0
Learning and Libraries:
Designing Engaging Learning For Library Staff and
Users

Facilitated by
Paul Signorelli
Writer/Tra...
Planning for an Audience
The Couch in the Middle of the Room
Context: Formal and Informal Learning
Context: Formal and Informal Learning
ADDIE: An Introduction
Addie: Analysis
aDdie: Design
adDie: Development
addIe: Implementation
addiE: Evaluation
Discussion #1:
Designing for Staff and Users
How can you use ADDIE—or even parts of it—to create engaging
learning for you...
Discussion #1:
Designing for Staff and Users
How can you use ADDIE—or even parts of it—to create engaging
learning for you...
Adult Learning:
Malcolm Knowles and Andragogy
Knowles:
Principles of Adult Learning
Malcolm Knowles:
Characteristics of Adult Learners
Adult Learning: Robert Gagné
Robert Gagné:
Nine Events of Learning
Combining ADDIE, Knowles, and
Gagné
Discussion #2:
Adapting Knowles and Gagné
W elements of Knowles’s adult-learning principles can you
hat
immediately apply ...
Discussion #2:
Adapting Knowles and Gagné
What elements of Knowles’s andragogy can you immediately apply to
your own curre...
Adult Learning: Char Booth
USER:
Understand, Structure, Engage,
Reflect
USER:
Understand, Structure, Engage,
Reflect
USER:
Understand, Structure, Engage,
Reflect
USER:
Understand, Structure, Engage,
Reflect
Reflection in (and on) Adult Learning
Discussion #3:
Developing Your Ideas
W ideas can you carry away from today’s session to meet the
hat
learning needs of you...
In Summary
In Summary
In Summary
In Summary
In Summary
Resources Reviewed

A list of training-teaching-learning resources, by Paul Signorelli, on LibraryThing:
http://www.librar...
Resources Reviewed: Evaluation
Questions & Comments
For More Information

Paul Signorelli & Associates
1032 Irving St., #514
San Francisco, CA 94122
415.681.5224
paul@paulsig...
Credits & Acknowledgments
(Images taken from flickr.com unless otherwise noted):
Lower Columbia College Learning Commons: ...
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Designing Engaging Learning for Library Staff and Users

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This presentation, prepared for PCI Webinars, helps trainer-teacher-learners explore, in an interactive way, a variety of resources including the ADDIE (Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation, and Evaluation) model; Malcolm Knowles' work on adult learning (andragogy); Robert Gagne's nine events of instruction (from "The Conditions of Learning"); and Char Booth's USER (Understand, Structure, Engage, and Reflect) model, Participants, through their interactive approach to the session, should have a rudimentary road map to designing an engaging learning opportunity in their own organizations by the time the session ends. Speaker notes are included with the slide deck.

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  • {"27":"This is as good a time as any to call attention to how this webinar itself was designed to demonstrate best practices in adult (and other) learning:\nFollowing Gagné’s suggestion that learning includes clearly-stated goals and involves learners building upon what they already know, we repeatedly looked for ways to connect the various models together.\nWe had plenty of time to apply what we were learning together through the discussions that left time for creating a plan of action you can use after the webinar ends—the experiential element of learning that helps us apply, though hands-on practice, what we learned.\nThe repeated imagery in the ADDIE and USER sections of the webinar reinforced, from a visual point of view, what we were learning—using the idea that “the more visual the input becomes, the more likely it is to be recognized—and recalled,” as John Medina notes in his wonderful book Brain Rules: 12 Principles for Surviving and Thriving at Work, Home, and School (p. 233). That’s a great argument against engaging in what is commonly called “Death by PowerPoint” through the use of far too much text on our slides.\n","16":"Knowles (and his successors) do a great job of leading us through a variety of learning theories that have been developed over a period of several decades—if you’re going to read one book designed to provide a variety of perspectives, you’ll find The Adult Learner high on my list of possibilities. We repeatedly come across summaries of what is characteristic of adult learners—and, again, I believe much of what we see here also applies to younger learners. \nThe most highly-motivated are driven by a recognition that some sort of change is needed—they need to learn a new technology that helps them do their work better…or helps them stay competitive enough to keep the jobs they have. They want well-defined, engaging learning opportunities that include practice so they can master whatever skill they are attempting to absorb. They want to be able to apply what they learned as quickly as they possibly can. And many of them appreciate us for facilitating their learning process rather than relying solely or even primarily on lectures—which is one of many reasons for why we’re seeing so much positive attention being given to things like library makerspaces.\n","5":"We should also leave with an understanding of how we can adapt these in-depth techniques to situations where we really have a limited amount of time and have to more or less wing it to meet someone’s immediate and relatively simple learning need—the sort of situations where the need is so clearly defined that we don’t need days or weeks of planning to facilitate an effective learning moment.\n","33":"And we ended with a visceral reminder that reflection is a critically important part of the learning process.\nLet’s practice one more important part of the learning process: providing resources for those who want to more deeply explore a subject through additional resources.\n","22":"The final resource we’re exploring together today continues to build upon what we’ve learned together through a resource that speaks directly to our work in libraries.\nChar Booth, in Reflective Teaching, Effective Learning: Instructional Literacy for Library Educators, offers her own four-step version of ADDIE with what she calls the USER model.\n","11":"Ah, if it were only this easy. \nThat “E”—for “evaluation”—at the end of ADDIE is an often overlooked phase that helps prepare us for additional success. There’s quite a bit written about how to conduct proper evaluations. Those of us involved in training-teaching-learning in a variety of venues turn to the highly-respected work of Donald Kirkpatrick, who wrote Evaluating Training Programs . Kirkpatrick suggested that asking learners whether they liked or disliked their class or workshop is just the beginning, and that we also need to be measuring how much they learned, how they applied what they learned to their workplaces, and what ultimate positive impact that learning had on those they served. \nWe can also look to our wonderful library colleague Rhea Joyce Rubin, whose Demonstrating Results reminds us that we need to keep looking to results that mean something to our learners and the communities they ultimately serve. Counting the number of training and learning opportunities we offered may provide us with great stats, but asking what our learners did with what they gained through their time with us moves us to the heart of successful training: transformation and its positive impact.\n","28":"Let’s move into a final discussion before ending with a brief summary of what we’ve discussed, then take a few minutes for any remaining questions you have:\nWhat ideas can you carry away from today’s session to develop in your efforts to meet the learning needs of your staff, library users—or both?\n","17":"Gagné’s nine events of instruction are wonderful complements to what we’ve already seen in ADDIE and in the principles of andragogy. I’m not going to go against a principle of learning theory—that learners can only absorb so much in any one session—so am not going to provide a laundry list of all nine; we’ll focus on a few, and those of you who are interested can easily find all nine described in the article on Gagné in Wikipedia and on p. 304 of his book The Conditions of Learning. What struck me the first time I encountered them was how very familiar they were. I suspect that anyone familiar with what Knowles wrote and anyone who has been involved in teaching-training-learning for any length of time feels as if these ideas have been part of our learning landscape since the beginning of time. \n","6":"The ADDIE model—Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation, and Evaluation—is a wonderful point of departure for us. If we follow each step, we’re in a circular pattern that delivers us back to our starting point—which is accurately and effectively assessing the learning need we want to address—and it helps us continually improve what we do. \nLet’s be clear here: we don’t always have to formally engage in the complete cycle of analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation. If we’re responding to a staff member’s or library user’s question about an in-the-moment learning need, we don’t consciously go through this five-step process to design an appropriate learning response. It’s the same with great reference interviews: sometimes they’re thorough, sometimes they’re brief. We just deliver what is needed, and then get out of the learner’s way.\n","34":"A reminder of the sources we’ve reviewed…\n","23":"That acronym—spelled out for us here at the top of this slide—keeps our focus on the heart of what we’re doing: the user—or in plain language, our learner.\nChar’s Understand phase matches the ADDIE analysis phase, with an emphasis on identifying the learning problem to be addressed and through analyzing the scenario to be addressed.\n","12":"Let’s step back from the theory long enough to apply what we’ve been discussing here. Think, for a moment, about the images we saw at the beginning of this session: a nearly empty room because we didn’t accurately assess the learning need we were trying to address, and that room where engaged learners helped set the learning environment for a workshop on how to produce engaging learning opportunities.\nAnd having thought about those contrasting situations, let’s carry those thoughts into our own workplaces with the first of two questions:\nHow can you use ADDIE—or even parts of it—to create engaging learning for your library staff and library users?\nA learning tip: if you jot down your ideas and any others you like from the chat window, you’re beginning to create a plan of action that you can use as soon as this session is over.\n","1":"There’s something well worth noting here as we begin our exploration of designing engaging learning: We know we’re in a library learning commons. We can safely assume that some level of learning is taking place. But we don’t immediately see an instructor—which is something to keep in mind as we work together today to design engaging learning opportunities for those we serve. We don’t always want to be at the center of the action. If we focus on the learners as much as we focus on what we are doing, we’re right in tune with some of the best instructional design and delivery models we can hope to use.\n","29":"Returning once again to the idea of facilitating learning through the use of visuals, let’s avoid the usual end-of-session flood of bullet points and review what we’ve explored through the images we have seen.\nWe started with the five-point ADDIE model: Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation, and Evaluation, which we saw in slightly different shape in Char Booth’s USER model.\n","18":"They include the idea that learners benefit from being told up front what the expected outcomes of a learning opportunity are; being reminded of how the new learning opportunity will build upon what they already know; guidance that leads them successfully through the learning process; providing examples of how they can quickly apply their learning to the situation where that skill or information will be useful to them; and opportunities to actually use the new skills or information in their workplace or other place where it is needed. \n","7":"Let’s start with that capital “A” (for “analysis”) in the ADDIE model.\nAnalysis doesn’t always have to be as intense as the behavior exhibited by this Penn State associate professor of biology as he examines a New Zealand mud snail—but we also shouldn’t overlook the need to adequately analyze learning needs before we begin trying to design learning sessions. Seems obvious…but think about all those times when someone has come to you and asked you to design something for staff colleagues when, in fact, training wasn’t really the answer to the problem you were supposed to address. \nLet’s remember that not everything needs to be addressed through formal or informal training. Up-front analysis can help you determine what the appropriate response is before you design one of those learning sessions that either attracts a much smaller audience than you want to serve or makes a large group of people sit through a session that was designed to respond to a situation caused by a single staff member.\n","35":"A few resources for evaluating the results of training-teaching-learning…\n","24":"Her Structure phase matches ADDIE’s design phase and carries us into the beginning of development as we create learning targets and “determine ways to involve learners.”\n","13":"Let’s tackle a second, related question:\nWhat one element of the analyze, design, development, implement, and evaluate process could you easily apply to a current project within the next week or two?\nAgain, feel free to jot down your ideas and any others you like from the chat window so you can continue creating a plan of action that you can use as soon as this session is over.\n","2":"Here’s what we don’t want: a course designed for dozens of people and ends up attracting only a few. \nI had asked staff colleagues what sort of unmet learning needs they wanted me to address. One workshop sounded intriguing: “What I Wished I Had Known Before I Turned on the Computer,” so I worked closely with the staff member that requested the class—and was tremendously surprised to see that she wasn’t among the four employees who registered for the course and attended it the first time it was offered.\nCurious about this obvious mismatch, I later asked her why she hadn’t attended. Her response: “Oh, I didn’t really need that course; I just thought it might be nice for other people.”\n","30":"We included time to discuss and apply what we were learning.\n","19":"Here’s a great metaphorical tool for what we need to do next: blend together the various ideas we’ve explored so far through ADDIE, in The Adult Learner, and in Gagné’s learning events: \nAll of them suggest that there is some level of assessment—accurately identifying what the learner needs to learn. \nThey suggest that designing and developing something that appropriately responds to the learner’s need set us up for a successful learning opportunity.\nThey rely on appropriate delivery of the learning opportunity so that we’re learner-centric—keeping strong focus on what the learner needs rather than feeling as if our job is done when we finish telling them what they need to know. To be explicit: We need to move beyond the idea that our job is done if and when we finish racing through our PowerPoint presentations. Some of the most effective learning comes when learners use their new knowledge and skills, so we need to see learning as a process, not as a one-time event that ends when we and our learners part ways.\nAnd finally, everything we have seen so far suggests that evaluation of how the learning was applied and what benefits it produced for the learners and those they serve helps us circle back to the initial phase of analyzing learning needs so we can make improvements that help additional learners.\n","8":"Moving on the to first “D” in ADDIE—for “design”—let’s focus on the need to design an appropriate response to our learners’ needs. This doesn’t require overly-complex solutions. If someone is interested in learning how to use an iPad, we don’t need to teach them how to build one. And if we’re working with learners who are struggling with the perennial problem of resolving difficult situations, we don’t want to make their learning process another difficult situation.\n","36":"Since engagement and responding to learners’ unanswered questions are at the heart of what we’ve done together today, let’s conclude with time to deal with anything else you hoped to gain through your participation.\n","25":"The Engage phase of the USER model combines the ADDIE develop and implementation phases as we design materials and deliver (or facilitate) instruction and learning.\n","14":"Let’s move now a little more deeply into a couple of seminal figures in adult learning—Malcolm Knowles and Robert Gagné—and think about how their ideas can make us better about meeting our library staff and library users’ learning needs.\nKnowles took a somewhat obscure century-old term for adult learning—andragogy—and created an entire model that he contrasted with pedagogy. Although it’s far from universally adopted, it makes so much sense to so many of us that we ourselves have come full circle and applied some of these adult-learning principles to what we do in our interactions with younger learners. What Knowles produced in the first four editions of his book has been extended in new editions by Elwood Holton and Richard Swanson.\n","3":"On the other hand…\nWhen we create learning opportunities where prospective learners themselves actively help shape the learning experience, magic happens—as was the case when a colleague and I invited workshop participants at an American Library Association conference workshop to reset the room to create an engaging learning environment. They not only rearranged tables so they could more easily converse with each other, but also went outside the room to snag and drag a couch into our quickly evolving learning space.\nSo what makes the two experiences I’ve just described so different? It comes down to effective planning, delivery, and follow-up, and the first model we’re going to explore is one that has worked well in meeting those goals.\n","31":"We explored Malcolm Knowles’s adult-learning (andragogy) principles that remind us that adult learners are driven by a need to know something, learn by building upon previous experience, are motivated to learn because they have an immediate problem to solve or have identified a learning need that has to be addressed, and that there is an intrinsic value or personal payoff in learning something.\n","20":"Let’s stop again and respond to the first of two new questions, and remember that jotting down appealing ideas provides you with the framework for putting to work what you’re gaining from this webinar:\nWhat elements of Knowles’s adult-learning principles can you immediately apply to your own current projects to meet your learners’ needs?\n","9":"Our second “D”—for “development”—carries us from the dreamy-visionary stage to hands-on creation of the learning opportunity. When we begin developing the learning opportunities that come from our analysis and design work, we want to produce something as beautiful and easy-to-grasp as we would produce as photographers in a traditional darkroom. Just as there is often beauty in simplicity, there is something very satisfying about a learning opportunity that is well-developed with the learner in mind.\n","26":"Her Reflect phase leads us through the process of assessing the impact of the learning opportunity and revising what we’ve done so we produce even better results, if possible, the next time we provide what we have offered.\n","15":"By the time Knowles died (in 1997), he had defined six principles to guide us. They included the ideas that adult learners are driven by a need to know something, learn by building upon previous experience, are motivated to learn because they have an immediate problem to solve or have identified a learning need that has to be addressed, and recognize that there is an intrinsic value or personal payoff in learning something.\nLet me suggest, for example, that the sight of a burning building is probably pretty strong motivation for someone to learn how to contact a fire department quickly, and that the thought of needing that level of assistance is probably enough to stimulate most of us to learn how to dial 911 before we need it.\n","4":"As much as possible today, we’ll be looking at learning models and instructional design techniques that can be used in formal face-to-face and online classroom settings as well as in meeting spur-of-the-moment learning challenges we can address informally at a reference desk or in online chat settings. We should walk away from this session with a firm grounding in how to prepare effective learning opportunities when we have time for in-depth preparation.\n","32":"We considered several of Robert Gagné’s nine events of learning, including the idea that learners benefit from being told up front what the expected outcomes of a learning opportunity are and from opportunities to actually use the new skills or information in their workplace or other place where they are needed. \n","21":"Moving on to a second question:\nWhat elements of Gagné’s thoughts can you immediately apply to your own current projects to meet your learners’ needs?\n","10":"When we reach that wonderful moment of implementation—which is delivering or in any other way facilitating what we have designed and developed—we’re back to a key point: we don’t need to be at the center of the process. Libraries provide fabulous learning spaces, including learning commons, the Chicago Public Library YouMedia center pictured here, and maker spaces. These are as much celebrations of collaboration and community as they are celebrations of learning, and if we keep things centered on the learners and their needs, we’re building upon some of the adult learning theory that we’re going to explore a bit more deeply in the next section of this webinar.\n"}
  • Transcript of "Designing Engaging Learning for Library Staff and Users"

    1. 1. Learning and Libraries: Designing Engaging Learning For Library Staff and Users Facilitated by Paul Signorelli Writer/Trainer/Consulta nt Paul Signorelli & Associates paul@paulsignorelli.co m Twitter: @paulsignorelli October 17, 2013
    2. 2. Planning for an Audience
    3. 3. The Couch in the Middle of the Room
    4. 4. Context: Formal and Informal Learning
    5. 5. Context: Formal and Informal Learning
    6. 6. ADDIE: An Introduction
    7. 7. Addie: Analysis
    8. 8. aDdie: Design
    9. 9. adDie: Development
    10. 10. addIe: Implementation
    11. 11. addiE: Evaluation
    12. 12. Discussion #1: Designing for Staff and Users How can you use ADDIE—or even parts of it—to create engaging learning for your library staff and library users?
    13. 13. Discussion #1: Designing for Staff and Users How can you use ADDIE—or even parts of it—to create engaging learning for your library staff and library users? W one element of the analyze, design, development, hat implement, and evaluate process could you easily apply to a current project within the next week or two?
    14. 14. Adult Learning: Malcolm Knowles and Andragogy
    15. 15. Knowles: Principles of Adult Learning
    16. 16. Malcolm Knowles: Characteristics of Adult Learners
    17. 17. Adult Learning: Robert Gagné
    18. 18. Robert Gagné: Nine Events of Learning
    19. 19. Combining ADDIE, Knowles, and Gagné
    20. 20. Discussion #2: Adapting Knowles and Gagné W elements of Knowles’s adult-learning principles can you hat immediately apply to your own current projects to meet your learners’ needs?
    21. 21. Discussion #2: Adapting Knowles and Gagné What elements of Knowles’s andragogy can you immediately apply to your own current projects to meet your learners’ needs? W elements of Gagné’s thoughts can you immediately apply to your hat own current projects to meet your learners’ needs?
    22. 22. Adult Learning: Char Booth
    23. 23. USER: Understand, Structure, Engage, Reflect
    24. 24. USER: Understand, Structure, Engage, Reflect
    25. 25. USER: Understand, Structure, Engage, Reflect
    26. 26. USER: Understand, Structure, Engage, Reflect
    27. 27. Reflection in (and on) Adult Learning
    28. 28. Discussion #3: Developing Your Ideas W ideas can you carry away from today’s session to meet the hat learning needs of your staff, library users—or both?
    29. 29. In Summary
    30. 30. In Summary
    31. 31. In Summary
    32. 32. In Summary
    33. 33. In Summary
    34. 34. Resources Reviewed A list of training-teaching-learning resources, by Paul Signorelli, on LibraryThing: http://www.librarything.com/catalog/paulsignorelli
    35. 35. Resources Reviewed: Evaluation
    36. 36. Questions & Comments
    37. 37. For More Information Paul Signorelli & Associates 1032 Irving St., #514 San Francisco, CA 94122 415.681.5224 paul@paulsignorelli.com http://paulsignorelli.com Twitter: @paulsignorelli http://buildingcreativebridges.wordpress.com
    38. 38. Credits & Acknowledgments (Images taken from flickr.com unless otherwise noted): Lower Columbia College Learning Commons: From Lower Columbia College’s photostream at http://tinyurl.com/m6xgquk Nearly Empty Learning Space: From GDSI10’s photostream at http://tinyurl.com/n66xol8 Couch in the Middle of the Room: Photograph by Paul Signorelli Instructor in Learning Lab: From Susan Sharpless Smith’s photostream at http://tinyurl.com/m4hmcud Informal Learning: From University of Leicester’s photostream at http://tinyurl.com/qbbtfvt Analysis: From PennStateNews’s photostream at http://tinyurl.com/kpxd33o Rube Goldberg Design Contest From PennStateNews’s photostream at http://tinyurl.com/l5ycqz5 Development: From Fraud Arts’ photostream at http://tinyurl.com/o9on2u8 YouMedia Center: From The Shifted Librarians' photostream at http://tinyurl.com/o6q9un2 Evaluation: From BilloPhotoo’s photostream at http://tinyurl.com/p4p8e39 Instructor in Learning Lab: From Susan Sharpless Smith’s photostream at http://tinyurl.com/m4hmcud Learning in Libraries: From UCDMedicine’s photostream at http://tinyurl.com/jvt75k9 Burning House: From DVS’ photostream at http://tinyurl.com/lj5cjpj Makerspace Workshop: From The Shifted Librarians' photostream at http://tinyurl.com/k6nojk8 Clear Learning Goals: From Ken W hytock’s photostream at http://tinyurl.com/lkgefao Blender: From JLastra’s photostream at http://tinyurl.com/kw6xtan Reflection in Learning: From W anderTheW orld’s photostream at http://tinyurl.com/lpwsu88
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