• Share
  • Email
  • Embed
  • Like
  • Save
  • Private Content
Chap010a group dynamics
 

Chap010a group dynamics

on

  • 562 views

 

Statistics

Views

Total Views
562
Views on SlideShare
562
Embed Views
0

Actions

Likes
0
Downloads
9
Comments
0

0 Embeds 0

No embeds

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Adobe PDF

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

    Chap010a group dynamics Chap010a group dynamics Document Transcript

    • 12 Group DynamicsChapter Groups and Social Exchanges The Group Development Process Roles and Norm: Social Building Blocks for Group & Organizational Behavior Group Structure and Composition Threats to Group Effectiveness 12-3 Figure 12-1 Sociological Criteria of a Group Common identity 4 Collective norms 2 1 3 Two or more Collective goals Freely interacting individualsMcGraw-Hill © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 1
    • 12-4 Table 12-2 Formal Groups Fulfill Organizational Functions 1) Accomplish complex, independent tasks beyond the capabilities of individuals 2) Generate new or creative ideas or solutions 3) Coordinate interdependent efforts 4) Provide a problem-solving mechanism for complex problems 5) Implement complex decisions 6) Socialize and train newcomersMcGraw-Hill © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 12-5 Table 12-2 cont. Formal Groups Fulfill Individual Functions 1) Satisfy the individual’s need for affiliation 2) Develop, enhance and confirm individual’s self- esteem and sense of identity 3) Give individuals an opportunity to test and share their perceptions of social reality 4) Reduce the individual’s anxieties and feelings of insecurity and powerlessness 5) Provide a problem-solving mechanism for social and interpersonal problemsMcGraw-Hill © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 2
    • 12-7 Tuckman’s Five-Stage Theory Figure 12-3 of Group Development Performing Adjourning Norming Storming Return to Independence Forming Dependence/ interdependence IndependenceMcGraw-Hill © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 12-8 Tuckman’s Five-Stage Theory Figure 12-3 cont. of Group Development Forming Storming Norming Performing “How can I “What do theIndividual “How do I fit “What’s my best others expect Issues in?” role here?” perform my me to do?” role?” “Why are we fighting over “Can we agree “Can we do Group “Why are we who’s in on roles and the Issues here?” charge and work as a job properly?” who team?” does what?”McGraw-Hill © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 3
    • 12-9 Group Development: Research and Practical Implications De-Norming as the project evolves, there is a natural erosion of standards of conduct—group members drift in different directions their interests and expectations change De-Storming an undercurrent of discontent slowly comes to the surface—individual resistance increases and cohesiveness declines De-Forming group falls apart as subgroups battle for control—pieces of the project not claimed by individuals or subgroups are abandoned—group members isolate themselves from one another and performance declines rapidlyMcGraw-Hill © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 12-13 Norms Norm shared attitudes, opinions, feelings, or actions that guide social behaviorMcGraw-Hill © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 4
    • 12-14 How Norms are Formed 1) Explicit statements by supervisors or coworkers 2) Critical events in the group’s history 3) Primacy 4) Carryout behaviors from past situationsMcGraw-Hill © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 12-15 Table 12-4 Why Norms are Enforced Group/organization survival Clarification of behavioral expectations Avoidance of embarrassment Clarification of central values/unique identityMcGraw-Hill © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 5
    • 12-10 Roles Defined Role expected behaviors for a given positionMcGraw-Hill © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 12-11 Figure 12-4 A Role Episode Role Sender Focal Person• Perceived organizational/ Role • Perceived role expectations group requirements Modeling • Experienced role overload,• Comparative evaluation of role conflict, role ambiguity - Role expectations for Communication • Constructive/destructive focal person of approval responses - Focal person’s behavior or need for change FeedbackMcGraw-Hill © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 6
    • 12-12 Role Outcomes Role Overload others’ expectations exceed one’s ability Role Conflict others have conflicting or inconsistent expectations Role Ambiguity Others’ expectations are unknownMcGraw-Hill © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 12-16 Table 12-5 Task Roles Initiator suggests new goals or ideas Information seeker/giver clarifies key issues Opinion seeker/giver clarifies pertinent values Elaborator promotes greater understanding through examples or exploration of implications Coordinator pulls together ideas and suggestionsMcGraw-Hill © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 7
    • 12-17 Table 12-5 cont. Task Roles Orienter keeps group headed toward its stated goal(s) Evaluator tests group’s accomplishments with various criteria such as logic and practicality Energizer prods group Procedural technician performs routine duties Recorder performs a “group memory” function by documenting discussion and outcomesMcGraw-Hill © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 12-18 Table 12-5 cont. Maintenance Roles Encourager fosters group solidarity by accepting and praising various points of view Harmonizer mediates conflict through reconciliation or humor Compromiser helps resolve conflict by meeting others “half way” Gatekeeper encourages all group members to participate Standard setter evaluates the quality of group processes Commentator records and comments on group processes/dynamics Follower serves as a passive audienceMcGraw-Hill © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 8
    • Individual Roles Avoider remains apart from others Blocker resists stubbornly; negative Clown continuously jokes and attempts to distract group Dominator manipulates group; interrupts others Recognition Seeker calls attention to self by boasting, bragging, acting superior 12-21 Threats to Group Effectiveness: Figure 12-5 The Asch Effect Standard Line Card Comparison Lines Card 1 2 3McGraw-Hill © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 9
    • 12-22 Threats to Group Effectiveness: Groupthink Groupthink term for a cohesive in-group’s unwillingness to realistically view alternatives Symptoms: Invulnerability Inherent morality Rationalization Stereotyped views of opposition Self-censorship Illusion of unanimity Peer pressure MindguardsMcGraw-Hill © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 12-23 Symptoms of Groupthink Lead to Figure 12-6 Defective Decision Making Symptoms of Groupthink Decision-making Defects Invulnerability 1) Few alternatives Inherent morality 2) No reexamination of Rationalization preferred alternatives Stereotyped views of 3) No reexamination of opposition rejected alternatives Self-censorship 4) Rejection of expert opinions Illusion of unanimity 5) Selective bias of new information Peer pressure 6) No contingency plans MindguardsMcGraw-Hill © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 10
    • 12-24 Preventing Groupthink 1) Each member of the group should be assigned the role of critical evaluator 2) Top-level executives should not use company policy committees to rubber-stamp decisions that have already been made 3) Different groups with different leaders should explore the same policy questionsMcGraw-Hill © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 12-25 Preventing Groupthink Cont. 4) Subgroup debates and outside experts should be used to introduce fresh perspectives 5) Someone should be given the role of devil’s advocate when discussing major alternatives 6) Once a consensus has been reached, everyone should be encouraged to rethink their position to check for flawsMcGraw-Hill © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 11
    • 12-26 Social Loafing Social Loafing decrease in individual effort as group size increases Equity of effort Loss of personal accountability Motivational loss due to sharing of rewardsMcGraw-Hill © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 12