CENTRAL UNIVERSITY OF ECUADOR SCHOOL OF LANGUAGE AUTHORS: JONATHAN SALGUERO PAUL TIBANTACOURSE: 4TH SEMESTER SEPTEMBER 2012
GLOBAL WARMING Climate change is any substantial change in Earth’sclimate that lasts for an extended period of time. Globalwarming refers to climate change that causes an increasein the average temperature of the loweratmosphere. Global warming can have many differentcauses, but it is most commonly associated with humaninterference, specifically the release of excessive amountsof greenhouse gase
CAUSES Global Warming is caused by many things. The causes are split upinto two groups, man-made or anthropogenic causes, and natural causes. Natural Causes Man-made Causes
NATURAL CAUSESNatural causes are causes created by nature. Onenatural cause is a release of methane gas from arctictundra and wetlands. Methane is a greenhouse gas. Agreenhouse gas is a gas that traps heat in the earthsatmosphere. Another natural cause is that the earth goesthrough a cycle of climate change. This climate changeusually lasts about 40,000 years.
Man-made causes probably do the most damage. Thereare many man-made causes. Pollution is one of the biggestman-made problems. Pollution comes in many shapes andsizes. Burning fossil fuels is one thing that causespollution. Fossil fuels are fuels made of organic mattersuch as coal, or oil.
When fossil fuels are burned they give off a greenhouse gas called CO2. Also mining coal and oil allowsmethane to escape. How does it escape? Methane isnaturally in the ground. When coal or oil is mined youhave to dig up the earth a little. When you dig up the fossilfuels you dig up the methane as well.
The effects of global warming are the ecological and socialchanges caused by the rise in global temperatures. Evidence ofclimate change includes the instrumental temperaturerecord, rising sea levels, and decreased snow cover in the NorthernHemisphere. According to the Intergovernmental Panel onClimate Change (IPCC), most of the observed increase in globalaverage temperatures since the mid-20th century is very likely dueto the observed increase in human greenhouse gasconcentrations..
SEA LEVEL IS RISING . During the 20th century, sea level rose about 15 cm (6 inches)due to melting glacier ice and expansion of warmer seawater.Models predict that sea level may rise as much as 59 cm (23inches) during the 21st Century, threatening coastalcommunities, wetlands, and coral reefs.
Arctic sea ice is melting. The summer thicknessof sea ice is about half of what it was in 1950.Melting ice may lead to changes in oceancirculation. Plus melting sea ice is speeding upwarming in the Arctic.
Glaciers and permafrost are melting. Over the past100 years, mountain glaciers in all areas of the worldhave decreased in size and so has the amount ofpermafrost in the Arctic. Greenlands ice sheet ismelting faster too.
Global Warming Effect: Massive crop failures According to recent research, there is a 90% chance that 3 billionpeople worldwide will have to choose between moving their families tomilder climes and going hungry due to climate change within 100 years. “Climate change is expected to have the most severe impact on watersupplies. “Shortages in future are likely to threaten food production,reduce sanitation, hinder economic development and damage ecosystems.It causes more violent swings between floods and droughts.”" – Guardian:Global warming causes 300,000 deaths a year
Global Warming Effect: More killer storms The severity of storms such as hurricanes and cyclones is increasing,and research published in Nature found: “Scientists have come up with the firmest evidence so far that globalwarming will significantly increase the intensity of the most extremestorms worldwide. The maximum wind speeds of the strongest tropicalcyclones have increased significantly since 1981, according to researchpublished in Nature this week. And the upward trend, thought to bedriven by rising ocean temperatures, is unlikely to stop at any time soon.”
Global Warming Effect: Widespread extinction of speciesAccording to research published in Nature, by 2050, risingtemperatures could lead to the extinction of more than a millionspecies. And because we can‟t exist without a diverse population ofspecies on Earth, this is scary news for humans.“Climate change now represents at least as great a threat to thenumber of species surviving on Earth as habitat-destruction andmodification.
Global Warming Effect: Disappearance of coral reefs A report on coral reefs from WWF says that in a worst casescenario, coral populations will collapse by 2100 due to increasedtemperatures and ocean acidification. The „bleaching‟ of coralsfromsmall but prolonged rises in sea temperature is a severe danger forocean ecosystems, and many other species in the oceans rely on coralreefs for their survival.
Spread of diseaseAs northern countries warm, disease carryinginsects migrate north, bringing plague and diseasewith them. Indeed some scientists believe that insome countries, thanks to global warming, malariahas not been fully eradicated.
Economic consequencesMost of the effects of anthropogenic globalwarming won‟t be good. And these effects spell onething for the countries of the world: economicconsequences. Hurricanes cause billions of dollarsin damage, diseases cost money to treat and controland conflicts exacerbate all of these.
Fires and wildfires As the planet continues to warm, dry areas of land that arealready susceptible to wildfires are likely to be ravaged by evenmore frequent and destructive episodes. In 2007, more than3,000 fires brought destruction to Southeastern Europe thanksto a long summer that created arid and parched conditions – asituation that would become normal as a consequence of thegreenhouse effects
Death by smogA powerful combination of vehicularfumes, ground-level ozone, airborne industrialpollution and the stagnant hot air associated withheat waves, smog represents an immediate andchronic health threat to those living in built-upurban areas.