Redistricting, Reapportionment and Reform
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  • 1. Redistricting, Reapportionment andReformMorgan CullenNational Conference of State Legislatures
  • 2. Redistricting Overview What? Why? When? Who? Where? How? So What?
  • 3. Redistricting 2010-What?RedistrictingorReapportionment
  • 4. Redistricting 2010-Why?Baker v. Carr, 1962• Congress: as equal as possible• State legislature: up to 10% “deviation,”if for good reason
  • 5. Redistricting 2010-When? All Census Data was delivered by April 1st Final Deadline--2012 elections (except Maine &Montana) Filing deadline for candidates for primary Time for local officials to re-precinct Section 5 of the Voting Rights Act Preclearance--add60 (or 120) + days Four states had 2011 legislative elections Two states don’t have legislative elections until2014
  • 6. 2013 RedistrictingProgress Report—April 10thRedistricting Plans IncompleteRedistricting Plans CompleteRedistricting Plans CompleteLawsuit Pending
  • 7. Reapportionment 2010-Where?4
  • 8. Redistricting 2010-Who? Board or commission-- 13 States for Legislative Lines 7 States for U.S. House Advisory Back-up Iowa model Courts (Mandatory Review Process KS, CO, FL) Legislature 37 States for Legislative Lines
  • 9. Legislative RedistrictingCommissions 2013BackupPrimaryAdvisory
  • 10. Legislative RedistrictingCommissions 2013Party Appointed CommissionBackupAdvisoryIndependentPolitician/Politician AppointedTotal Legislative ControlLegislature
  • 11. California Citizens RedistrictingCommission 14 member commission (5 Dem, 5 GOP, 4other) State Auditors Office selects 60 registeredvoters Legislative Leaders can reduce the pool Auditors office then selects 8 memberthrough a lottery Those eight members pick rest of themembers Plans must be approved by a supermajority
  • 12. Iowa Model Three maps drawn by nonpartisanlegislative staff No political data can be used Legislature must approve--noamendments Legislature can re-take control of thirdset of proposed maps
  • 13. Party Control of RedistrictingU.S. House Districts1990 2000 2010 2011Democrats 168 135 110 47Republicans 5 98 90 202Split 240 157 189 87Commission& Iowa15 38 39 92At-Large 7 7 7 7
  • 14. Redistricting 2010-How? Population equality Comply with Voting Rights Act and 14thAmendment Traditional Districting Principles Technology--software and data
  • 15. The Voting Rights ActSection 2 • Do minorities represent most ofthe voters in a concentratedarea?• Do other voters tend to vote fordifferent candidates thanminorities?• Is the minority populationotherwise protected given the“totality of the circumstances”?Do Not Dilute
  • 16. Illinois Congressional District - 2001
  • 17. Complying With The VotingRights ActChicago SuburbsburbsLatino/HispanicAfrican-American
  • 18. Complying With The VotingRights ActChicago SuburbssuburbsLatino/HispanicAfrican-American
  • 19. The Voting Rights ActSection 5• “Preclearance” for certainjurisdictions• Is the new map intended to dilute minority votes?• Does the new map leave minority voters worseoff?(“retrogression”)
  • 20. After federal law, add statelimitations• Contiguity• Political boundaries• Compactness• Communities of interestState leg. Congress48 2346 2038 1922 13
  • 21. State Mandates On PartisanCompetitiveness/FairnessFair DistrictsCompetitive Districts
  • 22. Florida State Legislature Party Composition23Representatives 120 120Republicans 81 76Democrats 39 44Senators 40 40Republicans 28 26Democrats 12 142011-2012 2013-2014
  • 23. Key Points: Constitutionally mandated Highly regulated by federal and statelaws--not all about Gerrymandering Changes in 2010: Prisoners California Public Access/Participation ACS
  • 24. Thank You!Morgan CullenMorgan.Cullen@ncsl.orgNational Conference of State Legislatures
  • 25. "Redistricting may be the singleleast interesting word in theEnglish language."--Dan Schnur, Sacramento BeeOctober 2008
  • 26. "Redistricting may be the singleleast interesting word in theEnglish language."--Dan Schnur, Sacramento BeeOctober 2008
  • 27. "Redistricting may be the singleleast interesting word in theEnglish language."--Dan Schnur, Sacramento BeeOctober 2008
  • 28. “The once-in-a-decaderedrawing of politicalboundaries is exceedinglyimportant and excruciatinglyarcane.”--Los Angeles Times
  • 29. After federal law, add statelimitations• Contiguity• Political boundaries• Compactness• Communities of interest• Partisanship/competitionState leg. Congress48 2243 1837 1724 1310 7
  • 30. Court Sent Map Back To LegislatureCourt Approved Legislative MapCourt Drew Map (Not Legislature)Court Approved Commission MapCourt Sent Map Back to CommissionCourt Drew Map (Not Commission)
  • 31. CD 7CD 6CD 1
  • 32. Redistricting 2010-How? Legal--Population equality &Compliance with Voting Rights Act and14th Amendment and not subvertingtraditional districting principles andmaking race the predominant factor indrawing a plan Technology--software and data
  • 33. Key Points: Constitutionally mandated Highly regulated by federal and statelaws 2010 Redistricting Cycle: 3 states require adjusted data for prisons Public involvement ACS/CVAP California commission Dramatic Hispanic growth and ruralpopulation loss
  • 34. "Redistricting may be the single leastinteresting word in the Englishlanguage."--Dan Schnur, Sacramento Bee“The once-in-a-decade redrawing ofpolitical boundaries is exceedinglyimportant and excruciatingly arcane.”-- Mark Z. Barabak, Los Angeles Times