What Trainers Need to Know about Libraries
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What Trainers Need to Know about Libraries



Presentation delivered in February 2009 at the ASTD Mt. Diablo Chapter\'s monthly meeting (San Francisco East Bay area); topic successfully reintroduced workplace learning and performance ...

Presentation delivered in February 2009 at the ASTD Mt. Diablo Chapter\'s monthly meeting (San Francisco East Bay area); topic successfully reintroduced workplace learning and performance professionals to libraries as a resource and encouraged many of them to visit their local libraries onsite or online in the week following the presentation.



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  • We all have strong images of what a library is. Some of us remember a small, one-room branch facility, others might recall the bookmobile which would magically appear in our neighborhoods once or twice a month, and a few might still retain fond memories of places as magical as the Emerald City of Oz.
  • On February 12, 2009, I was following yet another link from the wonderful “Library Link of the Day” site (http://www.tk421.net/librarylink/) and saw a blog entry from the Los Angeles Times about “the library of the future.” The question asked in the headline was, “What will the library of the future look like?” The first reader to comment offered a rather depressing response:
  • “ The truth is that the library of the future will most likely have a CLOSED sign on it.” That struck a few of us as overly pessimistic, so we posted some responses encouraging the pessimist to revisit his library and see how libraries in general are attracting lots of customers and doing a great job at meeting their evolving needs. And the discussion leads me to a basic question that we all ought to consider right at the outset: what is a library, and what does it take to work in one?
  • Libraries and the people who work in them continue to evolve. We’re acknowledging that we need to be as good providing service onsite (face to face) as we are providing services online (virtual reference). We need to have a broad knowledge of reference resources, technology, customer service, digital resources and preservation, ways to market what we offer, and, above all, we need to be great trainer-teacher-learners since there is always something new to learn and share with those who use our services. The graduate-level Master of Library Science degree has become the Master of Library and Information Science degree, and many of us are opting to earn those degrees in an online environment so we will be prepared to help library members and guests who seek us out online.
  • And what comes to mind when we think about libraries? Clockwise, from upper left: Berkeley Public, Library of Congress Main Reading Room, automated book storage area at University of British Columbia, camel “book mobile” in Kenya, and book dispensing machine (Library A Go Go) in Contra Costa County. Basic questions: what do we picture when we think about libraries, and how often do we visit them onsite or online?
  • In February 2008, Slate magazine posted architect Witold Rybcynski’s photo-essay, “Borrowed Time: How Do You Build a Public Library in the Age of Google?”, on its website. Let’s take a look at the images (and don’t forget to visit the site later for the full essay).
  • From the Chicago Public Library website: “Since first opening its doors to the public in 1873, the Chicago Public Library has maintained its status of one of the City's most democratic of institutions — providing all Chicagoans with a free and open place to gather, learn, connect, read and be transformed…The Chicago Public Library's Harold Washington Library Center opened for public use on Monday, October 7, 1991… “ The 79 locations of the Chicago Public Library are at the forefront of providing innovative library services, technologies and tools Chicagoans need to achieve their personal goals and to establish the City's role as a competitive force in the global marketplace. Since 1989, the City of Chicago and the Chicago Public Library have opened 52 new or renovated neighborhood libraries — unprecedented public library growth. These new libraries are that special third place — beyond home and work — where people come to improve their lives, nourish their intellect or simply to be entertained. The library is where people of all ages and backgrounds gather freely. Through its rich and current book collections, state of the art technology and cultural and public partnerships, the Chicago Public Library is a thriving, engaged leader in Chicago's diverse neighborhoods.”
  • An entirely new building which replaced the previous Main Library in April 1996. Use immediately increased from 2,500 visitors per day in the previous Main Library to an artificially high level of 12,000 visitors per day in the new building. Usage eventually settled at approximately 5,000 visitors per day once all the excitement surrounding the opening of the new building passed, so there was a long-term doubling of building use between the old and new facilities.
  • From information provided from the architect’s website (Robert A.M. Stern Architects; http://www.ramsa.com/project.aspx?id=104): “The library is fitted into a steeply sloping site, with portions of the upper two floors built atop an existing parking structure. The building is complex but designed to make way-finding intuitive. The main spaces are uniquely suited for social interaction, from the grand figural spaces of reading and circulation to the quiet eddies of informal seating that are distributed throughout the open stack areas, especially around the courtyard. Our building is both functional and grand; it is definitely not a shopping mall for books. “ The three story height along Church Street was derived from a practical desire to retain the existing parking structure and take advantage of its structural capacity to locate above it two large floors that look outwards to the surrounding townscape and inwards to a landscaped courtyard, which, with its central fountain, pool, and covered arcade, will provide an oasis and a setting for special readings and events. “ As the Library is the flagship of a public library system which serves the diverse Nashville population, the project involved an extraordinary amount of community input. The most visible benefit of this involvement is the Public Art Program, which brought in local graphic artists, authors, photographers, painters, sculptors, and metalworkers to enrich the building with artwork. The building also incorporates the work of nationally known artists including Richard Haas and Kent Bloomer.”
  • From Denver Public Library’s website (http://denverlibrary.org/about/history.html): “The ‘Old Main’ library in Civic Center Park served downtown Denver for 45 years, until the City commissioned the firm of Fisher and Fisher/Burnham Hoyt to design a new Central Library at the corner of Broadway and 14th Avenue. Opened in 1956, the new structure provided more than twice the space of the Carnegie building, but was expected to meet Denver Public Library's needs for only a decade. Denver experienced explosive growth between the 1950s and the 1970s. A string of new branch libraries opened to serve sprawling neighborhoods to the southeast and southwest. Among them were the four Ross branches, funded by the estate of Denver real estate investor Frederick Ross. “ By the late 1980s, Library collections had outgrown the Central Library and most branch libraries. Three-quarters of Central Library materials were stored in basements and warehouses. Moreover, aging buildings weren't adaptable to the flowering technology of the Information Age. In 1990, an overwhelming 75 percent of the city's voters approved a $91.6 million bond issue to build a new Central Library and renovate, expand or build new branch library buildings. A 540,000 square-foot Central Library, the awesome design of world-renowned Michael Graves and the Denver firm of Klipp Colussy Jenks DuBois, opened in 1995. Branch improvements were also complete by 1995.”
  • From the architect’s website (Rem Koolhaas; http://www.arcspace.com/architects/koolhaas/Seattle/): “The new Seattle Public Library houses the library's main collection of books, government publications, periodicals, audio visual materials and the technology to access and distribute information from the physical collection online. “The building is divided into eight horizontal layers, each varying in size to fit its function.  A structural steel and glass skin unifies the multifaceted form and defines the public spaces in-between. Situated on a sloping site between 4th and 5th street the new library will have entrances on both street levels. “ The entrance level on 4th Street,  one of Seattle's main thoroughfares, houses the Children's Library and foreign-language resources. Rows of escalators lead to the 5th Street ‘Living Room’ lobby located under a 50-foot-high sloping glass wall.  The lobby can also be reached directly from a covered walkway than runs the length of the 5th Avenue facade…Total area: 362,987 square feet… Seattle Public Library …Architect: Rem Koolhaas OMA ; local architects: LMN Architects , Seattle.”
  • From Salt Lake City Library website (http://www.slcpl.lib.ut.us/details.jsp?parent_id=7&page_id=5): “The new Main Library in Salt Lake City embodies the idea that a library is more than a repository of books and computers--it reflects and engages the city's imagination and aspirations. The building, which opened in February 2003, is double the previous space with 240,000 square feet for more than 500,000 books and other materials, and room to grow the collection. The six-story curving, walkable wall embraces the public plaza, with shops and services at ground level, reading galleries above, and a 300-seat auditorium. A multi-level reading area along the glass lens at the southern facade of the building looks out onto the plaza with stunning views of the city and Wasatch Mountains beyond. A roof-top garden, accessible by walking the crescent wall or the elevators, offers a 360 degree view of the Salt Lake Valley. Spiraling fireplaces on four floors resemble a column of flame from the vantage of 200 East and 400 South. The Urban Room between the library and the crescent wall is a space for all seasons, generously endowed with daylight and open to magnificent views.”
  • And back to a fine sample of traditional library reading rooms.
  • The San Francisco Public Library system, in a city which is only seven miles by seven miles, has a seven-level main library and 27 branches to serve its population.
  • From the Oakland Public Library system website: “The Oakland Public Library is a part of the City of Oakland, and has been in existence since 1878. Our locations currently include 15 branches, a Main Library, a Second Start Adult Literacy Program, the Bookmobile, the Tool Lending Library and the new African-American Museum and Library. We also offer many other special services for residents of Oakland and California. We are supported by a lively Friends of the Library group and by the Library Advisory Commission, as well as by local Friends' groups around the city.”
  • From a press release (http://www.iii.com/news/pr_display.php?id=407) about the Contra Costa County Library: “Contra Costa County Library (www.ccclib.org), with its 25 community libraries and virtual presence (including one here in Danville, where the ASTD Mt. Diablo Chapter meets), is located in the fastest growing region of the Bay Area and is considered a leader in the application and use of innovative technologies that bring the library to the people. Serving approximately one million people, circulation exceeds over six million annually. The Library believes in excellent service to customers, and has twice been recognized as the Department of the Year and given the Award for Excellence by the Contra Costa County Board of Supervisors.” And it should also be noted that they have a great staff training program which extends throughout the entire organization using a train-the-trainer model.
  • In addition to the obvious (books, magazines, videocassettes, DVDs, audiobooks, ebooks, access to online resources including databases), contemporary libraries offer a variety of free services, including access to the Internet, free wireless access within the buildings, and user-driven interlibrary loan services. And library cards are free to anyone living within the state, not just within a city or county service area.
  • There are adult literacy programs, computer classes for the general public, and homework assistance (face-to-face and online) for children and teens.
  • Programming is incredibly varied: film series, author presentations, and, as seen on this screen from Contra Costa County, podcasts including some directed toward children.
  • In contrast to the image we saw earlier of a closed library, we are far more likely today to find libraries virtually open to us around the clock. San Francisco Public’s “ask a librarian” service is typical of what many large urban library systems are offering. We start from the library’s home page, followed the “ask a librarian” link, and are led to…
  • … a page offering us access to reference services via meebo, telephone reference, email reference, and the live online reference system which routes us to the first available librarian who can respond to our live, online questions, no matter where in the country that librarian is sitting.
  • We reach a page of instructions which prepare us for ways to utilize the services of the online librarians, then choose an option at the bottom of that page (“proceed to live online reference”) and are soon at this page, where we type in basic contact information, type in our question, and wait for a librarian to respond. The rest of the process is fairly straightforward: the librarian works to locate the information we are seeking or shows us how to find it ourselves; provides live links to sources cited; and, if we’ve been smart enough to include our email address, follows up the exchange via email with a transcript of our online chat so we will have a record of the conversation.
  • There is no lack of experimentation in libraries: Char Booth and her colleagues at Ohio University Libraries decided to try to bring themselves to library users who were working in remote areas of the building by setting up kiosks where users could contact librarians via Skype. As Booth saw it, this was no different than being available via phone, instant messaging (which, of course, is an element of Skype via the chat function), or any other method which served library users’ needs and made their library experience more positive.
  • A low-tech solution, instituted by Denver Public Library, is currently in use so that library users who are not near a service desk can contact staff without having to leave the area in which they are working. They (we) pick up a phone and find a library staff member on the other end of the line within seconds, as I discovered during a recent visit. And even if it is an old and familiar technology, I can’t help but feel that there is some sort of wizardry involved in such a creative use of something we tend to overlook these days. Before we move into a brief review of how to locate what we want within a library or on a library website, let’s stop and go over any questions you have so far.
  • There are Online Public Access Catalogs—OPACs—with simple options (author, title, and subject searches)…
  • There are the more contemporary Web 2.0 versions of Online Public Access Catalogs—the SOPACs, or Social Online Public Access Catalogs, with better graphics, interactivity (user tagging and reviews), like the “Encore” product used by San Francisco and many other public library systems throughout the world. Other SOPACs include Aquabrowser, used locally by Contra Costa County and, a bit further away, by the Free Library of Philadelphia. If we use Encore do a combined search on “Manguel” (for writer Alberto Manguel) and add in “Library at Night” to capture the title of his latest work, “The Library at Night,” then click on the arrow to the right (circled here)…
  • … we find the book (in English and in Spanish) on a page with some fairly nice graphics: subject headings in the tag cloud on the right side of the screen; options for locating the book (on the left side of the screen); and the ability to see the copies by choosing the “show all 5 available copies” note in the first of the two listings in the center of the screen.
  • The next display shows us where copies are available, gives us a “Request it” option if we want a copy delivered to our nearest library, and continues to display the tag cloud on the right in case we want to find similar books.
  • Many libraries subscribe to dozens of online databases which provide free, full-text articles on numerous subjects to anyone with a library card for that library system. Here we see a few of San Francisco Public’s online resources, including Proquest, with full text to more than 300 U.S. and international news sources; the New York Times historical database; and JSTOR, with access to full text in numerous academic journals—a far cry from the days when we went digging through old newspapers and microfiche readers. Trainers looking for peer-reviewed articles in their field of expertise (or in fields where we are trying to develop expertise) will never go for lack of resources here.
  • As we have already seen, we can ask a librarian face-to-face in our local library, or contact one through online virtual reference services, or we can turn to those who, like Thomas Mann at the Library of Congress, have spent their lives helping people find what they are seeking and, in some cases, have been nice enough to document the process in online articles or full-length books.
  • If we know a book exists and we want to search for it, we obviously aren’t limited to what is available in our local library.
  • If we’re ready to proceed on our own, we’re back to the online catalog. Here we’ve done a search for Sally Zepeda’s “Staff Development: Practices That Promote Leadership in Learning Communities” and found that San Francisco Public doesn’t own the book. The screen (left-hand side) prompts us to search the Link+ Consortium of California libraries (including Oakland and Contra Costa County libraries) to see whether we ourselves can locate and place a reserve on a copy to be delivered to our own local library. Link+ basics, from a press release (http://www.iii.com/news/pr_display.php?id=407) about Contra Costa County Library joining the Link+ (Link Plus) consortium: “Innovative announced today that Contra Costa County Library (CA) has gone live on LINK+, a direct consortial library borrowing system driven by Innovative's INN-Reach solution. Comprised of 48 public and academic libraries in California and Nevada, LINK+ members provide fast discovery and patron-driven requesting of any of over 30 million items from a single online portal. Contra Costa County Library will use INN-Reach in conjunction with their current ILS (Integrated Library System), Carl.Solution™, provided by TLC.”
  • We see, in the second item, that Link+ has identified copies elsewhere, so we click on the “request” icon on the left side (circled here)…
  • … and if, as sometimes happens, the Link+ copies are all temporarily claimed, we move on to online or face-to-face assistance requesting the materials via our old friend, interlibrary loan. If, on the other hand, Link+ does have what we want—and it usually does—we use subsequent screens to request the material and choose from options to have what we are seeking delivered to our nearest library. The lesson learned is that we do have options, and all we need to do is continue exploring them or ask for help from library staff.
  • The Library of Congress and its online catalog remain one of the premier resources for determining whether something you are seeking exists. You can use some of the same search techniques we’ve just skimmed, and the idea of truncating (using roots with wildcard symbols like an asterisk or a question mark) search terms helps bring back large results. One example: “librar? and train? and leader?” will locate just about anything you could hope to find on libraries and training and leadership issues. (It’s the search I used to locate a couple of the training books used on an earlier slide in this presentation.)
  • WorldCat (an attempt to create a whole-world catalog of library holdings), like Library of Congress, helps verify the existence of materials. Going further than what Library of Congress provides, WorldCat also can tell us which libraries have copies of what we are seeking.
  • Everyone who has any interest in libraries is talking about what the future might bring. We’ve already seen one pessimistic view that the future holds a “closed” sign. Some of us see an increasing synthesis of onsite and online services which bring libraries closer to an ideal of being community centers at the local and global level, or even communities’ dynamic “Third Places” as described by Ray Oldenburg in The Great Good Place: Cafes, Coffee Shops, Community Centers, Beauty Parlors, General Stores, Bars, Hangouts, and How They Get You Through the Day —although it should be noted that when he wrote the book in 1989, libraries were not among the places he mentioned as third places.
  • One intriguing model is the academic “Information Commons”—an idea which is still taking shape, doesn’t seem to exist much in public libraries yet, and which still has no consistent terminology. Some refer to these facilities as “information commons,” others to “learning commons,” some to “knowledge commons,” and, as we’ll see, there are other variations on the theme. It appears that three elements have to be in place for a commons to work: state of the art computer workstations available free of charge to library users; a print collection to support the work that is done there; and trained library staff—not just librarians—capable of offering instruction on how to use the equipment and the collections to meet library users’ information and entertainment needs.
  • Among the key elements: flexibility, informality, lots of moveable equipment and furniture, and settings which inspire a sense of collaboration and community. We obviously like to work together, and this is where Oldenburg’s Third Place meets the world of YouTube and acts of collaborative creation.
  • Even when the equipment and some of the furniture are set in place, there is still an inviting sense of opportunity here; you can see, in the foreground, that informal discussions groups come and go in a setting like this, and the Web 2.0 sense of collaboration which is encouraged in commons draws you in and makes you feel at home.
  • Students work on everything from word processed documents and PowerPoint slides to multimedia classroom presentations. They even find practice rooms and classrooms in some of the more elaborate and well developed commons. (For one very cute example of how students use information commons to create online presentations, we can view a music video created by students at the Weigle Information Commons at the University of Pennsylvania: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4z4Z717yD08. The video has students singing to the tune of the pop song “Downtown” to promote what the commons offers; the first lines—”When you’re at home, your roommate’s driving you crazy, there’s a place I know: Weigle. If you need advice, don’t even think twice, cause you can always go: Weigle…”—is fun, effective, and a great example of what is coming out of commons.)
  • We have a wonderful academic example of a newly established commons here in the San Francisco Bay Area at Santa Clara University. Opened in 2008, the facility has highly visible information desks, plenty of state of the art computer equipment, extensive print collections, and friendly, accessible staff well trained to help users who are unfamiliar with all the commons has to offer. Again, if it’s not already obvious, we should stop long enough to think about libraries and commons as potentially amazing areas of growth for workplace learning and performance professionals. As some of us are currently suggesting, we can’t work in libraries without having good training-teaching-learning skills.
  • Note, again, the extensive use of moveable furniture so that students have flexibility in how they work. This setting encourages them to come together rather than work in isolation.
  • Wondering whether public libraries were beginning to explore the information commons model, I started exploring a bit in late 2008. Within a few weeks, a colleague had mentioned the information commons at Toronto Public as the one example she had seen. A few weeks later, I found reference to another at the Public Library of Charlotte and Mecklenburg County—this one called “Virtual Village,” with no overt reference to the “commons” name. Having lunch with colleagues at Oakland Public in early January 2009, I was invited to visit the new TeenZone, a grant-funded space which was opening two days after I saw it. And there it was: another local example of the commons model in that it has state of the art computers, print materials, and onsite staff there to help the teens use what is available to them. A visit to the Denver Public Library later that month led to the discovery that an eighteen-month project to convert an entire floor into another variation on the theme is in its initial stages in an area where a rudimentary commons is already in operation. While no one is yet predicting large-scale adaptation of this model in public libraries, the writing, for me, is on the walls…and the computer workstation screens.
  • And as we consider where libraries have been for decades, if not centuries—collecting, preserving, and disseminating information and materials for entertainment—we can see another complementary role developing: libraries as training and technology centers as they continue evolving to meet their customers ever-changing needs.
  • So, we’ve toured our own land of Oz and talked about some of the wizardry which is occurring there. And as we draw to a close and move into a brief question-and-answer period and a discussion of all that is happening in libraries, we’re left with a wonderful image: the library as a place where we explore the world onsite and online, face-to-face and through virtual assistance from the wizards who keep these cultural centers alive. And we wonder what in the world we’re going to find next among the wizards who help us use onsite and online library services.

What Trainers Need to Know about Libraries Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Toto: I Don’t Think We’re in Kansas Anymore (Libraries, Trainers, and Wizards of Oz) By Paul Signorelli For the ASTD Mt. Diablo Chapter 17 February 2009
  • 2. Lots of Information = Little Retention
  • 3. The Future of Libraries?
  • 4. Developing Our Wizards
  • 5.  
  • 6. Architect Witold Rybczynski’s Tour of Libraries (One of Eight) (Posted on Slate Website) http://www.slate.com/id/2184927/ Washington, D.C. Central Library
  • 7. Architect Witold Rybczynski’s Tour of Libraries (Second of Eight) (Posted on Slate Website) http://www.slate.com/id/2184927/ Chicago, Central Library
  • 8. Architect Witold Rybczynski’s Tour of Libraries (Third of Eight) (Posted on Slate Website) http://www.slate.com/id/2184927/ San Francisco, Main Library
  • 9. Architect Witold Rybczynski’s Tour of Libraries (Fourth of Eight) (Posted on Slate Website) http://www.slate.com/id/2184927/ Nashville, Main Library
  • 10. Architect Witold Rybczynski’s Tour of Libraries (Fifth of Eight) (Posted on Slate Website) http://www.slate.com/id/2184927/ Denver, Central Library
  • 11. Architect Witold Rybczynski’s Tour of Libraries (Sixth of Eight) (Posted on Slate Website) http://www.slate.com/id/2184927/ Seattle, Central Library
  • 12. Architect Witold Rybczynski’s Tour of Libraries (Seventh of Eight) (Posted on Slate Website) http://www.slate.com/id/2184927/ Salt Lake City, Main Library
  • 13. Architect Witold Rybczynski’s Tour of Libraries (Eighth of Eight) (Posted on Slate Website) http://www.slate.com/id/2184927/ New York Public Library, Reading Room
  • 14. It May Not Be Oz, but… New York Public Library, Reading Room
  • 15. And in the East Bay… And at Oakland Public…
  • 16. It May Not Be Oz, but…
  • 17. How Libraries Serve Us Onsite: SF
  • 18. How Libraries Serve Us Onsite: Oakland
  • 19. Services In Contra Costa County
  • 20. How Libraries Serve Us Virtually…
  • 21. Options…
  • 22. And Responses…
  • 23. Cutting Edge: Ohio University Libraries
  • 24. And Don’t Forget the Basics
  • 25. Finding What We Need: The OPAC (Online Public Access Catalog)
  • 26. SOPACS (Social OPACs)
  • 27. Pictures and a Thousand Words…
  • 28. Finding It
  • 29. Online Databases
  • 30. Ask a Librarian
  • 31. Tracking It Down
  • 32. If At First We Don’t Succeed…
  • 33. We Follow the Links…
  • 34. … Don’t Forget Interlibrary Loan…
  • 35. … and the Library of Congress…
  • 36. … or WorldCat--over a billion items.
  • 37. The Future of Libraries Revisited
  • 38. The Information Commons at the University of North Carolina, Charlotte
  • 39. North Carolina State: Hill Library Learning Commons
  • 40. Lied Library, University of Nevada, Las Vegas
  • 41. University of Arizona Information Commons (1)
  • 42. University of Arizona Information Commons (2)
  • 43. University of Arizona Information Commons (3)
  • 44. Close to Home: Santa Clara University, Harrington Learning Commons
  • 45.
      • Santa Clara University:
      • Harrington Learning Commons
  • 46. Santa Clara: Technology, Learning, and Playfulness
  • 47. By Any Other Name: Oakland Public Library’s TeenZone
  • 48. Oakland Public Library TeenZone
  • 49. Oakland Public Library TeenZone Map Wall
  • 50. Questions & Contact Information Paul Signorelli & Associates 1032 Irving St., #514 San Francisco, CA 94122 415.681.5224 [email_address] http://paulsignorelli.com
  • 51. Credits (Page 1 of 2) (Images taken from flickr.com unless otherwise noted): Title slide: nics~pics' photostream at http://flickr.com/photos/36732542@N00/184432351/ Los Angeles Times blog image from http://latimesblogs.latimes.com/jacketcopy/2009/02/what-will-the-l.html Closed sign from Reedsburg Public Library site at http://reedsburglibrary.blogspot.com/2008/07/july-4th-holiday-closed-hours.html Montage of library photos from library websites including the Library of Congress (main reading room), Berkeley Public, Contra Costa County (book-dispensing machine), Kenya National Library Services (books delivered by camels), and University of British Columbia (automated compact storage area) Images from Witold Rybczynski’s photo-essay “Borrowed Time: How Do You Build a Public Library in the Age of Google?” found on Slate website at http://www.slate.com/id/2184927/ Screen shots from various libraries (San Francisco Public, Oakland Public, and Contra Costa County libraries) Skype as a reference tool, from Char Booth’s slide show at http://www.slideshare.net/charbooth/moving-communication-forward-internet-voice-and-video-in-libraries Telephone to reach a librarian at Denver Public Library from Hewink's photostream at http://www.flickr.com/photos/hewink/3231035139/
  • 52. Credits (Page 2 of 2) Information Commons: Images of J. Murrey Atkins Library at University of North Carolina, Charlotte; North Carolina State Hill Library Learning Commons, at University of North Carolina, Charlotte; and Lied Library, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, from Barbara Tierney’s 2007 PowerPoint presentation at http://library.uncc.edu/infocommons/conference/huntsville2007/ University of Arizona Information Commons images at http://www.ilc.arizona.edu/features/infocom.htm Santa Clara University: Harrington Learning Commons images at http://www.scu.edu/newlibrary/construction/images/Service-Point-Signage.jpg ; http://www.scu.edu/newlibrary/construction/images/Information-Commons_2.jpg ; and http://www.scu.edu/newlibrary/construction/images/Living-Room-East.jpg Oakland Public Library TeenZone images taken from TeenZone MySpace pages at http://viewmorepics.myspace.com/index.cfm?fuseaction=viewImage&friendID=55216226&albumID=2633561&imageID=43472323 ; http://viewmorepics.myspace.com/index.cfm?fuseaction=viewImage&friendID=55216226&albumID=2633561&imageID=43472329 ; and http://viewmorepics.myspace.com/index.cfm?fuseaction=viewImage&friendID=55216226&albumID=2633561&imageID=43472058-