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HTC Evo 4g Redesign


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Worked in a 5–person team, directed and guided by Dr. Blickensderfer , to improve the overall smartphone using Human Factors analytical methods and techniques. Used survey data to derive the primary …

Worked in a 5–person team, directed and guided by Dr. Blickensderfer , to improve the overall smartphone using Human Factors analytical methods and techniques. Used survey data to derive the primary and secondary tasks of the smartphone, according to the users. Created a Hierarchical Task Analysis to obtain step-by-step information of mental and physical activity between the user and the system, which allowed the redesign of tasks to increase efficiency. Redesigned both physical and visual interface to be user-centered instead of technologically centered.

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  • 1. 1Running head: IMPROVEMENTS TO THE SMARTPHONE HTC EVO 4G Improvements to the Smartphone HTC EVO 4G Aaron Doperalski, Brett Galloway, Breanna Goring, Connie Pitenis, Paulo Davila Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University Author NoteThis research was conducted by Aaron Doperalski, Brett Galloway, Breanna Goring, ConniePitenis, and Paulo Davila, Methods and Technology, Human Factors Psychology Department,Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University.Prof. Blickensderfer helped immensely with the direction and editing of our research. Mailing address for correspondence: 600 S. Clyde Morris Blvd. ERAU 6510 Daytona Beach, FL 32114
  • 2. 2IMPROVEMENTS TO THE SMARTPHONE HTC EVO 4G Table of ContentsSystem Description/Overview…………………………………………………………………….…..…....3Analysis & Design Methods Used and Findings Cell Phone Survey………………………………………………………………………………….5 Task Analysis………………………………………………………………………………….…...6 Verbal Protocol Analysis……………………………………………………………….…….…..11 Analysis of Similar Systems……………………………………………………………………...16 Interview………………………………………………………………………………………….17 Picture Timeline Analysis……………………………………………………………………..….19 Timeline Analysis………………………………………………………………………….…22-23Recommendations…………………………………………………………………………………...…24-29Appendix A (Cell Phone Survey)…………………….……………………………………………………. B (Task Analysis)………………………………………………………………………... C (Verbal Protocol Analysis)……………………………………………………………… D……………………………………………………………………………………………… E……………………………………………………………………………………………… F……………………………………………………………………………………………… G………………………………………………………………………………………………
  • 3. 3IMPROVEMENTS TO THE SMARTPHONE HTC EVO 4G System Overview Smart phones are the state of the art communication systems designed to help users stayconnected, stay entertained, and stay up to date on current events. Most smart phones today usetouch-screen and boast a 4G technology that makes internet access on your phone faster andmore accessible. The system consists of 5x3 inch touch screen interface, Wi-Fi capabilities, GPS,Bluetooth, radio, internal memory, operating system, power source, camera, speakers, etc. Humans are capable of using these Smart phones for mobile phone, texting, email,entertainment, memory, media, applications, and internet access. Some examples of this wouldbe making a house call to your friends and family. Business calls are also a useful application ofcell phones; this makes it possible to do long distance interviews or business deals. Messagingin both texting and E-mailing allow the user to send media and have nonverbal conversations.Cell phones could be considered to be making the planet green so to speak; the user can pull upfull length newspapers, read books with a kindle application, and listen/download music withouthaving to purchase an I-Pod or CD’s. Probably one of the most used applications is the Googleapplication; this allows the user to look up any needed information in forms of videos, journals,WIKI, and just about anything that can be imagined. The input to the system is the human communiqué; touching, clicking, texting, calling,searching, and just generally using the programs available. The output would be the responses ofthe inputs. Virtually all ages of humans, ranging 8-65 years old, around the world interact withSmart Phones on a daily basis. Generally these phones match the applications used on
  • 4. 4IMPROVEMENTS TO THE SMARTPHONE HTC EVO 4Gcomputers making human interaction a more intuitive process. The purpose of this project is toexamine smart phones from a user perspective and suggest design changes.
  • 5. 5IMPROVEMENTS TO THE SMARTPHONE HTC EVO 4G Cell phone Survey A survey is a type of questionnaire that can be used in many domains. It asks a number ofquestions to collect quantitative data on a specific topic. Our survey, in particular, focused oncell phone usage as well as what aspects and functions of cell phones users like best. The resultsof our survey will yield good and bad aspects of cell phones and in turn, help us to determinewhich characteristic to incorporate in our remodel or which to leave out. The database used for our survey was Participants for our surveyranged from ages 18-44. There were 15 respondents and 66.7% were female. All of ourrespondents owned a cell phone and 60% stated that they used the touch screen keypad the most.The next most used method of typing was touch screen swipe, followed by a QWERTY keypadand lastly a number pad. A major trend the results from our survey showed was that texting is avery popular use for cell phones today. 80% of the participants noted using texting more thancalling and internet/email. An unexpected result we obtained was that internet/email (13.3%) wasused more on cell phones than calling (6.7%). However, when asked what application they usedmost frequent, again, texting came out on top but this time calling was second, followed byinternet/email, camera, and lastly T.V. Another question on our survey focused on the features ofthe phone that the users liked. The most popular features were texting once again, as well astouch screen; the number pad and T.V application were least liked. We asked the participantswhat they looked for when purchasing a phone and 40% answered processing speed and memoryand 26.7% answered durability and versatility. The results from our survey showed that peopletend to replace their phone every 1-2 years and the features are more important than the price. Task Analysis
  • 6. 6IMPROVEMENTS TO THE SMARTPHONE HTC EVO 4G The next step in the project was a task analysis. The task analysis is used as arepresentation of the process the human under goes through to perform the task. Beforerepresenting the task, it has to be analyzed and broken down into sequential elements from firstto last. Within each element there are sub-elements that follow the same rule. The reason toperform a task analysis is to obtain step-by-step information of mental and physical activityamong humans or human to machine interaction. This will help us redesign the task formaximum efficiency and spot any errors in the procedure. Our group came up with a task analysis of how to make a phone call with our new phonefor an HTC 4g. We started our analysis with the phone completely off. Our first step was to turnon the phone by pressing the button that indicated power. After, the screen turns on. There areexactly four ways of completing a call. There is a menu button on the home screen that you canpress that goes to multiple icons and applications. One of those icons indicates the phone. Afterselecting the phone application, the user will then be able to manually type the number that theywould like to call. If they already have that number in their address book, the users will then beable to select a name from the contact list, which will automatically call. After selecting anumber, the user will press a green on the screen that indicates that they are about to call anumber. When they want to cancel a call or end a conversation, the user will then press a redbutton on the screen that will terminate the call. After analyzing and breaking down the task into sub-elements in a task analysis, wediscovered that there are more ways than originally expected to make a phone call. Betweenhaving the cell phone completely off to ending a call, the human can go through multipleprocedures, each with their own steps. It was revealed that constant human-machine interactionwas done in multiple steps, which makes the task of making a phone call a long procedure. We
  • 7. 7IMPROVEMENTS TO THE SMARTPHONE HTC EVO 4Gdiscovered that there two aspects of the phone where errors were found. The first aspect was thephysical layout of the phone and interface. The second was the visual recognition of functions,which caused cognitive errors. Several methods of creating a phone call can be rendered uselessand inefficient, due to the fact that a more efficient method is provided to the user. Even withinthe most efficient method, there are steps that can be altered or deleted to enhance and shortenthe procedure. The current methods provided by the phone are shown to lean more towardstechnology-centered design rather than a human-centered design. After generating the taskanalysis, it became more apparent that making a phone call was not as efficient as it should be.The design of the phone itself should provide a clean-cut format, easy enough to understand andexecute tasks. Although there are several methods on making a phone call, there is one designatedmethod and the rest are “short-cut methods”. The term “short-cut methods” does not obtain thetraditional definition, but instead it will be used as a technological reference for creating a linkother than the designated method within the phone itself. These “short-cut methods” are scatteredaround the phone and lack great amount of detail. Both the designated method and “short-cutmethods” consist of numerous amounts of ways to arrive to the phone call icons. After generating the HTA, we determined what possible errors comprise the phone’sefficiency. First, we will describe the varied ways to arrive to the phone call icons. When thephone is completely off, the procedure to arrive to the phone call icons is relatively easy but notas efficient as it should be. First the user must check if the phone is on or off. This is done byholding on to the power button, which is located on the top right corner of the phone, for twoseconds. To the novice and expert users (Expert users are unfamiliar to the phone but not to thetouch screen interface and Novice are completely unfamiliar to a touch screen phone) a problem
  • 8. 8IMPROVEMENTS TO THE SMARTPHONE HTC EVO 4Gwill arise. The power button is hard to find and recognize. Only through processes of eliminationcan the button and function be recognized. The trials of process of elimination can be dividedinto two categories: Visual/Cognitive trials and Physical trials. A Visual/Cognitive trial is the procedure of using previous knowledge of buttonplacement to determine the function along with using color coordination and labels. To thenovice user this is a problem due to the fact that no phones prior to the touch screen phone has asimilar button layout. Then they would have to resort to color coordination where they will faceanother problem. Due to the phone and its buttons are rendered the same color, it is hard toidentify that an actual button is present. There is also no label or symbol that distinguishes thepower button among the other buttons, which causes the function recognition to be vague. Theexpert user’s background on touch screen phones will determine the problems they would face.If the expert user has knowledge of other touch screen phones (among the touch screen phonesbutton placement is similar), such as the I phone, they will not face a severe problem. Theywould only encounter the difficulty to realize an actual button is present due to the colorcoordination. If the expert user only has background knowledge of hybrid touch screen phones(such as the Verizon Voyager or EnV Touch, where a regular keypad is integrated with the touchscreen with limited functions) they will face the same problems as the novice user. The physical trial consists of physically interacting with the buttons after visual/cognitivetrials have failed or have been avoided. After visual/ cognitive trails have failed, the novice andsome expert users will move on to the physical trial. This process is simple. The novice andexpert users will just press buttons until their function is revealed. Although this processes issimple, both users will find that the size of the phone gets in the way. While grasping the phone
  • 9. 9IMPROVEMENTS TO THE SMARTPHONE HTC EVO 4Gby one hand, reaching the power button is difficult. This causes frustration and time spentinefficiently. The second sub-element where errors will occur is the process of arriving to the homescreen. There are three different icons that direct you to the home screen (Menu, Home, End).Two of the icons are embedded on the hardware (the phone itself and not the touch screeninterface) but the third is integrated as an icon in the screen. The issue at hand is redundancy.There two types of redundancy: Structured Redundancy and Unstructured Redundancy.Structured redundancy is creating multiple ways to perform one action in an organized manor, inwhich they do not overlap each other. Unstructured redundancy is the processes of creatingmultiple ways to perform one action but they over lap each other. When the phone is powered on, the user will automatically be on the home screen. If theusers decided to redirect themselves to another part of the phone, they will need to use one of thethree icons provided. In this scenario is when the unstructured redundancy reveals itself. Theuser is exposed to multiple icons and buttons at a time in an unorganized layout. By exposing theuser to multiple ways to execute a task at the same time, it will affect them cognitively and willaffect the phone’s efficiency. The way the unstructured redundancy affects the user cognitively is through process ofelimination. Through an unstructured redundancy, the user is exposed to multiple ways ofperforming a task with an unorganized layout. Throughout the phone, each icon and button isrepresented by a symbol that should make it clear to recognize the task. Although obvioussymbols are provided, it is affected by redundancy. For example, the three icons that redirect theuser to the home page have obvious symbols for their functions. The home button is representedby house icon, which represents the home screen. The menu button is labeled by the words
  • 10. 10IMPROVEMENTS TO THE SMARTPHONE HTC EVO 4GMenu, which is self-explanatory. A red phone represents the End button. Based on priorknowledge, the each symbol represents the same function. Although each represents the samefunction, the executions are different. This affects the visual/cognitive trials. By having all thesymbols represent the same function, task recognition becomes unclear. It is not until the userconducts a physical trial that they notice that all provide the same outcome through differentexecutions. Unstructured redundancy also affects the layout of the phone by creating a cluster oficons and buttons. This has a negative affect due to the fact both size and button placement arecompromised in order to fit all buttons and icons in the layout. Structured redundancy would bebeneficial in the phones layout by only providing one button or icon per page to achieve oneaction. The final sub-element that should be revised is the dial counter. There are two ways toarrive to the dial counter. The first way is to press the phone icon that is available on the bottomcenter of the home screen, which will direct the user straight to the dial counter. The second wayto arrive to the dial counter is through the People icons, which contains all your contacts, dialedcalls, missed calls, and the dial counters. When the user uses the phone icon to direct them to thedial counter, they would have to go back to the home screen in order to view their contacts andcall history. This causes time inefficiency by undergoing the whole process of arriving to the dialcounter.
  • 11. 11IMPROVEMENTS TO THE SMARTPHONE HTC EVO 4G Verbal Protocol Analysis Another analysis performed for the reconstruction of the HTC EVO 4G was the verbalprotocol analysis. We performed this analysis because it is necessary to see how users, bothnovice and expert, perform on the system, as well as, helps us see some of the problems thatnormal users will come in contact with. In order to do this analysis I picked two maleparticipants of the ages 20 and 21 who are most likely to use this specific system. One of theseparticipants was unfamiliar with smart phone applications, while the other had a good degree ofexperience. I did this so I was able to see if the problems they had rose from inexperience oractual structural errors in the phone. Using our survey and the activity timeline analysis I wasable to make a list of tasks that were most prominent to smart phone users and were most likelyto be done if a person owned this system. These tasks can be seen on APPENDIX ?. I had the participants perform these tasks while describing out loud exactly what theywere doing and what they liked and had problems with while I took notes. The participantsbegan by starting the phone, which both the novice (age 20) and the expert (age 21) hadproblems with because the button to turn it on is small and on the top right corner of the system.The novice had to use process of elimination to find this, while the expert had trouble pressing itwhile the phone’s case was on. Throughout the analysis both users continued to complain aboutthis feature because the phone would fall into hibernation if not used for a short period of time,forcing them to reposition their hand in order to click this button and turn it back on each time.They then had to unlock it, which means they had to drag a bar on the screen down. This was alittle troublesome because both participants attempted to first drag it up out of habit and thenfigured out to drag it down. When sending the text the participants both had no trouble findingthe icon, using the touch screen keyboard to type in the recipient, and sending it because they
  • 12. 12IMPROVEMENTS TO THE SMARTPHONE HTC EVO 4Gwere guided well on the phone. They also said how they liked the feature that as soon as theysent the text a conversation screen was created showing all texts to and from the recipient.Before moving on to the next step the users had to first go to the home screen, which was aproblem that plagued them throughout the entire analysis because they would click the menubutton that was right next to the button with a home on it. They were very vocal about how thisaggravated and confused them. Once home they easily found the phonebook and my name andwere able to make the call without any problems. The next step was to find a certain YouTubevideo; the methods used differed between the novice and the expert because the novice slidthrough the screens searching for the Google application until he found a small arrow in the righthad corner of the screen that opened a menu that had all applications that were available. It thentook him awhile to scroll down and up searching for what he needed until he found the Googleicon and clicked it, he also conveyed how when coming to this screen he was initially confusedbecause he was previously used to flipping left and right and attempted to do the same on thisscreen which was not an option. From there he had no trouble typing in the title, searching for it,finding it on YouTube, and playing it. The expert went another route in which he flipped left andright through the screens until he found a YouTube icon, clicked it and found the video. Whiledoing this he expressed his annoyance of how many screens he had to search through just to findthis one application. Both users had to then go back home in order to find a game (again clickedmenu). The novice user had previously found the page with all the applications on it so all heneeded to do was scroll through it until he found an icon that looked like it would be a game. Theexpert, however, had much harder time without this knowledge and proceeded to flip throughevery page without luck until he ended back at the home page and found the arrow in the bottomleft that lead to all applications. By this time he was extremely aggravated and proceeded to use
  • 13. 13IMPROVEMENTS TO THE SMARTPHONE HTC EVO 4Gsome obscenities but eventually found a chess icon and clicked it. Since both users were nowaware of the page with all the applications on it they had little trouble scrolling up and downuntil they found a calendar icon, clicked it, and flipped through the dates. The expert user,however, was so used to flipping through pages he first went through a couple pages beforegoing back to the all application page. For finding email the participants again used two differentmethods: the novice user went back to the Google search application typed in andwent to his email, while the expert flipped to his right in order to find the Gmail icon he hadpreviously seen and clicked that to get to his email. Since both users had previously used a cellphone they knew from their general knowledge to try the buttons on the side in order to put it onsilent and had no problem doing this. They also had no problem finding the camera icon on thehome screen, clicking the icon that looked like a shutter to take a picture, and then clicking thetrash can and the picture in order to delete it. Last they knew from the several times they had toclick it throughout the analysis that the button that turned it on could also be used to turn it off. From observing and listening to the participants there were some software and hardwarefeatures that really stood out as beneficial and troublesome to the user. One feature that reallyhelped the participants, especially the novice, through the tasks was how the icons served asdirectional keys. Instead of having generic words that the users had to process and then evaluateif that’s what they needed, the picture icons were an easy way for them to spot the function theywanted, even if they didn’t know where it was. In this way guidelines were available so theycould easily guess what to click next without knowing how to work the features. Because of thiswe found it necessary that we keep these directional keys in our final software prototype. Next, the users had real trouble with how unorganized the phone was. The applicationswere randomized throughout numerous pages making it extremely complicated to find the exact
  • 14. 14IMPROVEMENTS TO THE SMARTPHONE HTC EVO 4Gone they needed. Even when they did locate the page with all the applications on it, the fact thatthere was no set pattern to them made it so they had to allocate a greater amount of time to findthe specific application they were looking for. Also, the fact some pages they flipped left andright through and some pages they had to scroll up and down confused them to which way theyshould be searching and again wasted more time. Because of this we saw that there should besome way to organize the applications by category in folders rather than having themrandomized throughout the phone and have these folders on a limited amount of pages so theywouldn’t be scattered throughout the system. This was also eliminate the need to have twodifferent ways to scroll because everything would be readily available on 2 to 3 screens that youcould flip left or right through. The last problem that the participants were really vocal about was the integrated buttonswere either confusing or hard to access. The fact that they had to repeatedly put their hand in anawkward position in order to turn the phone on was a great nuisance to them throughout theentire analysis. This is actually more of a problem then just annoying the user because therepeated stress on their hands, over time, can create skeletal problems such as Arthritis andCarpal Tunnel which are harmful to their well being later in life. Also, the users had the biggestproblem with the fact that the home and menu button confused them. The fact that these twobuttons are next to each other and have similar functions allowed for the user’s automaticprocessing to be confused and would hit one or the other at random. This is a real problembecause when speed is a necessity and automatic processing takes over users will run into aproblem a large percentage of the time. There was also some buttons integrated on the systemthat the users never used during the analysis such as the search and back buttons that may proveunnecessary. We decided that it would be essential to find a way to implement the power button
  • 15. 15IMPROVEMENTS TO THE SMARTPHONE HTC EVO 4Gin an easy location, such as with the other integrated keys, as well as find a way to have the homeand menu buttons father apart or have them with better descriptive icons.
  • 16. 16IMPROVEMENTS TO THE SMARTPHONE HTC EVO 4G Analysis of Similar Systems (AoSS) An analysis of similar systems (AoSS) is a method of examining traits of interest inexisting, comparable systems to determine what works and what doesn’t. This analysis isconducted at the beginning of the project with the benefit of discovering how others haveaddressed similar problems with the system they are comparing the analysis to. An AoSS canlook at anything from the software of the system to the layout, control mechanisms, symbology,and many other categories pertinent to the system. When conducting an AoSS for the HTC EVO 4G the systems we used were an iPod(music player), HP G62 notebook, BlackBerry 8900, and an HTC HD7 Windows & phone. Thecomponents we analyzed from each system were the specifications, interface, capabilities, andfeatures. Our chart shows each system with a breakdown of each component. For example, underspecifications we looked at the display size, battery life, memory, price, and camera pixels ofeach system. Being able to visually compare systems similar to that of the HTC EVO 4Gallowed us to get ideas for our redesign.
  • 17. 17IMPROVEMENTS TO THE SMARTPHONE HTC EVO 4G Interview We found interests in battery life usage and amount phones battery needed to be chargedin our survey. Questions in the interview asked about the type/style of phone (Basic, Flip, Smart,Blackberry) in comparison to battery life. Depending on the phone the 5 main power usingphone abilities (GPS, Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, Mobile Network, and Hot Spot) must also be taken intoconsideration on how often they were used compared to how long the life of the battery lasted.The overall purpose was to see how applicable it would be to have a solar powered chargingoption on their phone and inform users on which features used the most power. We interviewed 26 people ranging from ages 16-53 with a concentration in the mid 20’s.This included 12 males and 14 females. We would randomly stop people on campus or on thestreet and ask them for a minute of their time. We would proceed to tell them that it was goingto be a quick 5 question interview on power consumption of their cell phone. After doingresearch on which phone options used the most power I came up with these questions andinferences in order: What is your age range? (10-20), (20-30), (30-40), (40-50), (60-70). May I see what kind of phone you have? (To find which type/style of phone that they had) Currently which of these option do you have turned ON between GPS, WiFi, Bluetooth, Mobile Network, and Hotspot? Do you have a phone incasing? On a scale of one to five (five being agreeing the most) How would you like to have a solar powered attachment option to charge help lengthen the battery life of your phone?
  • 18. 18IMPROVEMENTS TO THE SMARTPHONE HTC EVO 4G After asking these questions ,I would point out which options or settings on the phoneused the most energy (mW). Then I would proceed to tell them how I would like to implement asolar powered casing option for cell phones. Using these simple interview questions I found that most participants had a smart phone(12); This usually consisted of a Droid or I-Phone. The Wi-Fi option was the most used option.I found that most BlackBerry phones had the Mobile Network turned on so they could send andreceive data such as text messages and email. Over half the participants had a phone incasingwhich implies that many people wouldn’t mind having a casing for the phone that doubled as aprotecting cover and a renewable energy source. Phones that give the choice of turning on andoff the Wi-Fi, GPS, Mobile Network, Hotspot, and Bluetooth show that by having them on thebattery life will be drained significantly faster. When asking about participants about having aSolar Power Panel Option, I found most (92%) liked the idea. Taking the power consumption and battery life into consideration, a solar panel couldeliminate the need to charge a phone during the day and may even eliminate the need for a plugin power adapter. After doing some research a small solar panel that would fit on a protectivecasing could cost approximately 65-95 US dollars (same price as buying a more efficient lithiumbattery). With the technology and to keep the price down, the amount of power given by thissolar panel could only charge the phone while it was in an idle mode. When the phone is in useeven without direct light the solar panel could feed power to the phone at the same rate it wasusing the battery charge. Size difference with the addition of a solar panel would be 1-2 mmlarger than the Otter Incasing already in use.
  • 19. 19IMPROVEMENTS TO THE SMARTPHONE HTC EVO 4G Picture Timeline Analysis The use of a picture timeline tool was to explore how, when and why we used a cellphone on a day to day basis. It is important to include pictures because it helps explain activitiesthat are being operated on a cell phone. The picture timeline that is cell phone specific contains pictures that the user feltaccurately described what a typical cell phone is capable of doing on a daily basis. We felt it wasa good method of collecting data for our design because it is easy to understand and people cancompare how their cell phone would react on a daily basis to our newly designed cell phone. Wechose a time frame from 7:00 AM to 7:00 PM for a typical day. We found 80 random picturesfrom Google Images as well as 85 words and 86 different emotions and gave them to each of the10 participants. All pictures, words, and emotions can be found in the Appendix. The participantswere then asked to put the pictures on the timeline where they felt was appropriate based on whattheir phones were capable of doing. All 10 participants attended Embry-Riddle, and they all hada working smartphone that they used on a daily basis. Also, the age of students ranged from 18-25. After they had completed their picture timeline, I then interviewed the participant and askedthem questions regarding their timeline. Some questions asked were, “Why was this emotionnext to this picture?”, “Why did your phone make you feel _____ at this time and how do youthink it can be improved?”, and “Tell me why you used this picture.” The timeline analysis can be used to highlight problematic tasks or task sequences in thedesign of systems and processes. For example, if a participant put a picture of someone who wasangry or a picture of something that resembled something slow, then they would tell us why atthat moment they were angry with their system or why their system was performing at a slowerpace. Some cell phones are fast all the time, but some are slow depending on which applications
  • 20. 20IMPROVEMENTS TO THE SMARTPHONE HTC EVO 4Gare used at what time. Another example would be if someone had a smartphone that was onlyslow when sending a text message and talking to a person at the same time. We would then havea better understanding why their text messages sent slowly and we would then try to change thesystem in order for it to react quicker. The reliability and validity of the method is questionable. Also, observational data can beflawed by a number of biases. Another disadvantage was that it was very time consuming tocreate the picture timeline and to have the participants create their own timeline. The pictureswere also very hard to come up with as well as the words that can be put next to each picture ifthe participant decided to do so. Another disadvantage is that the participants could be usingpictures based on other systems that they use. For example, there could be a picture of a TV thatthey put in their picture timeline; however, their smartphone doesn’t have TV capability butsince they watch TV in the morning, they decided to put it because that’s what they felt was rightto do. The picture timeline analysis did not aide us in incorporating any new features. Somepictures in the timeline analysis helped users generate ideas about other ways a phone could beused on a typical day. Each participant had different outcomes. Many of the participants used thesame pictures in the same order. For example, all of the participants used a picture of a clock atthe beginning of their picture timeline and had a picture of a sleeping person or animal at thevery end of their timeline. What was in between those pictures varied, but overall was a goodrepresentation of how each participant used their cell phone. When each participant was askedabout a certain picture, there was not a lot of confusion. Only three participants were not able toexplain why they used a picture of a landmark and airplane. Two participants didn’t use anywords that were given, but they did use emotions next to some pictures. The average time to
  • 21. 21IMPROVEMENTS TO THE SMARTPHONE HTC EVO 4Gcompete their picture timeline was 14.8 minutes. The longest time was 19 minutes and theshortest time was 10 minutes.
  • 22. 22IMPROVEMENTS TO THE SMARTPHONE HTC EVO 4G Timeline Analysis One of the analyses performed for the reconstruction of the HTC EVO 4G was theactivity timeline analysis. We performed this analysis in order to see what applications weremost prominent among phone users and to what extent these applications were used. For thisanalysis I picked two participants that owned smart phones and used them often. The firstparticipant (User A) is 20 and female, while the second participant (User B) is 28 and male.From using general knowledge, as well as, information from our survey I was able to make a listof the main applications people use and I observed both users for 45 minutes at 5 minuteintervals and recorded when and how long they used each application. These applicationsincluded: calling, texting, browsing the internet, playing games, checking the weather, checkingtheir calendar, checking email, and social networking. I first observed User A who started off sending a text to one of her friends. She thenquickly checked the weather and proceeded to browse various sites on the internet that mostlyincluded random Google searches. She then moved on to checking her email and then switchedover to looking at her Facebook page until she received and sent another text. She played a gamefor a small amount of time and then began reading a news application. She continued to text theperson who she was having a conversation with and then quickly checked her calendar. Last shehad to make a call to one of her classmates until the end of our time. Next I observed User B who started off using his Pandora application to listen to music.He then received a text and began responding until he was interrupted by a call from his brotherwhich lasted for a long period of time. In the middle of this call he had to find something in hisroom and used a flashlight application to look for it. He browsed the internet for a short period oftime until he began playing a game called Mafia Wars. This was interesting because this game
  • 23. 23IMPROVEMENTS TO THE SMARTPHONE HTC EVO 4Galso served as social networking because he was connected with friends off his Facebook page.He played this the rest of the time besides when he received and sent a text in the middle. This analysis was very interesting because it showed us the wide variety of uses a phonecould have. These include some unexpected functions that the users performed such as using aflashlight, listening to music, and checking the news. After looking at the data it is seen that theusers called, played games, and were on social networking applications most of the time. Overallthough this analysis was not as helpful as we thought it would be because it didn’t really show uswhat phone users used the most. The fact that they were only observed for a small period of timedid not allow us to get enough information to make logical hypothesis on the applications mostused and the fact the some applications, such as texting, were performed frequently but not for along period of time allowed for error in the final results. Also, we could only perform thisanalysis on two people and to get actual valid information we would need a much larger testpopulation because of the wide variety of applications different people use. Another problem weencountered was the Hawthorne effect, which states that people being observed will actdifferently, which could produce error because participants may have been trying to use a largevariety of applications that they normally wouldn’t use. If we had to perform this analysis againwe would observe at least 10 users for much longer period of time, such as 2 to 3 days, andwould use cameras or an application that recorded each individual function performed, whichwould help to see how a participant actually uses their phone when not being observed.
  • 24. 24 IMPROVEMENTS TO THE SMARTPHONE HTC EVO 4G Recommendations Based on the results from our survey we decided to highlight the most frequently used features in our redesign the HTC EVO 4G. Because texting, calling, internet/email, and camera were the most used features on the phone we added a stationary bar to the bottom of the phone. Even when cycling through the on the touch screen interface, this bar will always remain at the bottom until an application is opened. This provides the user with a short cut menu to the most used features of the phone.Original Home Screen Proto-type Home Screen (Before) (After)
  • 25. 25IMPROVEMENTS TO THE SMARTPHONE HTC EVO 4G Based on our results of our analysis, we were able to create a prototype. As you can seeabove, we made changes on the hardware. The power button is no longer located on the top ofthe phone but now it is located on the bottom right of the screen. We decided to add colorcoordination and enlarge the size (in comparison to the other buttons) for two reasons. The firstreason is to show the importance of the Power button in comparison to the others. The secondreason was to improve visual/function recognition by labeling the button with the universalpower sign highlighted with a bright blue light. The power button itself will not protrude out ofthe phone but instead it will dip into the phone. This was done to avoid accidentally turning thephone on or off while it’s in the user pocket. You can see we have deleted the magnifying button,which represents a search function, and reorganized the button layout. In the original phone themenu and home button were placed together, as seen in the verbal protocol analysis this createdproblems. Having the home and menu button together caused the user to always hit the menubutton when they were trying to hit the home button. Among the home and menu button , wedesignated the home button to have the capability to direct the user back to the home screen. We also updated the software by rearranging the icons on the home screen. As you can seeabove, the task bar on the bottom of the digital screen was been replaced. The new task bar willbe stationary, meaning that no matter to what page the user slides to the task bar will be present.We kept in mind the primary and secondary purpose of the phone and its function. The primarypurpose is to provide the user a form to communicate (Phone calls, Texting, Web Browsing,Contact Storage). The secondary purpose of the phone is to provide the user applications andmiscellaneous tools. This is the reason behind making the task bar stationary. Based on thesurvey the icons within the task bar are placed in order from highest importance to the lowestimportance. On the top of the screen you will be able to see another task bar. This task bar is not
  • 26. 26IMPROVEMENTS TO THE SMARTPHONE HTC EVO 4Gstationary and its purpose is to show the four highest used applications. The screen above is the application page with some modifications. We kept the digitalscreen application page the same for the exception of the stationary task bar. The menu button’sfunction has been altered. The menu button would no longer the offer the option to direct theuser to the home screen, due to unstructured redundancy, but instead will offer several options tomanage and organize the applications. The applications of our recommendations will benefit the phone and the users in several ways. A clear-cut format and icon/button layout will increase the efficiency of executing several tasks. Our recommendations will also positively affect the user’s ability to associate icons/buttons with their functions by deleting function ambiguity.Recommendations verbal protocol:NEED When conducting our AoSS we noticed a helpful and useful feature of the HP G62notebook start menu. The start menu changes based on the applications the user uses most. Forexample, if I use Microsoft Word a lot, I know that I will be able to find it on my start menu. Inour redesign we decided to provide the user with a short cut bar at the top of the screen that willvary from user to user based on their most frequently used applications. This bar, in a sense,plays the role of a “favorites” menu. Another recommendation we received from our AoSS was
  • 27. 27IMPROVEMENTS TO THE SMARTPHONE HTC EVO 4Gthe visual display of buttons. We knew from our survey that touch screen interfaces are verypopular with phones today and when looking at the HTC Windows 7 phone we noticed aninterface design that did not work. The HTC Windows 7 phone is touch screen and the display ofthe icons are flat square boxes. Not only are the icons flat but they all have one similar color aswell. This design often confused it’s users as they mistook the icons for pictures or banners onthe phone. However our recommendation was to add depth to the buttons on the HTC EVO 4Gas seen in the iPod interface. On a flat surface like the touch screen interface, adding depth to theicons will make them more easily recognizable as buttons. Based on the results from the interviews, when it comes to the amount of power that cellphones use, we recommend informing phone purchasers of which features use the most power(mW). Also, we recommend that a solar panel casing be implemented to help support themovement for renewable energy and make the need for plugging in the cell phone. As shownbelow is the how the solar panel would fit and look.Picture timeline confirmed other research results.