Trends in portuguese tourism, a content analysis

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Trends in portuguese tourism, a content analysis

  1. 1. Trends in Portuguese tourism: a content analysis of association and trade representative perspectives Paulo Ramos Senior Researcher, Centre for Trends Study in Hospitality and Tourism (CETS-HT), Fernando Pessoa University, Porto, Portugal Ana Salazar Senior Researcher, Centre for Trends Study in Hospitality and Tourism (CETS-HT), Fernando Pessoa University, Porto, Portugal JoaÄo Gomes Senior Researcher, Centre for Trends Study in Hospitality and Tourism (CETS-HT), Fernando Pessoa University, Porto, Portugal Introduction The objective of this paper is to provide a summarised view of the main trends in the Portuguese tourism and hospitality sectors based on the analysis of the proceedings of The Portuguese Hotels Association Conferences (1993-1999). In carrying out the analysis the conceptual framework used is based on the SWOT analysis (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats) proposed by Johnson and Scholes (1997). The approach comprised selecting texts from the conference proceedings that indicate the key issues and trends in the sector. For each conference we have analysed the texts from the opening sessions' speeches and those focusing on the following main issues: . XI Conference (1993): Tourism Promotion, Marketing Strategy and Definition of Priority Markets; Supply Restructuring and Innovation. . XII Conference (1994): Competitiveness and Costs; Key Instruments for Tourism Attraction; Security and Tourism; Competitiveness through Differentiation. . XIII Conference (1995): The Culture of Tourism; Tourism Financial Supporting Framework; Factors Affecting Competitiveness in Tourism. . XIV Conference (1996): Tourism Promotion; Tourism Competitiveness; Internationalisation in the Tourism Sector. . XV Conference (1997): Tourism in Algarve; Tourism in Portugal; New Tourism Financial Supporting Framework; Tourism Politics; Tourism Resources. . XVI Conference (1999): Promotional Activity; Tourism Promotion in the Third Millennium; Experiences in Tourism Promotion. The criteria applied in the selection of the texts were: . format of the texts (handouts and notes were rejected due to their abbreviated format); . theme (when it is irrelevant to the context of the research and its objectives). Methodological approach and conceptual framework The texts were analysed using a content analysis approach: Content analysis is an accepted method of textual investigation (F F F) it involves establishing categories and then counting the number of instances when those categories are used in a particular item of text (Silverman, 1997). It also allows replicable and valid inferences from data to their context (Krippendorff, cited in Robson, 1997). This requires a document analysis that provides an unobtrusive measure of data not directly observed by the researchers. In this study the aim was to identify and understand the participants' categorizations rather than to count in terms of researchers' categories (Silverman, 1997). Following the suggestions made by Robson (1997) and Bardin (1991) the stages adopted for the analysis were: 1 Research question: to identify the main trends in the Portuguese tourism sector and the major changes affecting the sector and how it is reacting to changes in the environment. 2 Choice of documents: published conference proceedings of the AHP from the XI (1993) to the XVI Conference (1999). 3 Recording units: the paragraph and/or the sentence when the sentences in a paragraph can be included in different categories. The current issue and full text archive of this journal is available at http://www.emerald-library.com [ 409 ] International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management 12/7 [2000] 409±416 # MCB University Press [ISSN 0959-6119] Keywords Portugal, Tourism, Content analysis, SWOT analysis Abstract A SWOT analysis is used to perform a content analysis on the proceedings of The Portuguese Hotels Association Conferences (1993-1999). The analysis undertaken aimed to identify the main trends and key issues in the Portuguese tourism and hospitality sectors. From the analysis it is identified that there is an absence of a clear and enduring strategy on issues like differentiation and positioning of its products and services, marketing research and product portfolio management. The analysis of the sector's main strengths against the key trends indicates that tourism and hospitality depend too much on the environmental changes. Some of the main constraints that lead to the incapacity to capitalise on the key trends are the excess of governmental control, difficulties in reaching new markets, and over-dependence on EU funds for investments.
  2. 2. 4 Categorization: determinations of the categories according to the model used. 5 Analysis technique: in order to find the key environmental issues the presence of sentences that are synonymous will fulfil a category. The frequency and the context are also criteria for identifying the key categories. The texts are broken down into categories created according to the topics and guidelines suggested by the framework used: the SWOT analysis proposed by Johnson and Scholes (1997). This model provides the pre- determined categories for analysing the text. During the process of reading and classifying some new categories and sub-categories emerged. Figure 1 shows the different stages in the analysis of the data. The main categories are broken down according to their relevance in terms of their frequency and authorship as presented in Table I. The proposed SWOT model is a useful tool to summarize a strategic analysis particularly in the field of resources, competences and strategic capability (Johnson and Scholes, 1997). In this paper it is used to summarise and guide a content analysis that aims to identify the main trends and key issues affecting the Portuguese tourism and hospitality sectors. Using the proceedings of The Portuguese Hotels Association Conferences as a source of secondary information the model provides the main categories to explore the text: Key Issues in the Environment, Main Strengths and Main Weaknesses. Following the Johnson and Scholes (1997) recommendations the SWOT analysis model aimed to identify the extent to which the current strategy of the tourism and hospitality sectors and its more specific strengths and weaknesses are relevant to, and capable of, dealing with the changes taking place in the business environment (Johnson and Scholes, 1997). The reason for selecting the Johnson and Scholes' approach results from the fact that more traditional SWOT models identify the main strengths and weakness (internal analysis) against the main opportunities and threats (external analysis), whilst Johnson and Scholes propose a model that replaces the opportunities and threats by the key issues in the environment when comparing their impact on the identified strengths and weaknesses. This SWOT model examines the main strengths and weaknesses against each key issue in the environment. A score of + (or a weighted ++) is proposed when there is a benefit to the organization such as a strength that allows the sector to take advantage of or to counteract a problem arising from a key environmental change or when a weakness would be offset by the environmental change. A minus (or a double minus) is marked when there is an adverse effect on the organization, when a strength would be reduced by the environmental change or a weakness would prevent the sector from overcoming the problems associated with or accentuated by an environmental change. Evolution of the trends in the Portuguese tourism and hospitality sectors This analysis starts with the first proceedings of the XI National Conference on Hospitality and Tourism held in 1993 and ends with the proceedings from the XVI National Conference on Hospitality and Figure 1 Method for qualitative analysis of the conference proceedings Table I Method for classifying the categories arising from the content analysis Main category High relevance Sub category 1: Sub category 2: Medium relevance Sub category 1: Sub category 2: Low relevance Sub category 1: Sub category 2: [ 410 ] Paulo Ramos, Ana Salazar and JoaÄo Gomes Trends in Portuguese tourism: a content analysis of association and trade representative perspectives International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management 12/7 [2000] 409±416
  3. 3. Tourism held in 1999. In 1998 the Association did not organize the annual conference. In the proceedings from 1993 and 1994 the main topic arising is the recession faced by the sector. After a growing demand until 1988 the number of tourists started to decline. In 1991, Portugal had 19 million visitors. Although this is a significant figure for a country with a population around nine million, from 1991 to 1992 there was a decline of 5 per cent in the room occupation rate. Many of the contributors identified factors that led to the declining numbers of tourists (the key factors are listed in Table II). There seems to be a major difficulty in dealing with the key trend developments. One aspect which was not covered by any of the contributions but has a great impact on the difficulties in adapting the tourism products to demand is the lack of marketing research. This is further confirmed by the absence of facts and figures from the government and tourism industry representatives. In the Valle (1995) perspective it was necessary to develop market studies to find out who are the tourists and what they want. Another important constraint is the high level of government intervention. The majority of the sector representatives complained about the limitations imposed by the regulator. An example of this is the prohibition on selling wine by the glass in a country that is the seventh wine producer in the world. In general terms, most of the suggestions made by the government and by the Portuguese tourism sector representatives indicate the adoption of a diversification strategy (Martins, 1993; Viegas, 1993). There are two alternative routes for reaching diversification: product development and market development as shown in Figure 2. It is not clear, from the presented perspectives, if the diversification strategy should start by creating new products or by seeking new markets. Those in favour of the development of new products and services pointed out that the main tactical orientation should focus on more investment in professional training, better use of technology and alternatives to the ``sea and sun'', such as: rural and ecological, health, religious, sports, in particular golf and hunting and cultural tourism. These different forms of tourism should, in Silva's (1993) perspective, be associated with particular country regions. The market development strategy should focus on a clear segmentation of the markets rather than just finding new markets. The main objective is not just to attract more tourists but also to increase their expenditure while on holiday. Another perspective (Telles, 1993) is to develop direct links with the customers to diminish dependency on the major tour operators. A further option is to find specialized tour operators that will bring more profitable segments. It seems inevitable that a market development strategy leading to a diversification strategy has to be built vis-aÁ- vis with a product development strategy. Without the creation of differentiated products and services the Portuguese tourism industry would have serious difficulties in attracting new consumers. The recession continued until 1995 resulting in a continuous decline of prices and internal and external demand from 1988 (Saviotti, 1996). The daily average occupation rate in the hotels was 47 per cent in 1994 against 55 per cent in 1980 (Cunha, 1995). The daily average consumption decreased from PTE 2,100 in 1980 to PTE 1,500 in 1994 (Cunha, 1995). However, in 1996 the same figures increased suggesting a gentle recovery. The key trends reported in 1996 by the World Travel and Tourism Council (WTTC) supports this point, since the figures presented indicate a development in the Portuguese tourism, with growth rates for the next ten years estimated to be: 38 per cent in GNP, 9 per cent in employment and 48 per cent in investment (Rodrigues, 1996a). From the analysis of the 1997 and 1999 proceedings it was clear that there has been a gradual recovery in hospitality revenues since 1996, due to an increase in internal and external tourist flows and consequent room occupancy rates. Regarding demand trends, Portugal had an increase in external arrivals (2.4 per cent on 1998) and revenues (2 per cent on 1998), as well as in the average daily spending per tourist since 1996. There is some difficulty in explaining these key trends; however, some contributors suggested that Table II The main factors contributing to the declining numbers of tourists Constraints for the declining demand High relevance Excess of undifferentiated offer Dependency on a restricted number of markets Difficulties in coping with major trends in demand Economic recession Increasing competition Low investment in promotion Seasonality Inefficient laws Low professional qualifications Medium relevance Confusing classification system Lack of infrastructures Safety cases exaggerated in the media Low relevance Misleading classification of some units Low average number of beds by unit (11 beds per unit on average) [ 411 ] Paulo Ramos, Ana Salazar and JoaÄo Gomes Trends in Portuguese tourism: a content analysis of association and trade representative perspectives International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management 12/7 [2000] 409±416
  4. 4. this increase is due to the globalisation of tourism (Rodrigues, 1996b; Vieira, 1996), while others attributed this to the increase in the number of internal tourists due to an aggressive advertising campaign sponsored by the Government Tourism Office. In 1999, tourism was the main Portuguese economic activity, representing 8 per cent of GNP, which shows the relative importance of the sector in the Portuguese economy (Neto, 1998). According to OMT, tourism has the highest predicted growing rate (4 to 5 per cent per year till 2020), and will be the main world economic activity in the near future. As of now, one out of nine persons in the active world population are employed in the tourism sector (Forte, 1997). In the 1995 and 1996 proceedings the main difficulties and weaknesses facing the Portuguese tourism sector are presented in Tables III and IV. It is interesting to note is the similarity to those identified for the period of the early 1990s and reported in the 1993 and 1994 proceedings. Thus the recovery in Portuguese tourism seems to be more associated with global movements, than with a concerted strategy. According to Rodrigues (1996a,b) the competition with new destinations is growing, specially for the ``sea and sun'' products (Vieira, 1996). This is identified as a serious threat for the Portuguese tourism due to a high dependence of the sector on ``sea and sun'' products, leading to seasonality demand. Another constraint is the excessive concentration of the external demand; in 1995 the European market represented 90 per cent of the tourists visiting Portugal coming mainly from Germany, UK and The Netherlands (Cunha, 1995). Other important limitations facing the sector was the structure of costs and prices. The continuous increase in global and local competition leads to a reduction in the selling prices, while the high costs related with taxes contribute to a decline of competitiveness. From the analysis of 1997 and 1999 proceedings similar conclusions emerged (Forte, 1997; Lopes, 1997; Silva, 1999). Forte (1997) suggested that the financial support systems and taxes regulations should be reformulated in order to enlarge the Portuguese tourism competitive advantages. It is important to note some references to the Euro introduction in 2002 (Andrez, 1997; Branco, 1997) and the consequences and impacts arising from the expected changes in economic, technological, political and social environment, particularly in the issues related to tourism (Branco, 1997). However, according to Forte (1997) there is great a lack of information about the economic and monetary integration in Portugal, which is a limitation of the development of the tourism sector. The key trends in future perspectives identified by the contributors in the 1995 and 1996 proceedings (see Table V) are mainly concerned with tourism globalisation, meaning more people travelling to all parts of the world, discovering new destinations (TheotoÂnio, 1996; Trindade, 1996; Vieira, 1996). Another important issue resulting from the analysis is the internationalisation of the sector. It is strongly recommended (Cunha, 1995; Rodrigues, 1996a,b) that Portuguese managers should invest more in external markets and that the government should create more versatile programms to support these financial operations. Finally the protection of environment as a strategic resource for a sustainable development of tourism is recommended (Ferreira, 1995a, b; Laia, 1995; Valle, 1995; TheotoÂnio, 1996; Trindade, 1996; Vieira, 1996). From these contributors' perspectives the sector must: . develop more efficient promotional programmes; Figure 2 Product/market expansion and differentation grid Table III The main factors contributing to the structure of costs and prices Structure of costs and prices High relevance Exchange rate policy High interest rates Insufficient governmental support Medium relevance High taxes High airline taxes Low reinvestment Low relevance High energy cost Low selling prices [ 412 ] Paulo Ramos, Ana Salazar and JoaÄo Gomes Trends in Portuguese tourism: a content analysis of association and trade representative perspectives International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management 12/7 [2000] 409±416
  5. 5. . develop new products for existing and new markets, with diversification of the offer; . seek new market segments. From the analysis of the 1997 and 1999 (in 1998 the conference did not take place) proceedings, the following key issues and trends facing the sector in the future were identified: . globalisation of tourism; . operators and hotel chain mergers; . fast market evolutions; . new technologies allowing growth of e-commerce and direct interaction between consumers and hotels; . one-to-one marketing; . database management; . Web sites as tourist information centres; . direct online marketing; . new distribution networks and faster booking systems. The issues listed above are all common characteristics to developed and tourism oriented countries. This can be seen as an opportunity and a challenge to Portuguese firms. A number of specific issues affecting the Portuguese tourism sector were found. A situational analysis was conducted in order to characterize the actual national panorama. New governmental regulations were published and the Tourist Marketing Council was created in order to enhance cooperation between public and private sectors. Portuguese Institute for External Commerce (ICEP) suffered a profound alteration in its organic structure. This was considered as a positive fact (Carneiro, 1999) allowing an independent firm to be in charge of all promotional strategies and programmes. This will lead to an adequate, unique and consistent promotional activity concerning Portugal's brand image. A tourism observatory was created to monitor trends and tourism regions have now a more involved and significant role in the strategic planning process (OsoÂrio, 1999). The approved III Community Supporting Framework (QCA) for 2000/2006 included a high percentage allocated to tourism, which confirms the importance of the sector. Since 1995 the contributors identified a change in the tourist profile and some key consumer trends regarding the future were pointed out (Valle, 1995; Vieira 1996; Silva, 1999). It is also expected that customers will be more demanding and better educated, more willing to travel, with higher service quality patterns and enjoying shorter holiday periods. At the same time there will be an increasing number of senior and young tourists, seeking ecological and cultural experiences. It was again emphasised that the future development of the sector should focus on a diversification strategy. This is consistent with the sector expectations and future courses of action as identified in the proceedings: . The core product ``sea and sun'', namely in the Algarve, must be complemented with sports activities, specially golf, nature/ environment experiences, conferences, senior tourism and holiday houses, in order to offer an augmented product as well as to overcome seasonality. Regarding this point what has to be explored are the key competitive advantages for the Portuguese tourism sector, that from the contributors' perspectives result from the natural resources available in the country, namely: the excellent weather coupled with a high number of beautiful beaches, good historical and cultural heritage, kindly and friendly people, superb wines and foods, market know-how and good security of the country (Almeida, 1996; Saviotti, 1999; Trindade, 1996; Vieira, 1996; Pires, 1999). . Huge investments are also expected in equipment and infrastructures, namely transport networks, and communicational programmes to reposition the offer. Major recommendations to the tourism and hospitality sectors made by the contributors are summarized in Table VI. Table IV The main factors contributing to supply and demand Supply and demand High relevance High seasonality High concentration of external demand High dependence on ``sun and sea'' Low service quality Highly undifferentiated offer Low professional qualifications Medium relevance Commercialisation by a reduced number of international tours Low relevance Low statistical information Table V The main factors contributing to future opportunities Future opportunities High relevance Diversification of animation programmes Regulation of undifferentiated offer Developing ecological and environmental protection programmes Segmentation of markets Developing more efficient promotional programmes Medium relevance Utilisation of new technologies Developing professional training Developing higher quality products Low relevance Trying to control the distribution channels and commercialisation [ 413 ] Paulo Ramos, Ana Salazar and JoaÄo Gomes Trends in Portuguese tourism: a content analysis of association and trade representative perspectives International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management 12/7 [2000] 409±416
  6. 6. SWOT analysis The following SWOT analysis (Figure 3) was conducted with the objective of summarising the main findings arising from the proceedings analysed, and to assess the capabilities of the Portuguese tourism sector to cope with the major changes in the environment. This will be a useful instrument from which some implications taking place can be drawn. From the analysis of Figure 3, the Portuguese tourism sector does not seem to be particularly prepared to deal with the major changes in the environment (see its main weaknesses). It is identified that there is an absence of a clear and enduring strategy on issues like differentiation and positioning of its products and services, marketing research and product portfolio management. In the proceedings there is a clear and continuous reference to most of these weaknesses along the years covered by this research (1993-1999). The situation calls for a deeper understanding of the sector and its ruling institutions in the implementation of the strategies that they themselves have pointed out. The analysis of the main strengths against the key trends indicates a sector that depends too much on the environmental changes. The recession in the late 1980s and early 1990s seems to be caused by external factors that made clear the weaknesses of the Portuguese Table VI The main recommendations for the sector Recommendations High relevance Market segmentation, product specialization and innovation resulting from marketing research Advertising campaigns to improve awareness of the Portugal brand with new indentity and institutional image Aggressive promotional programmes to communicate differentiation Professional training focusing on customer orientation and service excellence Medium relevance Public and private sector partnership Improve and communicate Portuguese hotels' service quality Low relevance Relationship marketing focusing on high levels of customer loyalty in order to retain customers through repeated purchasing patterns Online marketing as an interactive communication tool Figure 3 SWOT analysis of the Portuguese tourism sector [ 414 ] Paulo Ramos, Ana Salazar and JoaÄo Gomes Trends in Portuguese tourism: a content analysis of association and trade representative perspectives International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management 12/7 [2000] 409±416
  7. 7. tourism sector. The slow recovery that started in 1996 not only confirms this dependency but also the slow response from Portuguese tourism entrepreneurs. Some of the main constraints to this incapacity to capitalise on the key trends are the excess of governmental control, difficulties in reaching new markets, and over-dependence on EU funds for investments. Nevertheless, some positive examples can be presented: the development of a high quality agro-tourism (but still with a low occupation rate corresponding to the introduction stage of its life cycle), golf resorts, and city and event promotion like EXPO 98 (that attracted mainly Spanish and internal tourists), Porto European Capital of Culture 2001 and Euro 2004 European Football Cup. Conclusion Portuguese industry faces many challenges for the future. The economic importance of the sector is well demonstrated by governmental and trade representatives. Where difficulties lie is in the definition of a clear strategy and its consequent implementation using the most effective promotional instruments. Not all identified problems are related with the promotional area. It is clear that the sector needs more investment and more focus on service quality in order to attract the desired target markets. The Portuguese tourism sector should focus on their competitive advantages that in a broad perspective result from a genuine product with a specific cultural heritage. That can be overshadowed by some globalisation trends that favour the development of mass in the tourism sector. References Almeida, A.S. (1996), ``Tourism promotion'', XIV National Conference on Hospitality and Tourism, Conference Proceedings, AHP, Barcelona. Andrez, J. (1997), ``Opening speech'', XV National Conference on Hospitality and Tourism, Conference Proceedings, AHP, Alvor. Bardin, L. (1991), ``AnaÂlise de Conteu do'', Ed. 70, Lisboa, Portugal. Branco, M (1997), ``Tourism in the new millennium'', XV National Conference on Hospitality and Tourism, Conference Proceedings, AHP, Alvor. Carneiro, A. (1999), ``Tourism promotion in the third millennium'', XVI National Conference on Hospitality and Tourism, Conference Proceedings, AHP, Espinho. Cunha, I.R. (1995), ``Opening speech'', XIII National Conference on Hospitality and Tourism, Conference Proceedings, AHP, Funchal. Dey, I. (1993), Qualitative Data Analysis, NFL, London. Conference Proceedings, AHP, Funchal. Ferreira, M.R. (1995b), ``Tourism financial supporting framework'', XIII National Conference on Hospitality and Tourism, Conference Proceedings, AHP, Funchal. Forte, A. (1997), ``Tourism in Algarve'', XV National Conference on Hospitality and Tourism, Conference Proceedings, AHP, Alvor. Johnson, G. and Scholes, K. (1997), Exploring Corporate Strategy, 4th ed., Prentice-Hall, UK. Kotler, P., Armstrong, G., Saunders, J. and Wong, V. (1996), Principles of Marketing, the European ed., Prentice-Hall, London. Laia, C. (1995), ``Factors affecting competitiveness in tourism'', XIII National Conference on Hospitality and Tourism, Conference Proceedings, AHP, Funchal. Lopes, P. (1997), ``Tourism in Algarve'', XV National Conference on Hospitality and Tourism, Conference Proceedings, AHP, Alvor. Martins, P. (1993), ``Supply restructuring and innovation'', XI National Conference on Hospitality and Tourism, Conference Proceedings, AHP, Estoril. Neto, V. (1998), ``EstrateÂgia global para o turismo e fundamental'', Correio do Turismo, No. 2. OsoÂrio, J. (1999), ``Tourism promotion in the third millennium'', XVI National Conference on Hospitality and Tourism, Conference Proceedings, AHP, Espinho. Pires, H. (1999), ``Tourism promotion in the third millennium'', XVI National Conference on Hospitality and Tourism, Conference Proceedings, AHP, Espinho. Robson, C. (1997), Real World Research, Blackwell, London. Rodrigues, F. (1996a), ``Internationalisation in the tourism sector'', XIV National Conference on Hospitality and Tourism, Conference Proceedings, AHP, Barcelona. Rodrigues, L.M. (1996b), ``Tourism competitiveness'', XIV National Conference on Hospitality and Tourism, Conference Proceedings, AHP, Barcelona. Saviotti, S. (1996), ``Opening speech'', XIV National Conference on Hospitality and Tourism, Conference Proceedings, AHP, Barcelona. Saviotti, S. (1999), ``Opening speech'', XVI National Conference on Hospitality and Tourism, Conference Proceedings, AHP, Espinho. Silva, J.S. (1999), ``Opening speech'', XVI National Conference on Hospitality and Tourism, Conference Proceedings, AHP, Espinho. Silva, L. (1993), ``Tourism promotion: marketing strategy and definition of priority markets'', XI National Conference on Hospitality and Tourism, Conference Proceedings, AHP, Estoril. Silva, P. (1999), ``Tourism promotion'', XVI National Conference on Hospitality and Tourism, Conference Proceedings, AHP, Espinho. [ 415 ] Paulo Ramos, Ana Salazar and JoaÄo Gomes Trends in Portuguese tourism: a content analysis of association and trade representative perspectives International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management 12/7 [2000] 409±416
  8. 8. Silverman, D. (1997), Interpreting Qualitative Data, SAGE, London. Telles, M. (1993), ``Opening speech'', XI National Conference on Hospitality and Tourism, Conference Proceedings, AHP, Estoril. TheotoÂnio, J. (1996), ``Internationalisation in the tourism sector'', XIV National Conference on Hospitality and Tourism, Conference Proceedings, AHP, Barcelona. Trindade, A. (1996), ``Tourism competitiveness'', XIV National Conference on Hospitality and Tourism, Conference Proceedings, AHP, Barcelona. Valle, P.L. (1995), ``Tourism financial supporting framework'', XIII National Conference on Hospitality and Tourism, Conference Proceedings, AHP, Funchal. Viegas E. (1993), ``Tourism promotion: marketing strategy and definition on priority markets'', XI National Conference of Hospitality and Tourism, Conference Proceedings, AHP, Estoril. Vieira, C.S. (1996), ``Tourism competitiveness'', XIV National Conference on Hospitality and Tourism, Conference Proceedings, AHP, Barcelona. Further reading Bastos, C. (1993), ``Tourism promotion: marketing strategy and definition of priority markets'' XI National Conference on Hospitality and Tourism, Conference Proceedings, AHP, Estoril. Bom, L.T. (1996), ``Tourism competitiveness'', XIV National Conference on Hospitality and Tourism, Conference Proceedings, AHP, Barcelona. Bordalo, F. (1997), ``Tourism politics'', XV National Conference on Hospitality and Tourism, Conference Proceedings, AHP, Alvor. Carrasco, O. (1997) ``New tourism financial supporting framework'', XV National Conference on Hospitality and Tourism, Conference Proceedings, AHP, Alvor. Cavaco, H. (1993) ``Tourism promotion: marketing strategy and definition of priority markets'', XI National Conference on Hospitality and Tourism, Conference Proceedings, AHP, Estoril. Chaves, M.M. (1996), ``Tourism competitiveness'', XIV National Conference on Hospitality and Tourism, Conference Proceedings, AHP, Barcelona. Chevasson, J. (1993), ``Tourism promotion: marketing strategy and definition of priority markets'', XI National Conference on Hospitality and Tourism, Conference Proceedings, AHP, Estoril. Fernandes, N.J. (1999), ``Promotional activity the ICEP vision'', XVI National Conference on Hospitality and Tourism, Conference Proceedings, AHP, Espinho. Forte, A. (1999), ``Closing-up session speech'', XVI National Conference on Hospitality and Tourism, Conference Proceedings, AHP, Espinho. Freitas, H. (1995), ``The culture of tourism'', XIII National Conference on Hospitality and Tourism, Conference Proceedings, AHP, Funchal. Leal, H. (1994), ``Competitiveness and costs'', XII National Conference on Hospitality and Tourism, Conference Proceedings, AHP, Vilamoura. Lima, C. (1993), ``Supply restructuring and innovation'', XI National Conference on Hospitality and Tourism, Conference Proceedings, AHP, Estoril. Lopes, L. (1993), ``Supply restructuring and innovation'', XI National Conference on Hospitality and Tourism, Conference Proceedings, AHP, Estoril. Luz, J.J. (1995), ``Factors affecting competitiveness in tourism'', XIII National Conference on Hospitality and Tourism, Conference Proceedings, AHP, Funchal. Milreu, L. (1994), ``Security and tourism'', XII National Conference on Hospitality and Tourism, Conference Proceedings, AHP, Vilamoura. Nogueira, C. (1994), ``Key instruments for tourism attraction'', XII National Conference on Hospitality and Tourism, Conference Proceedings, AHP, Vilamoura. ProencËa, C. (1993), ``Supply restructuring and innovation'', XI National Conference on Hospitality and Tourism, Conference Proceedings, AHP, Estoril. Relvas, A. (1993), ``Opening speech'', XI National Conference on Hospitality and Tourism, Conference proceedings, AHP, Estoril. Relvas, A. (1994), ``Closing-up session speech'', XII National Conference on Hospitality and Tourism, Conference Proceedings, AHP, Vilamoura. Rita, P. (1999), ``Tourism promotion in the third millennium'', XVI National Conference on Hospitality and Tourism, Conference Proceedings, AHP, Espinho. Saviotti, S. (1995), ``Opening speech'', XIII National Conference on Hospitality and Tourism, Conference Proceedings, AHP, Funchal. Saviotti, S. (1997), ``Opening speech'', XV National Conference on Hospitality and Tourism, Conference Proceedings, AHP, Alvor. Silva, J.S. (1997), ``Tourism resources'', XV National Conference on Hospitality and Tourism, Conference Proceedings, AHP, Alvor. Viegas, E. (1994), ``Competitiveness trough differentiation'', XII National Conference on Hospitality and Tourism, Conference Proceedings, AHP, Vilamoura. Vitorino, J. (1994), ``Competitiveness through differentiation'', XII National Conference on Hospitality and Tourism, Conference Proceedings, AHP, Vilamoura. Walker, R. (1985), Applied Qualitative Research, Gower Publishing, Aldershot, UK. Zahn, W. (1999), ``Tourism promotion'', XVI National Conference on Hospitality and Tourism, Conference Proceedings, AHP, Espinho. [ 416 ] Paulo Ramos, Ana Salazar and JoaÄo Gomes Trends in Portuguese tourism: a content analysis of association and trade representative perspectives International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management 12/7 [2000] 409±416

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