Metadata and Tagging
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Metadata and Tagging

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University College Cork's Digital Arts and Humanities MA class slides on "Metadata and Tagging"

University College Cork's Digital Arts and Humanities MA class slides on "Metadata and Tagging"

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    Metadata and Tagging Metadata and Tagging Presentation Transcript

    • Metadata
    • What is Metadata?  Metadata is ‘data about data’ or information about information.  Michael Day (Metadata in a Nutshell) defines metadata as “standardised descriptive information about resources, including non-digital ones.” (e.g. book metadata, photograph metadata, etc.)
    • 3 types of Metadata 1. Descriptive Metadata (Human Level): “content about the content” or metacontent.  discovery and identification of resources. 1. Structural Metadata (Machine Level): data about the containers of data. 1. Administrative Metadata (Human Level): information for managing a resource.
    • Why create Metadata?  Metadata makes your work readily available because:  Searchable: it‟s easy to find.  Authority: it‟s clear who created it.  Citation: it‟s easy for others to cite your work in their publications.  Collaboration: it helps other people to build on your work rather than having to recreate it.  Efficiency: you save time and money, if everyone creates metadata.  Funding: you may be required to make your work readily available to others.
    • What does Metadata do?  Metadata is the key to ensuring the survival and accessibility of resources into the future.  Descriptive metadata facilitates the discovery of relevant information.  Resource discovery (e.g. library catalogs)  Organize electronic resources  Facilitate interoperability and resource integration  Provide digital identification  Support archiving and preservation
    • Interoperability  Metadata is the key to interoperability.  Interoperability is the ability of multiple systems with different hardware and software platforms, data structures and interfaces to exchange data with minimal loss of content and functionality.  Metadata promotes interoperability by making digital information understandable to both humans and machines.
    • Storing Metadata  Metadata can be stored separately or embedded in a digital object.  Storing separately:    Can facilitate search and retrieval Stored in database and linked to the object described. E.g. Semantic web  Storing metadata with object:     Ensures it wont be lost Removes the problem of linking between data and metadata Metadata and object are updated simultaneously E.g. TEI
    • Digital Identification  Metadata schemes include elements, such as standard numbers, to uniquely identify the work or object to which the metadata refers.  Location of a digital object is given using:  a file name  URL (Uniform Resource Locator)  PURL (Persistent URL)…… preferred!  DOI (Digital Object Identifier)
    • Collaborative Metadata  A tag is a non-hierarchical keyword or term assigned to a piece of information (Wikipedia)  Effectively, a tag is a form of metadata.  O‟Shea (2013) describes 3 types of tagging : 1. Personal 2. Algorithmic 3. Social
    • Hashtags  A hashtag is a universal, standardised metadata tag/mark.  Therefore, #uccmadah is a form of descriptive metadata.  You choose your tags on Twitter, Facebook, Wordpress, Youtube, etc.  But, Youtube, Delicious, and Wordpress algorithms also suggest tags for you.
    • HTML Metatags  These are all located in the <head> tag.  Example: <head> <meta name=“author” content=“Paul O‟Shea”> <meta name=“keywords” content=“metadata, metacontent, HTML, etc….”> <meta name=“description” content=“MA DAH Powerpoint slides”> </head> teaching
    • Social Tagging  Social tagging is also known as Folksonomies.  Folksonomy originates from folk + taxonomy  Taxonomy is the branch of science concerned with systematic classifications.  Ergo -> crowd-sourced tagging  See plugins for MediaWiki/Ruby on Rails for example!
    • Geotagging  The process of adding geo-spatially represented metadata to various media and resources.  Provides location-specific information  Examples include:  Digital cameras automatically geotag using GPS.  Facebook and Twitter mobile apps allow you to geotag tweets and status updates.
    • Archiving and Preservation  Special elements are required:  To track the lineage of a digital object.  Details of its physical characteristics.  Document its behaviour for future technologies.
    • Composing Metadata  Metadata schemes: Sets of metadata elements designed for a specific purpose, e.g. describing a particular type of information resource. • If the resource lives on the internet then one may use the URI to locate it and RDF to describe it.
    • Metadata Schemes  Definition/meaning of the metadata elements are the semantics of the scheme.  Value given to the metadata elements are the content.  Metadata schemes specify the names of elements and their semantics, and also the syntax rules for how elements and their content should be encoded.
    • The Dublin Core Metadata Element Set  Originated from 1995 workshop sponsored by OCLC and NCSA  Dublin, Ohio  Common vocabulary, like FOAF (Friend of a Friend – describing interpersonal networks)  Important because it is endorsed by IETF and ISO  See Euorpeana: http://www.europeana.eu/
    • The Dublin Core Metadata Initiative (DCMI)  Original objective:  To define a set of elements that could be used by authors to describe their own web resources.  15 Elements:  Title, Creator, Subject, Description, Publisher, Contribut or, Date, Type, Format, Identifier, Source, Language, R egion, Coverage and Rights.  http://dublincore.org/documents/dces/
    • Dublin Core  Designed to be simple and concise  To describe Web based documents  Minimalist view vs. Structuralist view (See Lumpers and Splitters)  Minimalists: minimum elements, simple semantics and syntax  Structuralist: Finer semantic distinctions and more extensibility for particular communities.
    • Title=”Metadata Demystified” Creator=”Brand, Amy” Creator=”Daly, Frank” Creator=”Meyers, Barbara” Subject=”metadata” Description=”Presents an overview of metadata conventions in publishing.” Publisher=”NISO Press” Publisher=”The Sheridan Press” Date=”2003-07" Type=”Text” Format=”application/pdf” Identifier=”http://www.niso.org/ standards/resources/ Metadata_Demystified.pdf” Language=”en” Dublin Core Example
    • Semantic Web  Focuses on semantic content rather than plain text content.  Allows for disambiguation of terms with the same name, but different meanings.  Evolved from limited, but simple, HTML meta tags to a complex „web‟ of standards.  Some of the well established standards are Unicode, URI, XML, RDF, Web Ontology Language (OWL), etc.  Tim Berners-Lee http://www.ted.com/talks/tim_berners_lee_on_the_next_we b.html
    • TEI  The Text Encoding Initiative http://www.tei-c.org/index.xml  International project to develop guidelines for marking up electronic texts such as novels, plays, poetry, correspondence, etc.  TEI Guidelines for Electronic Text Encoding and Interchange  Specify a header portion, embedded in the resource that consists of metadata about the work.  TEI Header can be used to record bibliographic information about the digital edition.