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Sutherland.Malad Audit Results    Electrical.Final.17 Mar 08
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Sutherland.Malad Audit Results    Electrical.Final.17 Mar 08 Sutherland.Malad Audit Results Electrical.Final.17 Mar 08 Presentation Transcript

  • Results from Electrical Audit of Sutherland’s Malad Facility, Mumbai Presentation to Mr. K.P. Nair & Mr. Ramunni Nair Version 2 March 17, 2008
  • About This Report
    • Choice Solutions is submitting this report of findings and insights based on our electrical audit of Sutherland’s Malad facility in Mumbai.
    • We estimate significant opex and capex savings through capacity optimization and wastage control measures. We also make strong recommendations for changes in the electrical distribution systems.
    • As the next step, we recommend implementing the suggested changes followed by maintenance of the electrical infrastructures.
    • Audit Scope of Work
    • Contract Demand Diversity Factor
    • Capacity vs. Utilization (Infrastructure Optimization)
      • DG
      • UPS
    • Consumption (End Loads)
      • LDB
      • AHU
      • Chiller Plant
    • Potential Power Savings (Infrastructure Optimization)
      • MD
      • DG
      • UPS
    • Potential Power Savings (Wastage Control)
      • LDB
      • Desktop
      • AHU and Chiller Plant
    • Power Quality
    • Facility Observations
    • Conclusions and Next Steps
    Agenda
  • Audit Scope of Work ATS LDB Panel UPS SBP 3 x 60 kVA HVAC Panel UPS SBP 20 KVA DB1 DB2 DB3 DB2 DB3 DB4 DB2 DB3 DB4 DB1 DBI DB4 DG Backup DB5 500 kVA DG-1 Energy Meter Chiller Plant DB5 DB5 Sever Room Main LT Panel PFC-1 100 KVAR Chiller Distribution AMF-1 AMF-2 AMF Panels Main LT Panel APFC 250 kVA 250 kVA First Floor End to End Power Distribution System End Loads Intermediate Loads 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
  • Audit Scope of Work LTG Panel UPS SBP 3 x 40 kVA 2 x 60 kVA HVAC Panel DB1 DB2 DB3 DB2 DB3 DB4 DB2 DB3 DB4 DB1 DBI DB4 DB5 DB5 DB5 ATS DG Backup 500 kVA DG-2 Energy Meter Main LT Panel PFC-1 100 KVAR AMF-1 AMF Panels Main LT Panel APFC Second Floor End to End Power Distribution System 2 x 225 kVA Intermediate Loads End Loads 1 1 1 1 1
  • Reliance Power Audit Activities
    • Check CMD allotted, utilization and cable size
    • Check cable temperature, % loss across the cable from starting to end point
    • Measure power factor
    • Check for loads connected
      • Measure phases and neutral current
    • Check for load balancing
    • Check for body and neutral earthing
    • Check for PCC
    • Check for PCC panel Bus bar conductor size
  • DG Audit Activities
    • Measure phase and neutral current
    • Check for load balancing
    • Measure load power factor
    • Ascertain same cable and lug material
      • Copper or aluminum
    • Check for gland and gland plates
    • Check for cable routing, bunching and termination
    • Check for generator capacity, utilization, and age
      • Engine and alternator
    • Check for loads connected
    • Continued...
  • DG Audit Activities
    • Continued…
    • Check for AMF panel and transfer time
    • Check generator battery’s age and condition
    • Check for body and neutral earthing
    • Check for earth resistance
    • Measure current rating of MCBs and sockets
    • Check for MCB enclosure
    • Check for emergency lighting in critical and common areas
  • Load Balancing on EB and DG Audit Activities
    • Loads on EB
    • Check load on R-phase current
    • Check load on Y-phase current
    • Check load on B-phase current
    • Loads on DG
    • Check load on R-phase current
    • Check load on Y-phase current
    • Check load on B-phase current
  • AMF Panel Audit Activities
    • Check terminations of changeover
    • Check for inter locking system between EB and DG
    • Check for connection status of APFC while on DG
    • Check for glands and gland plates
    • Check for switchgear neutral contact rating
    • Check for cable size and bus bar capacity
    • Check for body earthing
  • APFC Audit Activities
    • Check for automatic/manual correction
    • Check for faulty capacitors
    • Check for sufficient number of capacitors
    • Check for capacitor bank fuses
    • Check for PF being close to unity
    • Check cable size
    • Check whether capacitors connected as per load requirements
    • Check for body earthing
    • Check for power factor which causes incentive/penalty
  • Power Distribution Panels Audit Activities
    • Assess power in the panel
    • Check routing, bunching and termination of cables
    • Check MCCB/ACB ratings
    • Check for Bus bar size
    • Check for neutral size
    • Check earth cable size
    • Check for body earthing
    • Check for emergency lighting in critical and common areas
  • UPS Audit Activities
    • Check for UPS input power factor
    • Check UPS input harmonics (VTHD and ITHD)
    • Check input filter inside the UPS
    • Check for efficiency and backup
    • Check for loads connected
      • Measure phases and neutral current
    • Check routing, bunching and termination of cables
    • Check for body and neutral earthing
    • Check for heat dissipation of UPS
    • Check ventilation for air circulation in the UPS room
    • Check for emergency lighting in critical and common areas
    • Check whether UPS are in parallel redundant mode
  • Other Loads Audit Activities
    • Check lightning load
    • Check AC and chiller plant load
    • Check elevator load
    • Check routing, bunching and termination of cables
    • Check for body and neutral earthing
    • Check for load protections
  • FIRST FLOOR
    • Audit Scope of Work
    • Contract Demand Diversity Factor
    • Capacity vs. Utilization (Infrastructure Optimization)
      • DG
      • UPS
    • Consumption (End Loads)
      • LDB
      • AHU
      • Chiller Plant
    • Potential Power Savings (Infrastructure Optimization)
      • MD
      • DG
      • UPS
    • Potential Power Savings (Wastage Control)
      • LDB
      • Desktop
      • AHU and Chiller Plant
    • Power Quality
    • Facility Observations
    • Conclusions and Next Steps
    Agenda
  • Loads and their Maximum Consumption Reliance Power 500 kVA MD Total: 346.53 kVA Max Electricity Bill Unit = 1kW 3x60 kVA UPS (For Facility) 20 KVA UPS (For Server Room) AHU (AHU 33.69 kVA) LDB (For Lighting) Current: 54.89 kVA Current: 75.3 kVA Current: 6.34 kVA Current: 50.4 kVA Current: 159.6 kVA Chiller Plant (1X80, 1X60 TR)
  • Capacity vs. Utilization MD (Off-Peak Load)
    • MD is more than required; diversity factor should be close to 1
    • Opportunity to save on opex by lowering MD to 400 kVA
      • Includes cushion of ~10% on name plate
    500 kVA MD Utilization = 333/(500+125) = 53.28% Diversity Factor = 370/500 = 0.74 333 TOTAL 0.95 0.95 0.95 PF 36.62 472.8 475.5 485.4 Current (A) 2.072 N 110 233.4 B 110 231.4 Y 113 233.5 R kVA Voltage (V) 500 kVA
  • Capacity vs. Utilization MD (Peak Load)
    • Peak load consumption is as per name plate
    • Opportunity to save on opex by lowering MD to 400 kVA
      • Includes cushion of ~10% on name plate
    500 kVA MD Utilization = 370/500 = 74% 370 TOTAL 0.94 0.95 0.93 PF 41.53 498.7 511.9 503.3 Current (A) 0.858 N 121 243.8 B 126 244.4 Y 123 243.9 R kVA Voltage (V) 225 kVA
    • Audit Scope of Work
    • Contract Demand Diversity Factor
    • Capacity vs. Utilization (Infrastructure Optimization)
      • DG
      • UPS
    • Consumption (End Loads)
      • LDB
      • AHU
      • Chiller Plant
    • Potential Power Savings (Infrastructure Optimization)
      • MD
      • DG
      • UPS
    • Potential Power Savings (Wastage Control)
      • LDB
      • Desktop
      • AHU and Chiller Plant
    • Power Quality
    • Facility Observations
    • Conclusions and Next Steps
    Agenda
  • Capacity vs. Utilization Generator (DG-1) DG utilization = 382/500 = 76.4%
    • Over 23.6% capacity unutilized – not recommended for 500 kVA DG
    • Opportunity to save on opex by switching to a 400 kVA DG
      • Lower diesel expenses
    • Opportunity to save on capex also
    • Need to add capacitors to reduce generator kVA rating
      • Full load on DG is 341 kW at PF 0.95; so required DG capacity is 360 kVA
      • Addl. capacitor required is = 341{Tan[Cos -1 (0.9)]-Tan[Cos -1 (0.95)]} = 60 kVAR
    341 114 114 113 kW 382 TOTAL 0.90 0.89 0.89 PF 531.5 535.7 518.6 Current (A) 127 238.7 B 128 239.2 Y 127 237.8 R kVA Voltage (V) 500 kVA
  • Capacity vs. Utilization UPS (3 x 60 kVA Facility)
    • Opportunity for opex and capex savings
      • Requirement met by 3 x 40 kVA
      • The sizing can be further lowered by switching off unused systems; currently, 35% of the systems are left switched on even when unused
    UPS Utilization = 75.3 /180 = 41.7% 75.3 TOTAL 0.85 0.86 0.87 PF 103.6 113.5 116.6 Current (A) 23.5 225.9 B 25.6 225.8 Y 26.2 223.6 R KVA Voltage (V) 3x60 kVA
  • Capacity vs. Utilization UPS (20 kVA Server)
    • 20 kVA is dedicated for server; facility UPS is another source
    • In absence of facility UPS, load on 20 kVA is 12.68 kVA
      • Utilization is 63.4 %
    UPS Utilization = 6.34 /20 = 31.7% 6.34 TOTAL 0.99 0.99 1.00 PF 8.66 7.49 10.19 Current (A) 2.08 239.2 B 1.80 240.4 Y 2.46 241.0 R KVA Voltage (V) 20 kVA
    • Audit Scope of Work
    • Contract Demand Diversity Factor
    • Capacity vs. Utilization (Infrastructure Optimization)
      • DG
      • UPS
    • Consumption (End Loads)
      • LDB
      • AHU
      • Chiller Plant
    • Potential Power Savings (Infrastructure Optimization)
      • MD
      • DG
      • UPS
    • Potential Power Savings (Wastage Control)
      • LDB
      • Desktop
      • AHU and Chiller Plant
    • Power Quality
    • Facility Observations
    • Conclusions and Next Steps
    Agenda
  • Consumption LDB Lighting Consumption = 54.89 54.8 TOTAL 0.95 0.98 0.96 PF 75.6 80.2 76.1 Current (A) 17.7 235.2 B 19.0 236.1 Y 18.1 237.2 R kVA Voltage (V) LDB
  • Consumption AHU Total AHU Consumption =50.4 kVA
    • They are Multiple number of small AHU’s installed in the facility
    50.4 TOTAL 0.73 0.75 0.74 PF 69.1 71.8 71.3 Current (A) 16.3 236.2 B 17.0 238.1 Y 17.1 240.0 R KVA Voltage (V) 80 & 60 TR
  • Consumption Chiller Plant (80 and 60 TR) Chiller Plant Consumption = 159.6 kVA
    • They are of 2 no’s of chillers , one at time in operation
    • 80 and 60 TR Voltas
    159.6 TOTAL 0.75 0.74 0.73 PF 232.9 240.8 238.8 Current (A) 54.6 234.0 B 57.9 236.2 Y 47.1 237.2 R KVA Voltage (V) # TR
    • Audit Scope of Work
    • Contract Demand Diversity Factor
    • Capacity vs. Utilization (Infrastructure Optimization)
      • DG
      • UPS
    • Consumption (End Loads)
      • LDB
      • AHU
      • Chiller Plant
    • Potential Power Savings (Infrastructure Optimization)
      • MD
      • DG
      • UPS
    • Potential Power Savings (Wastage Control)
      • LDB
      • Desktop
      • AHU and Chiller Plant
    • Power Quality
    • Facility Observations
    • Conclusions and Next Steps
    Agenda
  • Potential Power Savings Electricity Bill Incentive and Penalty
    • Average penalty per month due to peak hour consumption > Rs.23,365
    • Average penalty on total billing is 1.86%
    23,999 12,89,770 Aug 2007 Consumption at LT Meter( 500 kVA MD) (L964882 and L964883) 1 22,732 12,21,720 Oct 2007 Consumption at LT Meter( 500 kVA MD) (L964882 and L964883) 2 Peak Hour Penalty Bill Amount Bill Date Location #
  • Potential Power Savings MD * (MD charge/kVA/month of Rs. 300/-) x (demand difference of 100 kVA) x (12 months per year) 3,60,000 TOTAL 3,60,000 Shifting to 400 kVA MD instead of 500 kVA * 1 Capex Opex (Annual) Area of Saving #
  • Potential Power Savings DG ** Based on new Caterpillar 500 kVA DG set price *** (Rs. 30 per lt diesel) x (20 lts/hr difference) x (12 hrs power cut per month) x (12 months per year) 2,50,000 86,400 TOTAL 86,400
      • Diesel consumption savings
      • (70lts vs. 90lts/hr) ***
    2,50,000 Use 400 kVA instead of 500 kVA ** 2 Capex Opex (Annual) Area of Saving #
  • Potential Power Savings UPS **** Requirement is met by 3x40 kVA (this includes 6% cushion and redundancy with 1x40KVA ) ***** For the3x60kVA and 3 x40kVA UPS Efficiency difference, 9.6 kW per hour x Rs. 4 per hr x 24 hrs x 30 days per month x 12 months per year ****** For the 60kVA and 40 kVA UPS AMC charges diffierence, Rs. 30,000 per year x 3 no of UPS ******* For the 3x60kVA and 3x40kVA UPS cooling requirements diffierence, 3.36 kW per hr x Rs. 4 per hr x 24 hrs x 30 days per month x 12 months per year 90,000
      • UPS AMC charges savings ******
      • Savings in cooling the UPS *******
    1,16,122 24,00,000 5,87,898 TOTAL 3,31,776
      • Savings from no load losses *****
    24,00,000 Sell 3x60 kVA UPS and batteries **** 3 Capex Opex (Annual) Area of Saving #
  • Potential Power Savings Summary * (MD charge/kVA/month of Rs. 300/-) x (demand difference of 100 kVA) x (12 months per year) ** Based on new Caterpillar 500 kVA DG set price *** (Rs. 30 per lt diesel) x (20 lts/hr difference) x (12 hrs power cut per month) x (12 months per year) **** Requirement is met by 3x40 kVA (this includes 6% cushion and redundancy with 1x40KVA ) ***** For the3x60kVA and 3 x40kVA UPS Efficiency difference, 9.6 kW per hour x Rs. 4 per hr x 24 hrs x 30 days per month x 12 months per year ****** For the 60kVA and 40 kVA UPS AMC charges difference, Rs. 30,000 per year x 3 no of UPS ******* For the 3x60kVA and 3x40kVA UPS cooling requirements difference, 3.36 kW per hr x Rs. 4 per hr x 24 hrs x 30 days per month x 12 months per year 90,000
      • UPS AMC charges savings ******
    3,60,000 Shifting to 400KVA MD in place of 500 kVA * 1
      • Savings in cooling the UPS *******
    1,16,122 26,50,000 9,84,298 TOTAL 3,31,776
      • Savings from no load losses *****
    24,00,000 Sell 3x60 kVA UPS and batteries **** 3 86,400
      • Diesel consumption savings
      • (45lts vs. 60lts/hr) ***
    2,50,000 Use existing 400 kVA instead of 500 kVA ** 2 Capex Opex (Annual) Area of Saving #
    • Audit Scope of Work
    • Contract Demand Diversity Factor
    • Capacity vs. Utilization (Infrastructure Optimization)
      • DG
      • UPS
    • Consumption (End Loads)
      • LDB
      • AHU
      • Chiller Plant
    • Potential Power Savings (Infrastructure Optimization)
      • MD
      • DG
      • UPS
    • Potential Power Savings (Wastage Control)
      • LDB
      • Desktop
      • AHU and Chiller Plant
    • Power Quality
    • Facility Observations
    • Conclusions and Next Steps
    Agenda
  • Wastage Control LDB * (Rs. 5.5/unit) x (80-26)/80 x 11.6 x (24 hr/day) x (365 day/yr) = Rs. 3,77,249/yr 3,77,249 TOTAL 3,77,249
      • Consumption savings (26 vs. 80 W at 11.6 kW total lighting load) *
    Use 2x13 W lamps instead of 4x20 W 1 Capex Opex (Annual) Area of Saving #
  • Wastage Control Desktop ** (Rs. 5.5/unit ) x (35% x 145 kVA x 0.78 PF) x (24/day) x (365 day/year) = Rs. 19,07,205/year 19,07,205 TOTAL 19,07,205
      • Consumption savings (35% of 145 kVA) **
    Shutdown desktops which are not in use 2 Capex Opex (Annual) Area of Saving #
  • Wastage Control AHU and Chiller Plant *** (Rs. 5.5/unit ) x (5% x 234 kVA x 0.78 PF) x (24 hr/day) x (365 day/yr) = Rs. 4,39,690/yr 4,39,690 TOTAL 4,39,690
      • Consumption savings (5% of 54+180 kVA) ***
    Install VFD to Optimize the cooling 3 Capex Opex (Annual) Area of Saving #
  • Wastage Control Summary * (Rs. 5.5/unit) x (80-26)/80 x 11.6 x (24 hr/day) x (365 day/yr) = Rs. 3,77,249/yr ** (Rs. 5.5/unit ) x (35% x 145 kVA x 0.78 PF) x (24/day) x (365 day/year) = Rs. 19,07,205/year *** (Rs. 5.5/unit ) x (5% x 234 kVA x 0.78 PF) x (24 hr/day) x (365 day/yr) = Rs. 4,39,690/yr 3,77,249
      • Consumption savings (26 vs. 80 W at 11.6 kW total lighting load) *
    Use 2x13 W lamps instead of 4x20 W 1 19,07,205
      • Consumption savings (35% of 145 kVA) **
    Shutdown desktops which are not in use 2 27,24,144 TOTAL 4,39,690
      • Consumption savings (5% of 54+180 kVA) ***
    Install VFD to Optimize the cooling 3 Capex Opex (Annual) Area of Saving #
    • Audit Scope of Work
    • Contract Demand Diversity Factor
    • Capacity vs. Utilization (Infrastructure Optimization)
      • DG
      • UPS
    • Consumption (End Loads)
      • LDB
      • AHU
      • Chiller Plant
    • Potential Power Savings (Infrastructure Optimization)
      • MD
      • DG
      • UPS
    • Potential Power Savings (Wastage Control)
      • LDB
      • Desktop
      • AHU and Chiller Plant
    • Power Quality
    • Facility Observations
    • Conclusions and Next Steps
    Agenda
  • Power Quality (MD Off-Peak Load) R-Phase: Voltage, Current and Power
    • If unstable, leads to flickering/damaging of CRTs
    Stable Stable Waveform
    • PF within limits
    >0.95 0.95 PF Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  • Power Quality (MD Off-Peak Load) R-Phase: Voltage and Current Harmonics
    • If unstable, leads to flickering/damaging of CRTs
    Stable Stable Waveform
    • Harmonics within the limits
    3-5% 1.1% Harmonics Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  • Power Quality (MD Off-Peak Load) Y-Phase: Voltage, Current and Power
    • If unstable, leads to flickering/damaging of CRTs
    Stable Stable Waveform
    • PF within limits
    >0.95 0.95 PF Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  • Power Quality (MD Off-Peak Load) Y-Phase: Voltage and Current Harmonics
    • If unstable, leads to flickering/damaging of CRTs
    Stable Stable Waveform
    • Harmonics within the limits
    3-5% 1.0% Harmonics Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  • Power Quality (MD Off-Peak Load) B-Phase: Voltage, Current and Power
    • If unstable, leads to flickering/damaging of CRTs
    Stable Stable Waveform
    • PF within limits
    >0.95 0.95 PF Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  • Power Quality (MD Off-Peak Load) B-Phase: Voltage and Current Harmonics
    • If unstable, leads to flickering/damaging of CRTs
    Stable Stable Waveform
    • Harmonics within the limits
    3-5% 1.2% Harmonics Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  • Power Quality (MD Off-Peak Load) N-E: Voltage, Current and Power
    • If unstable, leads to flickering/damaging of CRTs
    Stable Unstable Waveform
    • E-N voltage is within limits
    3v< 2.072v E-N voltage Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  • Power Quality (MD Off-Peak Load) N-E: Voltage and Current Harmonics
    • If unstable, leads to flickering/damaging of CRTs
    Stable Unstable Waveform
    • High harmonic content increases earth to neutral voltage
    3-5% 72.4% Harmonics Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  • Power Quality (DG) R-Phase: Voltage, Current and Power
    • If unstable, leads to flickering/damaging of CRTs
    Stable Stable Waveform
    • PF within limits
    >0.95 0.95 PF Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  • Power Quality (DG) R-Phase: Voltage and Current Harmonics
    • If unstable, leads to flickering/damaging of CRTs
    Stable Stable Waveform
    • Harmonics within the limits
    3-5% 1.8% Harmonics Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  • Power Quality (DG) Y-Phase: Voltage, Current and Power
    • If unstable, leads to flickering/damaging of CRTs
    Stable Stable Waveform
    • PF not in limits needs to improve up to 0.95
    >0.95 0.89 PF Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  • Power Quality (DG) Y-Phase: Voltage and Current Harmonics
    • If unstable, leads to flickering/damaging of CRTs
    Stable Stable Waveform
    • Harmonics within the limits
    3-5% 2.0% Harmonics Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  • Power Quality (DG) B-Phase: Voltage, Current and Power
    • If unstable, leads to flickering/damaging of CRTs
    Stable Stable Waveform
    • PF not in limits needs improve up to 0.95
    >0.95 0.90 PF Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  • Power Quality (DG) B-Phase: Voltage and Current Harmonics
    • If unstable, leads to flickering/damaging of CRTs
    Stable Stable Waveform
    • Harmonics within the limits
    3-5% 1.9% Harmonics Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  • Power Quality (DG) N-E: Voltage, Current and Power
    • If unstable, leads to flickering/damaging of CRTs
    Stable Unstable Waveform
    • E-N voltage is within limits
    3v< 2.072v E-N voltage Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  • Power Quality (DG) N-E: Voltage and Current Harmonics
    • If unstable, leads to flickering/damaging of CRTs
    Stable Unstable Waveform
    • High harmonic content increases earth to neutral voltage
    3-5% 72.4% Harmonics Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  • Power Quality (PFC) R-Phase: Voltage, Current and Power
    • If unstable, leads to flickering/damaging of CRTs
    Stable Stable Waveform
    • PF within limits
    >0.95 0.95 PF Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  • Power Quality (PFC) R-Phase: Voltage and Current Harmonics
    • If unstable, leads to flickering/damaging of CRTs
    Stable Stable Waveform
    • Harmonics within the limits
    3-5% 1.1% Harmonics Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  • Power Quality (PFC) Y-Phase: Voltage, Current and Power
    • If unstable, leads to flickering/damaging of CRTs
    Stable Stable Waveform
    • PF within limits
    >0.95 0.95 PF Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  • Power Quality (PFC) Y-Phase: Voltage and Current Harmonics
    • If unstable, leads to flickering/damaging of CRTs
    Stable Stable Waveform
    • Harmonics within the limits
    3-5% 1.0% Harmonics Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  • Power Quality (PFC) B-Phase: Voltage, Current and Power
    • If unstable, leads to flickering/damaging of CRTs
    Stable Stable Waveform
    • PF within limits
    >0.95 0.95 PF Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  • Power Quality (PFC) B-Phase: Voltage and Current Harmonics
    • If unstable, leads to flickering/damaging of CRTs
    Stable Stable Waveform
    • Harmonics within the limits
    3-5% 1.2% Harmonics Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  • Power Quality (MD Peak Load) R-Phase: Voltage, Current and Power
    • If unstable, leads to flickering/damaging of CRTs
    Stable Stable Waveform
    • Low PF at input requires high current
    >0.95 0.93 PF
    • 44.6 KVAR needed to be added to improve PF
    44.6 KVAR Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  • Power Quality (MD Peak Load) R-Phase: Voltage and Current Harmonics
    • If unstable, leads to flickering/damaging of CRTs
    Stable Stable Waveform
    • Harmonics within the limits
    3-5% 1.0% Harmonics Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  • Power Quality (MD Peak Load) Y-Phase: Voltage, Current and Power
    • If unstable, leads to flickering/damaging of CRTs
    Stable Stable Waveform
    • PF within limits
    >0.95 0.95 PF Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  • Power Quality (MD Peak Load) Y-Phase: Voltage and Current Harmonics
    • If unstable, leads to flickering/damaging of CRTs
    Stable Stable Waveform
    • Harmonics within the limits
    3-5% 0.7% Harmonics Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  • Power Quality (MD Peak Load) B-Phase: Voltage, Current and Power
    • If unstable, leads to flickering/damaging of CRTs
    Stable Stable Waveform
    • Low PF at input requires high current
    >0.95 0.94 PF Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  • Power Quality (MD Peak Load) B-Phase: Voltage and Current Harmonics
    • If unstable, leads to flickering/damaging of CRTs
    Stable Stable Waveform
    • Harmonics within the limits
    3-5% 3.1% Harmonics Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  • Power Quality (MD Peak Load) N-E: Voltage, Current and Power
    • If unstable, leads to flickering/damaging of CRTs
    Stable Unstable Waveform
    • E-N voltage within limits
    3v< 0.858v E-N voltage Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  • Power Quality (MD Peak Load) N-E: Voltage and Current Harmonics
    • If unstable, leads to flickering/damaging of CRTs
    Stable Unstable Waveform
    • High harmonic content increases earth to neutral voltage
    3-5% 65.3% Harmonics Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  • Power Quality (Main LDB) R-Phase: Voltage, Current and Power
    • If unstable, leads to flickering/damaging of CRTs
    Stable Stable Waveform
    • PF within limits
    >0.95 0.96 PF Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  • Power Quality (Main LDB) R-Phase: Voltage and Current Harmonics
    • If unstable, leads to flickering/damaging of CRTs
    Stable Stable Waveform
    • Harmonics within the limits
    3-5% 1.4% Harmonics Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  • Power Quality (Main LDB) Y-Phase: Voltage, Current and Power
    • If unstable, leads to flickering/damaging of CRTs
    Stable Stable Waveform
    • Low PF at input requires high current
    >0.95 0.98 PF Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  • Power Quality (Main LDB) Y-Phase: Voltage and Current Harmonics
    • If unstable, leads to flickering/damaging of CRTs
    Stable Unstable Waveform
    • Harmonics within the limits
    3-5% 1.1% Harmonics Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  • Power Quality (Main LDB) B-Phase: Voltage, Current and Power
    • If unstable, leads to flickering/damaging of CRTs
    Stable Stable Waveform
    • Low PF at input requires high current
    >0.95 0.95 PF Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  • Power Quality (Main LDB) B-Phase: Voltage and Current Harmonics
    • Harmonics within the limits
    3-5% 1.3% Harmonics Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  • Power Quality (Main LDB) N-E: Voltage, Current and Power
    • If unstable, leads to flickering/damaging of CRTs
    Stable Unstable Waveform
    • E-N voltage is within limits
    3v< 2.561v E-N voltage Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  • Power Quality (Main LDB) N-E: Voltage and Current Harmonics
    • If unstable, leads to flickering/damaging of CRTs
    Stable Unstable Waveform
    • High harmonic content increases earth to neutral voltage
    3-5% 67.9% Harmonics Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  • Power Quality (PDB1) R-Phase: Voltage, Current and Power
    • If unstable, leads to flickering/damaging of CRTs
    Stable Stable Waveform
    • PF within limits
    >0.95 0.96 PF Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  • Power Quality (PDB1) R-Phase: Voltage and Current Harmonics
    • If unstable, leads to flickering/damaging of CRTs
    Stable Stable Waveform
    • Harmonics within the limits
    3-5% 1.5% Harmonics Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  • Power Quality (PDB1) Y-Phase: Voltage, Current and Power
    • If unstable, leads to flickering/damaging of CRTs
    Stable Unstable Waveform
    • PF within limits
    >0.95 0.98 PF Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  • Power Quality (PDB1) Y-Phase: Voltage and Current Harmonics
    • If unstable, leads to flickering/damaging of CRTs
    Stable Stable Waveform
    • Harmonics within the limits
    3-5% 1.1% Harmonics Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  • Power Quality (PDB1) B-Phase: Voltage, Current and Power
    • If unstable, leads to flickering/damaging of CRTs
    Stable Stable Waveform
    • Low PF at input requires high current
    >0.95 0.84 PF Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  • Power Quality (PDB1) B-Phase: Voltage and Current Harmonics
    • Harmonics within the limits
    3-5% 1.4% Harmonics Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  • Power Quality (PDB1) N-E: Voltage, Current and Power
    • If unstable, leads to flickering/damaging of CRTs
    Stable Unstable Waveform
    • E-N voltage is within limits
    3v< 2.636v N-E Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  • Power Quality (PDB1) N-E: Voltage and Current Harmonics
    • High neutral current is due to load unbalancing
    0 19.56 N-current
    • High harmonics content increases N-E voltage
    3-5% 69.6% Harmonics Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  • Power Quality (PDB2) R-Phase: Voltage, Current and Power
    • If unstable, leads to flickering/damaging of CRT’s
    Stable Stable Waveform
    • Low PF at input requires high current
    >0.95 0.91 PF Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  • Power Quality (PDB2) R-Phase: Voltage and Current Harmonics
    • If unstable, leads to flickering/damaging of CRTs
    Stable Stable Waveform
    • Harmonics within the limits
    3-5% 1.6% Harmonics Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  • Power Quality (PDB2) Y-Phase: Voltage, Current and Power
    • If unstable, leads to flickering/damaging of CRTs
    Stable Stable Waveform
    • Low PF at input requires high current
    >0.95 0.89 PF Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  • Power Quality (PDB2) Y-Phase: Voltage and Current Harmonics
    • Harmonics within the limits
    3-5% 1.1% Harmonics Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  • Power Quality (PDB2) B-Phase: Voltage, Current and Power
    • If unstable, leads to flickering/damaging of CRTs
    Stable Stable Waveform
    • PF within limits
    >0.95 0.95 PF Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  • Power Quality (PDB2) B-Phase: Voltage and Current Harmonics
    • Harmonics within the limits
    3-5% 1.5% Harmonics Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  • Power Quality (PDB2) N-E: Voltage, Current and Power
    • High neutral current is due to load unbalancing
    0A 10.32 N current
    • NE voltage within limits
    3< 2.584v NE Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  • Power Quality (PDB2) N-E: Voltage and Current Harmonics
    • If unstable, leads to flickering/damaging of CRTs
    Stable Unstable Waveform
    • High harmonic content increases NE voltage
    3-5% 78.8% Harmonics Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  • Power Quality (PDB3) R-Phase: Voltage, Current and Power
    • If unstable, leads to flickering/damaging of CRTs
    Stable Stable Waveform
    • PF within limits
    >0.95 0.95 PF Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  • Power Quality (PDB3) R-Phase: Voltage and Current Harmonics
    • Harmonics within the limits
    3-5% 1.7% Harmonics Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  • Power Quality (PDB3) Y-Phase: Voltage, Current and Power
    • If unstable, leads to flickering/damaging of CRTs
    Stable Stable Waveform
    • PF within limits
    >0.95 0.96 PF Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  • Power Quality (PDB3) Y-Phase: Voltage and Current Harmonics
    • Harmonics within the limits
    3-5% 1.3% Harmonics Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  • Power Quality (PDB3) B-Phase: Voltage, Current and Power
    • If unstable, leads to flickering/damaging of CRTs
    Stable Stable Waveform
    • PF within limits
    >0.95 0.95 PF Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  • Power Quality (PDB3) B-Phase: Voltage and Current Harmonics
    • Harmonics within the limits
    3-5% 1.6% Harmonics Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  • Power Quality (PDB3) N-E: Voltage, Current and Power
    • High neutral current is due to unbalanced load
    0 8.84A N current
    • NE voltage within limits
    3< 2.698v NE Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  • Power Quality (PDB3) N-E: Voltage and Current Harmonics
    • High harmonics increases NE voltage
    3-5% 73.7 Harmonics Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  • Power Quality (PDB4) R-Phase: Voltage, Current and Power
    • PF within limits
    >0.95 0.95 PF
    • Use RFI filters to improve waveform
    Sine wave Distorted Waveform Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  • Power Quality (PDB 4) R-Phase: Voltage and Current Harmonics
    • Harmonics within the limits
    3-5% 1.6% Harmonics Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  • Power Quality (PDB 4) Y-Phase: Voltage, Current and Power
    • If unstable, leads to flickering/damaging of CRTs
    Stable Stable Waveform
    • PF within limits
    >0.95 0.96 PF Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  • Power Quality (PDB 4) Y-Phase: Voltage and Current Harmonics
    • Harmonics within the limits
    3-5% 1.4% Harmonics Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  • Power Quality (PDB 4) B-Phase: Voltage, Current and Power
    • If unstable, leads to flickering/damaging of CRTs
    Stable Stable Waveform
    • Low PF at input requires high current
    >0.95 0.89 PF Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  • Power Quality (PDB 4) Y-Phase: Voltage and Current Harmonics
    • If unstable, leads to flickering/damaging of CRTs
    Stable Stable Waveform
    • Harmonics within the limits
    3-5% 1.6% Harmonics Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  • Power Quality (PDB 4) N-E: Voltage, Current and Power
    • High neutral current is due to unbalanced load
    0 10.03 N current
    • NE voltage is within limits
    3v< 2.751v NE volt Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  • Power Quality (PDB 4) N-E: Voltage and Current Harmonics
    • If unstable, leads to flickering/damaging of CRTs
    Stable Unstable Waveform
    • High harmonics increases NE voltage
    3-5% 70.4% Harmonics Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  • Power Quality (PDB 5) R-Phase: Voltage, Current and Power
    • If unstable, leads to flickering/damaging of CRTs
    Stable Stable Waveform
    • Low PF at input requires high current
    >0.95 0.92 PF Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  • Power Quality (PDB 5) R-Phase: Voltage and Current Harmonics
    • Harmonics within the limits
    3-5% 1.6% Harmonics Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  • Power Quality (PDB 5) Y-Phase: Voltage, Current and Power
    • If unstable, leads to flickering/damaging of CRTs
    Stable Stable Waveform
    • Low PF at input requires high current
    >0.95 0.94 PF Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  • Power Quality (PDB 5) R-Phase: Voltage and Current Harmonics
    • Harmonics within the limits
    3-5% 1.3% Harmonics Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  • Power Quality (PDB 5) B-Phase: Voltage, Current and Power
    • If unstable, leads to flickering/damaging of CRTs
    Stable Stable Waveform
    • Low PF at input requires high current
    >0.95 0.94 PF Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  • Power Quality (PDB 5) B-Phase: Voltage and Current Harmonics
    • Harmonics within the limits
    3-5% 1.6% Harmonics Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  • Power Quality (PDB 5) N-E: Voltage, Current and Power
    • If unstable, leads to flickering/damaging of CRTs
    Stable Unstable Waveform
    • High neutral current is due to load unbalancing
    0 11.83A N current
    • NE voltage within limits
    3v< 2.693v NE voltage Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  • Power Quality (PDB 5) N-E: Voltage and Current Harmonics
    • High harmonics increases earth to neutral voltage
    3-5% 76.5% Harmonics Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  • Power Quality (PDB Kitchen) R-Phase: Voltage, Current and Power
    • If unstable, leads to flickering/damaging of CRTs
    Stable Stable Waveform
    • PF within limits
    >0.95 0.97 PF Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  • Power Quality (PDB Kitchen) R-Phase: Voltage and Current Harmonics
    • Harmonics within the limits
    3-5% 1.7% Harmonics Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  • Power Quality (PDB Kitchen) Y-Phase: Voltage, Current and Power
    • If unstable, leads to flickering/damaging of CRTs
    Stable Stable Waveform
    • PF within limits
    >0.95 0.98 PF Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  • Power Quality (PDB Kitchen) Y-Phase: Voltage and Current Harmonics
    • Harmonics within the limits
    3-5% 1.4% Harmonics Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  • Power Quality (PDB Kitchen) B-Phase: Voltage, Current and Power
    • If unstable, leads to flickering/damaging of CRTs
    Stable Stable Waveform
    • PF within limits
    >0.95 1 PF Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  • Power Quality (PDB Kitchen) B-Phase: Voltage and Current Harmonics
    • Harmonics within the limits
    3-5% 1.8% Harmonics Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  • Power Quality (PDB Kitchen) N-E: Voltage, Current and Power
    • If unstable, leads to flickering/damaging of CRTs
    Stable Unstable Waveform
    • NE voltage within the limits
    3v< 2.721v NE voltage Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  • Power Quality (PDB Kitchen) N-E: Voltage and Current Harmonics
    • High harmonics increases NE voltage
    3-5% 68.4% Harmonics Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  • Power Quality (UPS 3x60 kVA) R-Phase: Voltage, Current and Power
    • If unstable, leads to flickering/damaging of CRTs
    Stable Unstable Waveform
    • use PF corrected SMPS to improve waveform
    >0.95 0.87 PF Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  • Power Quality (UPS 3x60 kVA) R-Phase: Voltage and Current Harmonics
    • High harmonics within the limits
    3-5% 2.7% Harmonics Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  • Power Quality (UPS 3x60 kVA) Y-Phase: Voltage, Current and Power
    • If unstable, leads to flickering/damaging of CRTs
    Stable Unstable Waveform
    • Use PF corrected SMPS to improve waveform
    >0.95 0.86 PF Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  • Power Quality (UPS 3x60 kVA) Y-Phase: Voltage and Current Harmonics
    • Harmonics within the limits
    3-5% 3.2% Harmonics Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  • Power Quality (UPS 3x60 kVA) B-Phase: Voltage, Current and Power
    • If unstable, leads to flickering/damaging of CRTs
    Stable Unstable Waveform
    • Use PF corrected SMPS to improve waveform
    >0.95 0.85 PF Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  • Power Quality (UPS 3x60 kVA) B-Phase: Voltage and Current Harmonics
    • Harmonics within the limits
    3-5% 3.8% Harmonics Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  • Power Quality (UPS 3x60 kVA) N-E: Voltage, Current and Power Waveform PF Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  • Power Quality (UPS 3x60 kVA) N-E: Voltage and Current Harmonics
    • If unstable, leads to flickering/damaging of CRTs
    Stable Unstable Waveform
    • High harmonics content increases NE voltage
    3-5% 51.0% Harmonics Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  • Power Quality (UPS 20 kVA) R-Phase: Voltage, Current and Power
    • If unstable, leads to flickering/damaging of CRTs
    Stable Stable Waveform
    • PF within limits
    >0.95 1 PF Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  • Power Quality (UPS 20 kVA) R-Phase: Voltage and Current Harmonics
    • Harmonics within the limits
    3-5% 0.8% Harmonics Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  • Power Quality (UPS 20 kVA) Y-Phase: Voltage, Current and Power
    • If unstable, leads to flickering/damaging of CRTs
    Stable Stable Waveform
    • PF within limits
    >0.95 0.99 PF Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  • Power Quality (UPS 20 kVA) Y-Phase: Voltage and Current Harmonics
    • Harmonics within the limits
    3-5% 1.2% Harmonics Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  • Power Quality (UPS 20 kVA) B-Phase: Voltage, Current and Power
    • If unstable, leads to flickering/damaging of CRTs
    Stable Stable Waveform
    • PF within limits
    >0.95 0.99 PF Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  • Power Quality (UPS 20 kVA) B-Phase: Voltage and Current Harmonics
    • Harmonics within the limits
    3-5% 1.3% Harmonics Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  • Power Quality (UPS 20 kVA) N-E: Voltage, Current and Power
    • NE voltage within limits
    3v< 1.670v NE voltage Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  • Power Quality (UPS 20 kVA) N-E: Voltage and Current Harmonics
    • If unstable, leads to flickering/damaging of CRTs
    Stable Unstable Waveform
    • High harmonics content increases NE voltage
    3-5% 77.9% Harmonics Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  • Power Quality (AHU) R-Phase: Voltage, Current and Power
    • If unstable, leads to flickering/damaging of CRTs
    Stable Stable Waveform
    • Low PF at input requires high current
    >0.95 0.74 PF
    • 11.6 KVAR need to be connected to improve PF
    11.6 KVAR Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  • Power Quality (AHU) R-Phase: Voltage and Current Harmonics
    • Harmonics within the limits
    3-5% 1.1% Harmonics Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  • Power Quality (AHU) Y-Phase: Voltage, Current and Power
    • If unstable, leads to flickering/damaging of CRTs
    Stable Stable Waveform
    • Low PF at input requires high current
    >0.95 0.75 PF
    • 11.3 KVAR need to added to improve PF
    11.3 KVAR Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  • Power Quality (AHU) Y-Phase: Voltage and Current Harmonics
    • Harmonics within the limits
    3-5% 1.1% Harmonics Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  • Power Quality (AHU) B-Phase: Voltage, Current and Power
    • If unstable, leads to flickering/damaging of CRTs
    Stable Stable Waveform
    • Low PF at input requires high current
    >0.95 0.73 PF
    • 11.1KVAR need to added to improve PF
    11.1 KVAR Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  • Power Quality (AHU) B-Phase: Voltage and Current Harmonics
    • Harmonics within the limits
    3-5% 1.1% Harmonics Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  • Power Quality (AHU) N-E: Voltage, Current and Power
    • If unstable, leads to flickering/damaging of CRTs
    Stable Unstable Waveform
    • NE voltage within the limits
    3v< 2.182v NE voltage Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  • Power Quality (AHU) N-E: Voltage and Current Harmonics
    • If unstable, leads to flickering/damaging of CRTs
    Stable Unstable Waveform
    • High harmonics content increases NE voltage
    3-5% 71.6% Harmonics Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  • Power Quality (Chiller Plant) R-Phase: Voltage, Current and Power
    • If unstable, leads to flickering/damaging of CRTs
    Stable Stable Waveform
    • Low PF at input requires high current
    >0.95 0.73 PF
    • 39.3KVAR need to be added to improve PF
    39.3 KVAR Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  • Power Quality (Chiller Plant) R-Phase: Voltage and Current Harmonics
    • Harmonics within the limits
    3-5% 1.1% Harmonics Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  • Power Quality (Chiller Plant) Y-Phase: Voltage, Current and Power
    • If unstable, leads to flickering/damaging of CRTs
    Stable Stable Waveform
    • Low PF at input requires high current
    >0.95 0.74 PF
    • 39.0 KVAR need to be added to improve PF
    39.0 KVAR Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  • Power Quality (Chiller Plant) Y-Phase: Voltage and Current Harmonics
    • Harmonics within the limits
    3-5% 0.9% Harmonics Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  • Power Quality (Chiller Plant) B-Phase: Voltage, Current and Power
    • If unstable, leads to flickering/damaging of CRTs
    Stable Stable Waveform
    • Low PF at input requires high current
    >0.95 0.75 PF
    • 36KVAR need to be connected to improve PF
    36 KVAR Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  • Power Quality (Chiller Plant) B-Phase: Voltage and Current Harmonics
    • Harmonics within the limits
    3-5% 1.2% Harmonics Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  • Power Quality (Chiller Plant) N-E: Voltage, Current and Power
    • If unstable, leads to flickering/damaging of CRTs
    Stable Unstable Waveform
    • NE voltage within limits
    3v< 2.163v NE voltage Impact Standard Reading Parameter
  • Power Quality (Chiller Plant) N-E: Voltage and Current Harmonics
    • High harmonics content increases NE voltage
    3-5% 70.2% Harmonics Impact Standard Reading Parameter
    • Audit Scope of Work
    • Contract Demand Diversity Factor
    • Capacity vs. Utilization (Infrastructure Optimization)
      • DG
      • UPS
    • Consumption (End Loads)
      • LDB
      • AHU
      • Chiller Plant
    • Potential Power Savings (Infrastructure Optimization)
      • MD
      • DG
      • UPS
    • Potential Power Savings (Wastage Control)
      • LDB
      • Desktop
      • AHU and Chiller Plant
    • Power Quality
    • Facility Observations
    • Conclusions and Next Steps
    Agenda
  • Facility Observations Auto Change Over Panel CT’s hanging Switches not mounted in panel Improper cabling
  • Facility Observations Meter Unprofessional way of jointing Switches not mounted in panel Improper Cabling
  • Facility Observations Electrical Room No gap between UPS and battery
    • Audit Scope of Work
    • Contract Demand Diversity Factor
    • Capacity vs. Utilization (Infrastructure Optimization)
      • DG
      • UPS
    • Consumption (End Loads)
      • LDB
      • AHU
      • Chiller Plant
    • Potential Power Savings (Infrastructure Optimization)
      • MD
      • DG
      • UPS
    • Potential Power Savings (Wastage Control)
      • LDB
      • Desktop
      • AHU and Chiller Plant
    • Power Quality
    • Facility Observations
    • Conclusions and Next Steps
    Agenda
  • Conclusions, Recommendations & Next Steps
    • Contract Demand Diversity Factor
      • Existing contract demand (500kVA MD) is high; reduce to 400kVA
    • Capacity vs. Utilization (Infrastructure Optimization)
      • Replace 500kVA DG with 400 kVA
      • Add another 60kVAR capacitor at DG output for further reduction of DG capacity to 360kVA
      • Replace 3x60kVA UPS with 3x40kVA
    • Potential Power Savings (Infrastructure Optimization)
      • The suggested changes to MD, DG, and UPS will lead to significant savings (~10 lacs per annum in opex and ~27 lacs in capex)
    Contd…
  • Conclusions, Recommendations & Next Steps
    • Potential Power Savings (Wastage Control)
      • Recommend replacing 4x20W light fittings with 2x13W
      • Recommend switching off unused desktops
      • Recommend implementing VFD to optimize cooling requirements
      • Significant savings projected (~27 lacs per annum in opex)
    • Power Quality
      • No problem whatsoever with power quality
    • Facility Observations
      • Ensure spacing between UPS and batteries for easy accessing and maintenance
      • Mount all meters, CTs and switches inside panels
      • Do proper routing and bunching
    • We recommend implementing the above stated changes followed by a maintenance regime