Quality </li></ul><ul><li>Facility Observations </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusions and Next Steps </li></ul>Agenda
  25. 25. Consumption LDB Lighting Consumption = 54.89 54.8 TOTAL 0.95 0.98 0.96 PF 75.6 80.2 76.1 Current (A) 17.7 235.2 B 19.0 236.1 Y 18.1 237.2 R kVA Voltage (V) LDB
  26. 26. Consumption AHU Total AHU Consumption =50.4 kVA <ul><li>They are Multiple number of small AHU’s installed in the facility </li></ul>50.4 TOTAL 0.73 0.75 0.74 PF 69.1 71.8 71.3 Current (A) 16.3 236.2 B 17.0 238.1 Y 17.1 240.0 R KVA Voltage (V) 80 & 60 TR
  27. 27. Consumption Chiller Plant (80 and 60 TR) Chiller Plant Consumption = 159.6 kVA <ul><li>They are of 2 no’s of chillers , one at time in operation </li></ul><ul><li>80 and 60 TR Voltas </li></ul>159.6 TOTAL 0.75 0.74 0.73 PF 232.9 240.8 238.8 Current (A) 54.6 234.0 B 57.9 236.2 Y 47.1 237.2 R KVA Voltage (V) # TR
  28. 28. <ul><li>Audit Scope of Work </li></ul><ul><li>Contract Demand Diversity Factor </li></ul><ul><li>Capacity vs. Utilization (Infrastructure Optimization) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DG </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>UPS </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Consumption (End Loads) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>LDB </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>AHU </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chiller Plant </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Potential Power Savings (Infrastructure Optimization) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MD </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DG </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>UPS </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Potential Power Savings (Wastage Control) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>LDB </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Desktop </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>AHU and Chiller Plant </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Power Quality </li></ul><ul><li>Facility Observations </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusions and Next Steps </li></ul>Agenda
  29. 29. Potential Power Savings Electricity Bill Incentive and Penalty <ul><li>Average penalty per month due to peak hour consumption > Rs.23,365 </li></ul><ul><li>Average penalty on total billing is 1.86% </li></ul>23,999 12,89,770 Aug 2007 Consumption at LT Meter( 500 kVA MD) (L964882 and L964883) 1 22,732 12,21,720 Oct 2007 Consumption at LT Meter( 500 kVA MD) (L964882 and L964883) 2 Peak Hour Penalty Bill Amount Bill Date Location #
  30. 30. Potential Power Savings MD * (MD charge/kVA/month of Rs. 300/-) x (demand difference of 100 kVA) x (12 months per year) 3,60,000 TOTAL 3,60,000 Shifting to 400 kVA MD instead of 500 kVA * 1 Capex Opex (Annual) Area of Saving #
  31. 31. Potential Power Savings DG ** Based on new Caterpillar 500 kVA DG set price *** (Rs. 30 per lt diesel) x (20 lts/hr difference) x (12 hrs power cut per month) x (12 months per year) 2,50,000 86,400 TOTAL 86,400 <ul><ul><li>Diesel consumption savings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(70lts vs. 90lts/hr) *** </li></ul></ul>2,50,000 Use 400 kVA instead of 500 kVA ** 2 Capex Opex (Annual) Area of Saving #
  32. 32. Potential Power Savings UPS **** Requirement is met by 3x40 kVA (this includes 6% cushion and redundancy with 1x40KVA ) ***** For the3x60kVA and 3 x40kVA UPS Efficiency difference, 9.6 kW per hour x Rs. 4 per hr x 24 hrs x 30 days per month x 12 months per year ****** For the 60kVA and 40 kVA UPS AMC charges diffierence, Rs. 30,000 per year x 3 no of UPS ******* For the 3x60kVA and 3x40kVA UPS cooling requirements diffierence, 3.36 kW per hr x Rs. 4 per hr x 24 hrs x 30 days per month x 12 months per year 90,000 <ul><ul><li>UPS AMC charges savings ****** </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Savings in cooling the UPS ******* </li></ul></ul>1,16,122 24,00,000 5,87,898 TOTAL 3,31,776 <ul><ul><li>Savings from no load losses ***** </li></ul></ul>24,00,000 Sell 3x60 kVA UPS and batteries **** 3 Capex Opex (Annual) Area of Saving #
  33. 33. Potential Power Savings Summary * (MD charge/kVA/month of Rs. 300/-) x (demand difference of 100 kVA) x (12 months per year) ** Based on new Caterpillar 500 kVA DG set price *** (Rs. 30 per lt diesel) x (20 lts/hr difference) x (12 hrs power cut per month) x (12 months per year) **** Requirement is met by 3x40 kVA (this includes 6% cushion and redundancy with 1x40KVA ) ***** For the3x60kVA and 3 x40kVA UPS Efficiency difference, 9.6 kW per hour x Rs. 4 per hr x 24 hrs x 30 days per month x 12 months per year ****** For the 60kVA and 40 kVA UPS AMC charges difference, Rs. 30,000 per year x 3 no of UPS ******* For the 3x60kVA and 3x40kVA UPS cooling requirements difference, 3.36 kW per hr x Rs. 4 per hr x 24 hrs x 30 days per month x 12 months per year 90,000 <ul><ul><li>UPS AMC charges savings ****** </li></ul></ul>3,60,000 Shifting to 400KVA MD in place of 500 kVA * 1 <ul><ul><li>Savings in cooling the UPS ******* </li></ul></ul>1,16,122 26,50,000 9,84,298 TOTAL 3,31,776 <ul><ul><li>Savings from no load losses ***** </li></ul></ul>24,00,000 Sell 3x60 kVA UPS and batteries **** 3 86,400 <ul><ul><li>Diesel consumption savings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(45lts vs. 60lts/hr) *** </li></ul></ul>2,50,000 Use existing 400 kVA instead of 500 kVA ** 2 Capex Opex (Annual) Area of Saving #
  34. 34. <ul><li>Audit Scope of Work </li></ul><ul><li>Contract Demand Diversity Factor </li></ul><ul><li>Capacity vs. Utilization (Infrastructure Optimization) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DG </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>UPS </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Consumption (End Loads) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>LDB </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>AHU </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chiller Plant </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Potential Power Savings (Infrastructure Optimization) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MD </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DG </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>UPS </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Potential Power Savings (Wastage Control) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>LDB </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Desktop </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>AHU and Chiller Plant </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Power Quality </li></ul><ul><li>Facility Observations </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusions and Next Steps </li></ul>Agenda
  35. 35. Wastage Control LDB * (Rs. 5.5/unit) x (80-26)/80 x 11.6 x (24 hr/day) x (365 day/yr) = Rs. 3,77,249/yr 3,77,249 TOTAL 3,77,249 <ul><ul><li>Consumption savings (26 vs. 80 W at 11.6 kW total lighting load) * </li></ul></ul>Use 2x13 W lamps instead of 4x20 W 1 Capex Opex (Annual) Area of Saving #
  36. 36. Wastage Control Desktop ** (Rs. 5.5/unit ) x (35% x 145 kVA x 0.78 PF) x (24/day) x (365 day/year) = Rs. 19,07,205/year 19,07,205 TOTAL 19,07,205 <ul><ul><li>Consumption savings (35% of 145 kVA) ** </li></ul></ul>Shutdown desktops which are not in use 2 Capex Opex (Annual) Area of Saving #
  37. 37. Wastage Control AHU and Chiller Plant *** (Rs. 5.5/unit ) x (5% x 234 kVA x 0.78 PF) x (24 hr/day) x (365 day/yr) = Rs. 4,39,690/yr 4,39,690 TOTAL 4,39,690 <ul><ul><li>Consumption savings (5% of 54+180 kVA) *** </li></ul></ul>Install VFD to Optimize the cooling 3 Capex Opex (Annual) Area of Saving #
  38. 38. Wastage Control Summary * (Rs. 5.5/unit) x (80-26)/80 x 11.6 x (24 hr/day) x (365 day/yr) = Rs. 3,77,249/yr ** (Rs. 5.5/unit ) x (35% x 145 kVA x 0.78 PF) x (24/day) x (365 day/year) = Rs. 19,07,205/year *** (Rs. 5.5/unit ) x (5% x 234 kVA x 0.78 PF) x (24 hr/day) x (365 day/yr) = Rs. 4,39,690/yr 3,77,249 <ul><ul><li>Consumption savings (26 vs. 80 W at 11.6 kW total lighting load) * </li></ul></ul>Use 2x13 W lamps instead of 4x20 W 1 19,07,205 <ul><ul><li>Consumption savings (35% of 145 kVA) ** </li></ul></ul>Shutdown desktops which are not in use 2 27,24,144 TOTAL 4,39,690 <ul><ul><li>Consumption savings (5% of 54+180 kVA) *** </li></ul></ul>Install VFD to Optimize the cooling 3 Capex Opex (Annual) Area of Saving #
  39. 39. <ul><li>Audit Scope of Work </li></ul><ul><li>Contract Demand Diversity Factor </li></ul><ul><li>Capacity vs. Utilization (Infrastructure Optimization) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DG </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>UPS </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Consumption (End Loads) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>LDB </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>AHU </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chiller Plant </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Potential Power Savings (Infrastructure Optimization) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MD </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DG </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>UPS </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Potential Power Savings (Wastage Control) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>LDB </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Desktop </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>AHU and Chiller Plant </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Power Quality </li></ul><ul><li>Facility Observations </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusions and Next Steps </li></ul>Agenda
  40. 40. Power Quality (MD Off-Peak Load) R-Phase: Voltage, Current and Power <ul><li>If unstable, leads to flickering/damaging of CRTs </li></ul>Stable Stable Waveform <ul><li>PF within limits </li></ul>>0.95 0.95 PF Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  41. 41. Power Quality (MD Off-Peak Load) R-Phase: Voltage and Current Harmonics <ul><li>If unstable, leads to flickering/damaging of CRTs </li></ul>Stable Stable Waveform <ul><li>Harmonics within the limits </li></ul>3-5% 1.1% Harmonics Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  42. 42. Power Quality (MD Off-Peak Load) Y-Phase: Voltage, Current and Power <ul><li>If unstable, leads to flickering/damaging of CRTs </li></ul>Stable Stable Waveform <ul><li>PF within limits </li></ul>>0.95 0.95 PF Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  43. 43. Power Quality (MD Off-Peak Load) Y-Phase: Voltage and Current Harmonics <ul><li>If unstable, leads to flickering/damaging of CRTs </li></ul>Stable Stable Waveform <ul><li>Harmonics within the limits </li></ul>3-5% 1.0% Harmonics Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  44. 44. Power Quality (MD Off-Peak Load) B-Phase: Voltage, Current and Power <ul><li>If unstable, leads to flickering/damaging of CRTs </li></ul>Stable Stable Waveform <ul><li>PF within limits </li></ul>>0.95 0.95 PF Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  45. 45. Power Quality (MD Off-Peak Load) B-Phase: Voltage and Current Harmonics <ul><li>If unstable, leads to flickering/damaging of CRTs </li></ul>Stable Stable Waveform <ul><li>Harmonics within the limits </li></ul>3-5% 1.2% Harmonics Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  46. 46. Power Quality (MD Off-Peak Load) N-E: Voltage, Current and Power <ul><li>If unstable, leads to flickering/damaging of CRTs </li></ul>Stable Unstable Waveform <ul><li>E-N voltage is within limits </li></ul>3v< 2.072v E-N voltage Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  47. 47. Power Quality (MD Off-Peak Load) N-E: Voltage and Current Harmonics <ul><li>If unstable, leads to flickering/damaging of CRTs </li></ul>Stable Unstable Waveform <ul><li>High harmonic content increases earth to neutral voltage </li></ul>3-5% 72.4% Harmonics Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  48. 48. Power Quality (DG) R-Phase: Voltage, Current and Power <ul><li>If unstable, leads to flickering/damaging of CRTs </li></ul>Stable Stable Waveform <ul><li>PF within limits </li></ul>>0.95 0.95 PF Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  49. 49. Power Quality (DG) R-Phase: Voltage and Current Harmonics <ul><li>If unstable, leads to flickering/damaging of CRTs </li></ul>Stable Stable Waveform <ul><li>Harmonics within the limits </li></ul>3-5% 1.8% Harmonics Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  50. 50. Power Quality (DG) Y-Phase: Voltage, Current and Power <ul><li>If unstable, leads to flickering/damaging of CRTs </li></ul>Stable Stable Waveform <ul><li>PF not in limits needs to improve up to 0.95 </li></ul>>0.95 0.89 PF Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  51. 51. Power Quality (DG) Y-Phase: Voltage and Current Harmonics <ul><li>If unstable, leads to flickering/damaging of CRTs </li></ul>Stable Stable Waveform <ul><li>Harmonics within the limits </li></ul>3-5% 2.0% Harmonics Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  52. 52. Power Quality (DG) B-Phase: Voltage, Current and Power <ul><li>If unstable, leads to flickering/damaging of CRTs </li></ul>Stable Stable Waveform <ul><li>PF not in limits needs improve up to 0.95 </li></ul>>0.95 0.90 PF Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  53. 53. Power Quality (DG) B-Phase: Voltage and Current Harmonics <ul><li>If unstable, leads to flickering/damaging of CRTs </li></ul>Stable Stable Waveform <ul><li>Harmonics within the limits </li></ul>3-5% 1.9% Harmonics Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  54. 54. Power Quality (DG) N-E: Voltage, Current and Power <ul><li>If unstable, leads to flickering/damaging of CRTs </li></ul>Stable Unstable Waveform <ul><li>E-N voltage is within limits </li></ul>3v< 2.072v E-N voltage Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  55. 55. Power Quality (DG) N-E: Voltage and Current Harmonics <ul><li>If unstable, leads to flickering/damaging of CRTs </li></ul>Stable Unstable Waveform <ul><li>High harmonic content increases earth to neutral voltage </li></ul>3-5% 72.4% Harmonics Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  56. 56. Power Quality (PFC) R-Phase: Voltage, Current and Power <ul><li>If unstable, leads to flickering/damaging of CRTs </li></ul>Stable Stable Waveform <ul><li>PF within limits </li></ul>>0.95 0.95 PF Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  57. 57. Power Quality (PFC) R-Phase: Voltage and Current Harmonics <ul><li>If unstable, leads to flickering/damaging of CRTs </li></ul>Stable Stable Waveform <ul><li>Harmonics within the limits </li></ul>3-5% 1.1% Harmonics Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  58. 58. Power Quality (PFC) Y-Phase: Voltage, Current and Power <ul><li>If unstable, leads to flickering/damaging of CRTs </li></ul>Stable Stable Waveform <ul><li>PF within limits </li></ul>>0.95 0.95 PF Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  59. 59. Power Quality (PFC) Y-Phase: Voltage and Current Harmonics <ul><li>If unstable, leads to flickering/damaging of CRTs </li></ul>Stable Stable Waveform <ul><li>Harmonics within the limits </li></ul>3-5% 1.0% Harmonics Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  60. 60. Power Quality (PFC) B-Phase: Voltage, Current and Power <ul><li>If unstable, leads to flickering/damaging of CRTs </li></ul>Stable Stable Waveform <ul><li>PF within limits </li></ul>>0.95 0.95 PF Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  61. 61. Power Quality (PFC) B-Phase: Voltage and Current Harmonics <ul><li>If unstable, leads to flickering/damaging of CRTs </li></ul>Stable Stable Waveform <ul><li>Harmonics within the limits </li></ul>3-5% 1.2% Harmonics Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  62. 62. Power Quality (MD Peak Load) R-Phase: Voltage, Current and Power <ul><li>If unstable, leads to flickering/damaging of CRTs </li></ul>Stable Stable Waveform <ul><li>Low PF at input requires high current </li></ul>>0.95 0.93 PF <ul><li>44.6 KVAR needed to be added to improve PF </li></ul>44.6 KVAR Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  63. 63. Power Quality (MD Peak Load) R-Phase: Voltage and Current Harmonics <ul><li>If unstable, leads to flickering/damaging of CRTs </li></ul>Stable Stable Waveform <ul><li>Harmonics within the limits </li></ul>3-5% 1.0% Harmonics Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  64. 64. Power Quality (MD Peak Load) Y-Phase: Voltage, Current and Power <ul><li>If unstable, leads to flickering/damaging of CRTs </li></ul>Stable Stable Waveform <ul><li>PF within limits </li></ul>>0.95 0.95 PF Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  65. 65. Power Quality (MD Peak Load) Y-Phase: Voltage and Current Harmonics <ul><li>If unstable, leads to flickering/damaging of CRTs </li></ul>Stable Stable Waveform <ul><li>Harmonics within the limits </li></ul>3-5% 0.7% Harmonics Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  66. 66. Power Quality (MD Peak Load) B-Phase: Voltage, Current and Power <ul><li>If unstable, leads to flickering/damaging of CRTs </li></ul>Stable Stable Waveform <ul><li>Low PF at input requires high current </li></ul>>0.95 0.94 PF Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  67. 67. Power Quality (MD Peak Load) B-Phase: Voltage and Current Harmonics <ul><li>If unstable, leads to flickering/damaging of CRTs </li></ul>Stable Stable Waveform <ul><li>Harmonics within the limits </li></ul>3-5% 3.1% Harmonics Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  68. 68. Power Quality (MD Peak Load) N-E: Voltage, Current and Power <ul><li>If unstable, leads to flickering/damaging of CRTs </li></ul>Stable Unstable Waveform <ul><li>E-N voltage within limits </li></ul>3v< 0.858v E-N voltage Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  69. 69. Power Quality (MD Peak Load) N-E: Voltage and Current Harmonics <ul><li>If unstable, leads to flickering/damaging of CRTs </li></ul>Stable Unstable Waveform <ul><li>High harmonic content increases earth to neutral voltage </li></ul>3-5% 65.3% Harmonics Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  70. 70. Power Quality (Main LDB) R-Phase: Voltage, Current and Power <ul><li>If unstable, leads to flickering/damaging of CRTs </li></ul>Stable Stable Waveform <ul><li>PF within limits </li></ul>>0.95 0.96 PF Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  71. 71. Power Quality (Main LDB) R-Phase: Voltage and Current Harmonics <ul><li>If unstable, leads to flickering/damaging of CRTs </li></ul>Stable Stable Waveform <ul><li>Harmonics within the limits </li></ul>3-5% 1.4% Harmonics Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  72. 72. Power Quality (Main LDB) Y-Phase: Voltage, Current and Power <ul><li>If unstable, leads to flickering/damaging of CRTs </li></ul>Stable Stable Waveform <ul><li>Low PF at input requires high current </li></ul>>0.95 0.98 PF Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  73. 73. Power Quality (Main LDB) Y-Phase: Voltage and Current Harmonics <ul><li>If unstable, leads to flickering/damaging of CRTs </li></ul>Stable Unstable Waveform <ul><li>Harmonics within the limits </li></ul>3-5% 1.1% Harmonics Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  74. 74. Power Quality (Main LDB) B-Phase: Voltage, Current and Power <ul><li>If unstable, leads to flickering/damaging of CRTs </li></ul>Stable Stable Waveform <ul><li>Low PF at input requires high current </li></ul>>0.95 0.95 PF Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  75. 75. Power Quality (Main LDB) B-Phase: Voltage and Current Harmonics <ul><li>Harmonics within the limits </li></ul>3-5% 1.3% Harmonics Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  76. 76. Power Quality (Main LDB) N-E: Voltage, Current and Power <ul><li>If unstable, leads to flickering/damaging of CRTs </li></ul>Stable Unstable Waveform <ul><li>E-N voltage is within limits </li></ul>3v< 2.561v E-N voltage Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  77. 77. Power Quality (Main LDB) N-E: Voltage and Current Harmonics <ul><li>If unstable, leads to flickering/damaging of CRTs </li></ul>Stable Unstable Waveform <ul><li>High harmonic content increases earth to neutral voltage </li></ul>3-5% 67.9% Harmonics Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  78. 78. Power Quality (PDB1) R-Phase: Voltage, Current and Power <ul><li>If unstable, leads to flickering/damaging of CRTs </li></ul>Stable Stable Waveform <ul><li>PF within limits </li></ul>>0.95 0.96 PF Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  79. 79. Power Quality (PDB1) R-Phase: Voltage and Current Harmonics <ul><li>If unstable, leads to flickering/damaging of CRTs </li></ul>Stable Stable Waveform <ul><li>Harmonics within the limits </li></ul>3-5% 1.5% Harmonics Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  80. 80. Power Quality (PDB1) Y-Phase: Voltage, Current and Power <ul><li>If unstable, leads to flickering/damaging of CRTs </li></ul>Stable Unstable Waveform <ul><li>PF within limits </li></ul>>0.95 0.98 PF Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  81. 81. Power Quality (PDB1) Y-Phase: Voltage and Current Harmonics <ul><li>If unstable, leads to flickering/damaging of CRTs </li></ul>Stable Stable Waveform <ul><li>Harmonics within the limits </li></ul>3-5% 1.1% Harmonics Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  82. 82. Power Quality (PDB1) B-Phase: Voltage, Current and Power <ul><li>If unstable, leads to flickering/damaging of CRTs </li></ul>Stable Stable Waveform <ul><li>Low PF at input requires high current </li></ul>>0.95 0.84 PF Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  83. 83. Power Quality (PDB1) B-Phase: Voltage and Current Harmonics <ul><li>Harmonics within the limits </li></ul>3-5% 1.4% Harmonics Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  84. 84. Power Quality (PDB1) N-E: Voltage, Current and Power <ul><li>If unstable, leads to flickering/damaging of CRTs </li></ul>Stable Unstable Waveform <ul><li>E-N voltage is within limits </li></ul>3v< 2.636v N-E Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  85. 85. Power Quality (PDB1) N-E: Voltage and Current Harmonics <ul><li>High neutral current is due to load unbalancing </li></ul>0 19.56 N-current <ul><li>High harmonics content increases N-E voltage </li></ul>3-5% 69.6% Harmonics Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  86. 86. Power Quality (PDB2) R-Phase: Voltage, Current and Power <ul><li>If unstable, leads to flickering/damaging of CRT’s </li></ul>Stable Stable Waveform <ul><li>Low PF at input requires high current </li></ul>>0.95 0.91 PF Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  87. 87. Power Quality (PDB2) R-Phase: Voltage and Current Harmonics <ul><li>If unstable, leads to flickering/damaging of CRTs </li></ul>Stable Stable Waveform <ul><li>Harmonics within the limits </li></ul>3-5% 1.6% Harmonics Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  88. 88. Power Quality (PDB2) Y-Phase: Voltage, Current and Power <ul><li>If unstable, leads to flickering/damaging of CRTs </li></ul>Stable Stable Waveform <ul><li>Low PF at input requires high current </li></ul>>0.95 0.89 PF Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  89. 89. Power Quality (PDB2) Y-Phase: Voltage and Current Harmonics <ul><li>Harmonics within the limits </li></ul>3-5% 1.1% Harmonics Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  90. 90. Power Quality (PDB2) B-Phase: Voltage, Current and Power <ul><li>If unstable, leads to flickering/damaging of CRTs </li></ul>Stable Stable Waveform <ul><li>PF within limits </li></ul>>0.95 0.95 PF Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  91. 91. Power Quality (PDB2) B-Phase: Voltage and Current Harmonics <ul><li>Harmonics within the limits </li></ul>3-5% 1.5% Harmonics Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  92. 92. Power Quality (PDB2) N-E: Voltage, Current and Power <ul><li>High neutral current is due to load unbalancing </li></ul>0A 10.32 N current <ul><li>NE voltage within limits </li></ul>3< 2.584v NE Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  93. 93. Power Quality (PDB2) N-E: Voltage and Current Harmonics <ul><li>If unstable, leads to flickering/damaging of CRTs </li></ul>Stable Unstable Waveform <ul><li>High harmonic content increases NE voltage </li></ul>3-5% 78.8% Harmonics Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  94. 94. Power Quality (PDB3) R-Phase: Voltage, Current and Power <ul><li>If unstable, leads to flickering/damaging of CRTs </li></ul>Stable Stable Waveform <ul><li>PF within limits </li></ul>>0.95 0.95 PF Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  95. 95. Power Quality (PDB3) R-Phase: Voltage and Current Harmonics <ul><li>Harmonics within the limits </li></ul>3-5% 1.7% Harmonics Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  96. 96. Power Quality (PDB3) Y-Phase: Voltage, Current and Power <ul><li>If unstable, leads to flickering/damaging of CRTs </li></ul>Stable Stable Waveform <ul><li>PF within limits </li></ul>>0.95 0.96 PF Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  97. 97. Power Quality (PDB3) Y-Phase: Voltage and Current Harmonics <ul><li>Harmonics within the limits </li></ul>3-5% 1.3% Harmonics Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  98. 98. Power Quality (PDB3) B-Phase: Voltage, Current and Power <ul><li>If unstable, leads to flickering/damaging of CRTs </li></ul>Stable Stable Waveform <ul><li>PF within limits </li></ul>>0.95 0.95 PF Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  99. 99. Power Quality (PDB3) B-Phase: Voltage and Current Harmonics <ul><li>Harmonics within the limits </li></ul>3-5% 1.6% Harmonics Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  100. 100. Power Quality (PDB3) N-E: Voltage, Current and Power <ul><li>High neutral current is due to unbalanced load </li></ul>0 8.84A N current <ul><li>NE voltage within limits </li></ul>3< 2.698v NE Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  101. 101. Power Quality (PDB3) N-E: Voltage and Current Harmonics <ul><li>High harmonics increases NE voltage </li></ul>3-5% 73.7 Harmonics Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  102. 102. Power Quality (PDB4) R-Phase: Voltage, Current and Power <ul><li>PF within limits </li></ul>>0.95 0.95 PF <ul><li>Use RFI filters to improve waveform </li></ul>Sine wave Distorted Waveform Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  103. 103. Power Quality (PDB 4) R-Phase: Voltage and Current Harmonics <ul><li>Harmonics within the limits </li></ul>3-5% 1.6% Harmonics Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  104. 104. Power Quality (PDB 4) Y-Phase: Voltage, Current and Power <ul><li>If unstable, leads to flickering/damaging of CRTs </li></ul>Stable Stable Waveform <ul><li>PF within limits </li></ul>>0.95 0.96 PF Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  105. 105. Power Quality (PDB 4) Y-Phase: Voltage and Current Harmonics <ul><li>Harmonics within the limits </li></ul>3-5% 1.4% Harmonics Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  106. 106. Power Quality (PDB 4) B-Phase: Voltage, Current and Power <ul><li>If unstable, leads to flickering/damaging of CRTs </li></ul>Stable Stable Waveform <ul><li>Low PF at input requires high current </li></ul>>0.95 0.89 PF Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  107. 107. Power Quality (PDB 4) Y-Phase: Voltage and Current Harmonics <ul><li>If unstable, leads to flickering/damaging of CRTs </li></ul>Stable Stable Waveform <ul><li>Harmonics within the limits </li></ul>3-5% 1.6% Harmonics Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  108. 108. Power Quality (PDB 4) N-E: Voltage, Current and Power <ul><li>High neutral current is due to unbalanced load </li></ul>0 10.03 N current <ul><li>NE voltage is within limits </li></ul>3v< 2.751v NE volt Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  109. 109. Power Quality (PDB 4) N-E: Voltage and Current Harmonics <ul><li>If unstable, leads to flickering/damaging of CRTs </li></ul>Stable Unstable Waveform <ul><li>High harmonics increases NE voltage </li></ul>3-5% 70.4% Harmonics Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  110. 110. Power Quality (PDB 5) R-Phase: Voltage, Current and Power <ul><li>If unstable, leads to flickering/damaging of CRTs </li></ul>Stable Stable Waveform <ul><li>Low PF at input requires high current </li></ul>>0.95 0.92 PF Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  111. 111. Power Quality (PDB 5) R-Phase: Voltage and Current Harmonics <ul><li>Harmonics within the limits </li></ul>3-5% 1.6% Harmonics Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  112. 112. Power Quality (PDB 5) Y-Phase: Voltage, Current and Power <ul><li>If unstable, leads to flickering/damaging of CRTs </li></ul>Stable Stable Waveform <ul><li>Low PF at input requires high current </li></ul>>0.95 0.94 PF Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  113. 113. Power Quality (PDB 5) R-Phase: Voltage and Current Harmonics <ul><li>Harmonics within the limits </li></ul>3-5% 1.3% Harmonics Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  114. 114. Power Quality (PDB 5) B-Phase: Voltage, Current and Power <ul><li>If unstable, leads to flickering/damaging of CRTs </li></ul>Stable Stable Waveform <ul><li>Low PF at input requires high current </li></ul>>0.95 0.94 PF Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  115. 115. Power Quality (PDB 5) B-Phase: Voltage and Current Harmonics <ul><li>Harmonics within the limits </li></ul>3-5% 1.6% Harmonics Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  116. 116. Power Quality (PDB 5) N-E: Voltage, Current and Power <ul><li>If unstable, leads to flickering/damaging of CRTs </li></ul>Stable Unstable Waveform <ul><li>High neutral current is due to load unbalancing </li></ul>0 11.83A N current <ul><li>NE voltage within limits </li></ul>3v< 2.693v NE voltage Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  117. 117. Power Quality (PDB 5) N-E: Voltage and Current Harmonics <ul><li>High harmonics increases earth to neutral voltage </li></ul>3-5% 76.5% Harmonics Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  118. 118. Power Quality (PDB Kitchen) R-Phase: Voltage, Current and Power <ul><li>If unstable, leads to flickering/damaging of CRTs </li></ul>Stable Stable Waveform <ul><li>PF within limits </li></ul>>0.95 0.97 PF Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  119. 119. Power Quality (PDB Kitchen) R-Phase: Voltage and Current Harmonics <ul><li>Harmonics within the limits </li></ul>3-5% 1.7% Harmonics Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  120. 120. Power Quality (PDB Kitchen) Y-Phase: Voltage, Current and Power <ul><li>If unstable, leads to flickering/damaging of CRTs </li></ul>Stable Stable Waveform <ul><li>PF within limits </li></ul>>0.95 0.98 PF Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  121. 121. Power Quality (PDB Kitchen) Y-Phase: Voltage and Current Harmonics <ul><li>Harmonics within the limits </li></ul>3-5% 1.4% Harmonics Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  122. 122. Power Quality (PDB Kitchen) B-Phase: Voltage, Current and Power <ul><li>If unstable, leads to flickering/damaging of CRTs </li></ul>Stable Stable Waveform <ul><li>PF within limits </li></ul>>0.95 1 PF Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  123. 123. Power Quality (PDB Kitchen) B-Phase: Voltage and Current Harmonics <ul><li>Harmonics within the limits </li></ul>3-5% 1.8% Harmonics Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  124. 124. Power Quality (PDB Kitchen) N-E: Voltage, Current and Power <ul><li>If unstable, leads to flickering/damaging of CRTs </li></ul>Stable Unstable Waveform <ul><li>NE voltage within the limits </li></ul>3v< 2.721v NE voltage Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  125. 125. Power Quality (PDB Kitchen) N-E: Voltage and Current Harmonics <ul><li>High harmonics increases NE voltage </li></ul>3-5% 68.4% Harmonics Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  126. 126. Power Quality (UPS 3x60 kVA) R-Phase: Voltage, Current and Power <ul><li>If unstable, leads to flickering/damaging of CRTs </li></ul>Stable Unstable Waveform <ul><li>use PF corrected SMPS to improve waveform </li></ul>>0.95 0.87 PF Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  127. 127. Power Quality (UPS 3x60 kVA) R-Phase: Voltage and Current Harmonics <ul><li>High harmonics within the limits </li></ul>3-5% 2.7% Harmonics Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  128. 128. Power Quality (UPS 3x60 kVA) Y-Phase: Voltage, Current and Power <ul><li>If unstable, leads to flickering/damaging of CRTs </li></ul>Stable Unstable Waveform <ul><li>Use PF corrected SMPS to improve waveform </li></ul>>0.95 0.86 PF Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  129. 129. Power Quality (UPS 3x60 kVA) Y-Phase: Voltage and Current Harmonics <ul><li>Harmonics within the limits </li></ul>3-5% 3.2% Harmonics Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  130. 130. Power Quality (UPS 3x60 kVA) B-Phase: Voltage, Current and Power <ul><li>If unstable, leads to flickering/damaging of CRTs </li></ul>Stable Unstable Waveform <ul><li>Use PF corrected SMPS to improve waveform </li></ul>>0.95 0.85 PF Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  131. 131. Power Quality (UPS 3x60 kVA) B-Phase: Voltage and Current Harmonics <ul><li>Harmonics within the limits </li></ul>3-5% 3.8% Harmonics Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  132. 132. Power Quality (UPS 3x60 kVA) N-E: Voltage, Current and Power Waveform PF Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  133. 133. Power Quality (UPS 3x60 kVA) N-E: Voltage and Current Harmonics <ul><li>If unstable, leads to flickering/damaging of CRTs </li></ul>Stable Unstable Waveform <ul><li>High harmonics content increases NE voltage </li></ul>3-5% 51.0% Harmonics Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  134. 134. Power Quality (UPS 20 kVA) R-Phase: Voltage, Current and Power <ul><li>If unstable, leads to flickering/damaging of CRTs </li></ul>Stable Stable Waveform <ul><li>PF within limits </li></ul>>0.95 1 PF Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  135. 135. Power Quality (UPS 20 kVA) R-Phase: Voltage and Current Harmonics <ul><li>Harmonics within the limits </li></ul>3-5% 0.8% Harmonics Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  136. 136. Power Quality (UPS 20 kVA) Y-Phase: Voltage, Current and Power <ul><li>If unstable, leads to flickering/damaging of CRTs </li></ul>Stable Stable Waveform <ul><li>PF within limits </li></ul>>0.95 0.99 PF Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  137. 137. Power Quality (UPS 20 kVA) Y-Phase: Voltage and Current Harmonics <ul><li>Harmonics within the limits </li></ul>3-5% 1.2% Harmonics Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  138. 138. Power Quality (UPS 20 kVA) B-Phase: Voltage, Current and Power <ul><li>If unstable, leads to flickering/damaging of CRTs </li></ul>Stable Stable Waveform <ul><li>PF within limits </li></ul>>0.95 0.99 PF Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  139. 139. Power Quality (UPS 20 kVA) B-Phase: Voltage and Current Harmonics <ul><li>Harmonics within the limits </li></ul>3-5% 1.3% Harmonics Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  140. 140. Power Quality (UPS 20 kVA) N-E: Voltage, Current and Power <ul><li>NE voltage within limits </li></ul>3v< 1.670v NE voltage Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  141. 141. Power Quality (UPS 20 kVA) N-E: Voltage and Current Harmonics <ul><li>If unstable, leads to flickering/damaging of CRTs </li></ul>Stable Unstable Waveform <ul><li>High harmonics content increases NE voltage </li></ul>3-5% 77.9% Harmonics Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  142. 142. Power Quality (AHU) R-Phase: Voltage, Current and Power <ul><li>If unstable, leads to flickering/damaging of CRTs </li></ul>Stable Stable Waveform <ul><li>Low PF at input requires high current </li></ul>>0.95 0.74 PF <ul><li>11.6 KVAR need to be connected to improve PF </li></ul>11.6 KVAR Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  143. 143. Power Quality (AHU) R-Phase: Voltage and Current Harmonics <ul><li>Harmonics within the limits </li></ul>3-5% 1.1% Harmonics Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  144. 144. Power Quality (AHU) Y-Phase: Voltage, Current and Power <ul><li>If unstable, leads to flickering/damaging of CRTs </li></ul>Stable Stable Waveform <ul><li>Low PF at input requires high current </li></ul>>0.95 0.75 PF <ul><li>11.3 KVAR need to added to improve PF </li></ul>11.3 KVAR Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  145. 145. Power Quality (AHU) Y-Phase: Voltage and Current Harmonics <ul><li>Harmonics within the limits </li></ul>3-5% 1.1% Harmonics Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  146. 146. Power Quality (AHU) B-Phase: Voltage, Current and Power <ul><li>If unstable, leads to flickering/damaging of CRTs </li></ul>Stable Stable Waveform <ul><li>Low PF at input requires high current </li></ul>>0.95 0.73 PF <ul><li>11.1KVAR need to added to improve PF </li></ul>11.1 KVAR Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  147. 147. Power Quality (AHU) B-Phase: Voltage and Current Harmonics <ul><li>Harmonics within the limits </li></ul>3-5% 1.1% Harmonics Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  148. 148. Power Quality (AHU) N-E: Voltage, Current and Power <ul><li>If unstable, leads to flickering/damaging of CRTs </li></ul>Stable Unstable Waveform <ul><li>NE voltage within the limits </li></ul>3v< 2.182v NE voltage Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  149. 149. Power Quality (AHU) N-E: Voltage and Current Harmonics <ul><li>If unstable, leads to flickering/damaging of CRTs </li></ul>Stable Unstable Waveform <ul><li>High harmonics content increases NE voltage </li></ul>3-5% 71.6% Harmonics Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  150. 150. Power Quality (Chiller Plant) R-Phase: Voltage, Current and Power <ul><li>If unstable, leads to flickering/damaging of CRTs </li></ul>Stable Stable Waveform <ul><li>Low PF at input requires high current </li></ul>>0.95 0.73 PF <ul><li>39.3KVAR need to be added to improve PF </li></ul>39.3 KVAR Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  151. 151. Power Quality (Chiller Plant) R-Phase: Voltage and Current Harmonics <ul><li>Harmonics within the limits </li></ul>3-5% 1.1% Harmonics Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  152. 152. Power Quality (Chiller Plant) Y-Phase: Voltage, Current and Power <ul><li>If unstable, leads to flickering/damaging of CRTs </li></ul>Stable Stable Waveform <ul><li>Low PF at input requires high current </li></ul>>0.95 0.74 PF <ul><li>39.0 KVAR need to be added to improve PF </li></ul>39.0 KVAR Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  153. 153. Power Quality (Chiller Plant) Y-Phase: Voltage and Current Harmonics <ul><li>Harmonics within the limits </li></ul>3-5% 0.9% Harmonics Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  154. 154. Power Quality (Chiller Plant) B-Phase: Voltage, Current and Power <ul><li>If unstable, leads to flickering/damaging of CRTs </li></ul>Stable Stable Waveform <ul><li>Low PF at input requires high current </li></ul>>0.95 0.75 PF <ul><li>36KVAR need to be connected to improve PF </li></ul>36 KVAR Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  155. 155. Power Quality (Chiller Plant) B-Phase: Voltage and Current Harmonics <ul><li>Harmonics within the limits </li></ul>3-5% 1.2% Harmonics Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  156. 156. Power Quality (Chiller Plant) N-E: Voltage, Current and Power <ul><li>If unstable, leads to flickering/damaging of CRTs </li></ul>Stable Unstable Waveform <ul><li>NE voltage within limits </li></ul>3v< 2.163v NE voltage Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  157. 157. Power Quality (Chiller Plant) N-E: Voltage and Current Harmonics <ul><li>High harmonics content increases NE voltage </li></ul>3-5% 70.2% Harmonics Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  158. 158. <ul><li>Audit Scope of Work </li></ul><ul><li>Contract Demand Diversity Factor </li></ul><ul><li>Capacity vs. Utilization (Infrastructure Optimization) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DG </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>UPS </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Consumption (End Loads) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>LDB </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>AHU </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chiller Plant </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Potential Power Savings (Infrastructure Optimization) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MD </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DG </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>UPS </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Potential Power Savings (Wastage Control) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>LDB </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Desktop </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>AHU and Chiller Plant </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Power Quality </li></ul><ul><li>Facility Observations </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusions and Next Steps </li></ul>Agenda
  159. 159. Facility Observations Auto Change Over Panel CT’s hanging Switches not mounted in panel Improper cabling
  160. 160. Facility Observations Meter Unprofessional way of jointing Switches not mounted in panel Improper Cabling
  161. 161. Facility Observations Electrical Room No gap between UPS and battery
  162. 162. <ul><li>Audit Scope of Work </li></ul><ul><li>Contract Demand Diversity Factor </li></ul><ul><li>Capacity vs. Utilization (Infrastructure Optimization) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DG </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>UPS </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Consumption (End Loads) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>LDB </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>AHU </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chiller Plant </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Potential Power Savings (Infrastructure Optimization) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MD </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DG </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>UPS </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Potential Power Savings (Wastage Control) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>LDB </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Desktop </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>AHU and Chiller Plant </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Power Quality </li></ul><ul><li>Facility Observations </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusions and Next Steps </li></ul>Agenda
  163. 163. Conclusions, Recommendations & Next Steps <ul><li>Contract Demand Diversity Factor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Existing contract demand (500kVA MD) is high; reduce to 400kVA </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Capacity vs. Utilization (Infrastructure Optimization) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Replace 500kVA DG with 400 kVA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Add another 60kVAR capacitor at DG output for further reduction of DG capacity to 360kVA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Replace 3x60kVA UPS with 3x40kVA </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Potential Power Savings (Infrastructure Optimization) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The suggested changes to MD, DG, and UPS will lead to significant savings (~10 lacs per annum in opex and ~27 lacs in capex) </li></ul></ul>Contd…
  164. 164. Conclusions, Recommendations & Next Steps <ul><li>Potential Power Savings (Wastage Control) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Recommend replacing 4x20W light fittings with 2x13W </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recommend switching off unused desktops </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recommend implementing VFD to optimize cooling requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Significant savings projected (~27 lacs per annum in opex) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Power Quality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No problem whatsoever with power quality </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Facility Observations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ensure spacing between UPS and batteries for easy accessing and maintenance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mount all meters, CTs and switches inside panels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do proper routing and bunching </li></ul></ul><ul><li>We recommend implementing the above stated changes followed by a maintenance regime </li></ul>

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