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History Power Point History Power Point Presentation Transcript

  • Warm-up Discussions
    • Please find someone sit next to you and engage in a discussion about these authors’ theories
      • Frederick Taylor; Elton Mayo’s Hawthorne Studies; Chris Argyris; Maslow; McGregor; Herzberg
    • What are their theories? Do they make sense?
  • Approaches to reviewing leadership literature Ambiguity models Alternative formulations of leadership Subjective models Contingency models Fiedler’s Contingency Theory Political models Decision making models The authoritarian-democratic continuum Democratic models Leader behaviors; consideration and initiation of structure The ‘situational’ approach Formal models Trait views of leadership The trait approach Bush & Hughes Foster Watkins
  • Six perspectives on the history of leadership theories Late 19 th century: Decentralized structures 1900-1950: Administrative Progressives 19660’s-1970’s: Militancy and challenges 1980’s: Back to Basics Pre 20 th century: heroic leaders, ideal types Trait theory Leadership behavior theory Contingency theory Pre-1930’s: Traditional Science Management’ 1930’s-1960’s: Human relations Supervision 1960’s: Revisionist period ‘ Neo-scientific Management’ ‘ Human Resource Supervision’ Pre-1950’s: Trait theory 1950’s-1960’s: Rise of Contingency Theories 1970’s-1980’s: School Effectiveness and Decision Making 1920’s-1960’s Administrative Manager 1960’s-1970’s: Program Manager 1980’s: Instructional Leader 1990’s: Transformation-al leader From 1945, Administrative science, positivist methodologies as the sloe means of understanding administration 1970’s, the philosophical work of Hodgkinson as a moment of change in direction of questions asked Tyack Smith & Pererson, Sergiovanni & Starratt Hoyle Hallinger Greenfield
  • Metaphors for Principal
    • Spiritual leaders (Cubberley, 1923; Johnson, 1925)
    • Business managers (Callahan, 1962; Strayer, 1930)
    • Soldiers (ASCD, 1945; Gregg, 1943; Van Til, 1946)
    • Social scientists (Griffiths, 1959; Hunt & Pierce, 1958)
    • Bureaucrats (Abbott, 1969; Sergiovanni, 1969)
    • Public relations experts (Burden & Whitt, 1973)
    • Instructional leaders (Clark & Lotto, 1982; Greenfield, 1987; Sergiovanni & Starratt, 2002)
  • Metaphorical themes in principalship
    • The 1920s value broker
    • The 1930s scientific manager
    • The 1940s democratic leader
    • The 1950s theory-guided administrator
    • The 1960s bureaucratic executive
    • The 1970s humanistic facilitator
    • The 1980s instructional leader (Beck & Murphy, 1993)
    • The 1990s accountability holder
  • FIGURE 2.1 Analysis of metaphors of 1920s
    • Dominant Metaphorical Themes
    • The work of the principal is linked with absolute, spiritual truths and values.
    • The principalship is a role energized by a zeal for education and guided by principles of scientific management.
    • The principal is expected to be a social leader in the community.
    • For all of these reasons, the role is considered to be a noble, honorable one.
    • Dominant Tone
    • Optimistic because of grounding in spiritual values and science
    • Dominant Values
    • Absolute values–both traditional and spiritual
    • Principles of scientific management
    • Accepted social values
  • FIGURE 2.1 Analysis of metaphors of 1920s (Cont.)
    • Relationship to Others
    • To superintendents—
    • Member of an educational team
    • To teachers—
    • Presiding officer
    • Organizer
    • Guide
    • To students—
    • Transmitter of values
    • Teacher
    • Disciplinarian
    • To the community---
    • Public servant
    • Standards for Evaluation
    • Success is assumed if values held and methods used
  • Figure 3.1 Analysis of Metaphors of the 1940s
    • Dominant metaphorical Themes
    • During the war the principal is viewed as the school’s leader on the home front.
    • The principal is expected to demonstrate democratic leadership so that students and teachers can lead peaceful and productive lives.
    • In fulfilling the school’s social roles, the principal is expected to be a curriculum developer, a group leader and coordinator, and a supervisor.
    • The principal is viewed as the school’s public relations representative within the community.
    • Dominant Tone
    • Distinctively American with an emphasis on social issues
    • Dominant Values
    • Faith in humanity’s ability to solve social problems
    • Commitment to equality of educational opportunity
    • Belief in democracy
    • Dominant Values
    • Uniformity and standardization in preparation programs, administrative and instructional techniques, and evaluative strategies
  • Figure 3.1 Analysis of Metaphors of the 1940s (Cont.)
    • Relationship to others
    • To superintendents—
    • Colleague
    • Co-leader
    • To teachers—
    • Sharer of responsibility
    • Equal
    • Facilitator of group leadership
    • To students, parents, and community---
    • Co-planner
    • Standards for Evaluation
    • Wise use of resources
    • The degree to which principal leads democratically
  • Figure 5.1 Analysis of the Metaphors of the 1960s
    • Dominant Metaphorical Themes
    • The principal of the sixties is viewed as a member of well-developed educational bureaucracy.
    • The principal is expected to function as protector of the bureaucracy, guarding the various distributions of power.
    • Categorical, quantitative, empirical terms increasingly dominate discussions of the principals’ work, suggesting that he or she is expected to use increasingly sophisticated scientific strategies.
    • Faith that “correct” technique and modern technology will produce expected outcomes results in the belief that the principal can be held accountable for her or his decisions and activities.
    • The pressures of this accountability and the political demands on school leaders leave the principal feeling vulnerable and confused about role expectations.
    • Dominant Tone
    • Technical and mechanistic
  • Figure 5.1 Analysis of the Metaphors of the 1960s (Cont.)
    • Relationship to Others
    • To state level policy makers and district level superintendents--
    • Subordinate
    • Lieutenant responsible for carrying out directives
    • To teachers---
    • Builder of morale
    • Dispenser of pedagogical knowledge
    • To students—
    • Instructional and disciplinary influence through teachers
    • To parents and community members—
    • Builder of harmonious, supportive relationships
    • Standards for Evaluation
    • Principals are evaluated on the performance or quality of the “pupil product”
    • as measured by standardized tests
    • Evaluation is both formative and summative. It tends to focus on discovering problems and working to correct them
  • FIGURE 7.1 Analysis of Metaphors of the 1980s
    • Dominant Metaphorical Themes
    • The principal is expected to serve as an instructional leader, guiding teachers and students toward productive learning experiences.
    • Central to the concept of instructional leadership is the idea that the principal is to solve problems and provide resources.
    • The principal of the eighties is frequently asked to be a visionary, developing and communicating a picture of the ideal school.
    • The principals is expected to go beyond painting a portrait of a good school and is charged with functioning as a change agent.
    • Dominant Tones
    • Urgent and demanding
    • Businesslike
  • FIGURE 7.1 Analysis of Metaphors of the 1980s (Cont.)
    • Dominant Values
    • Effectiveness
    • Accountability
    • Relationship to Others
    • To superintendents, boards and other governing bodies—
    • Steward of available resources
    • To teachers—
    • Facilitator of personal and professional development
    • Monitor
    • To students—
    • In prescriptive work, the standard setter
    • In descriptive work, an involved person and educator
    • Standards for Evaluation
    • Principals are judged by student achievement outcomes as measured by elaborate assessment instruments.
  • Assumptions and the Structure of Educational Theories Assumptions about knowledge Assumptions About human nature Assumptions about educational purpose Educational theories and recommendation
  • Assumptions in Theories of Leadership The leader (trait, style, behavior, vision, charisma) The task (from holistic to reductionism, needing discretion or direction) The led (follower) (motivations, readiness, attitudes) The organization (structural, political, moral purpose )
  • Taylor’s Scientific Management
    • When Taylor described how the handler increased his rate of 12.5 tons per day to 47.5 per day, he wrote the following:” ‘ Now pick up a pig and walk. Now sit down and rest. Now walk—now rest,’ etc. He (the handler) worked when he was told to work, and rested when he was told to rest, and at half-past five in the afternoon had his 47.5 tons loaded on the cart” (Taylor, 1911, p. 47).
  • Trends in the assumptions
    • Leader—from trait, behavior, style to cognitive and affective orientations
    • Led—from passive receiver (mistrust) to active participant (trust)
    • Organization—from structural, to political, and to democratic perspectives
    • Task—from reductionist to the holistic