Recent archaeological findings in the Holy Land Laindon Bible Class  ‒  12 th  August 2009
Our study plan <ul><li>Why study archaeology? </li></ul><ul><li>What do we mean by recent? </li></ul><ul><li>Current archa...
Current archaeological practice <ul><li>Academic policy: “the Bible should be assumed false until proven true” </li></ul><...
Archaeological dating Archaeology
Findings relating to people <ul><li>The Baruch seal (bulla) </li></ul><ul><li>The ossuary of Caiaphas </li></ul><ul><li>Re...
The Baruch seal Archaeology Came to light in 1975, original source unknown
The Baruch seal <ul><li>Baruch, Jeremiah’s scribe (Jeremiah 36) </li></ul><ul><li>The use of clay seals </li></ul><ul><li>...
The ossuary of Caiaphas Archaeology Joseph Caiaphas Discovered in Jerusalem 1990
The ossuary of Caiaphas <ul><li>Caiaphas (Matthew 26:3, Luke, John & Acts) </li></ul><ul><li>What is an ossuary? </li></ul...
House of David inscription Archaeology Discovered at Tel Dan in 1994
House of David inscription <ul><li>Thought to refer to the exploits of Jehoash, grandson of Jehu (2 Kings 13:23) </li></ul...
Goliath of Gath Archaeology Excavation of the Philistine city of Gath & pottery fragment with ‘Goliath like’ names discove...
City of Gath Archaeology
Goliath of Gath <ul><li>Excavations in Gath (1 Samuel 17:4,23) </li></ul><ul><li>Large quantities of Philistine style pott...
Ancient seal of Jezebel Archaeology Came to light 1964, precise  original source unknown
Ancient seal of Jezebel <ul><li>Jezebel, wife of King Ahab (1 Kings 16:31) </li></ul><ul><li>Seal discovered in 1964 by Na...
Findings relating to places <ul><li>King David’s Palace </li></ul><ul><li>The significance of the Kingdom of Edom (13 th  ...
King David’s Palace Archaeology Discovered in East Jerusalem by Dr Eilat Mazar 2005
King David’s Palace? Archaeology
King David’s Palace <ul><li>King David’s ‘house’ (2 Samuel 5:11  2 Kings 11:2, 1 Chronicles 17:1) </li></ul><ul><li>The wo...
Excavations at Khirbat en-Nahas  Archaeology Evidence of the powerful Kingdom of the Edomites uncovered in 2006
Kingdom of Edom Archaeology
The Kingdom of the Edomites <ul><li>Significant Kingdom (south of Dead Sea) in existence at time of David  (2 Samuel 8:14)...
Philistine city of Ekron Archaeology Inscription & excavations at Ekron 1998
Philistine city of Ekron <ul><li>David fled to Achish ‘king of Gath’  (1 Samuel 21:10) </li></ul><ul><li>Discoveries ident...
Findings relating to events <ul><li>The altar on Mount Ebal </li></ul><ul><li>Herod’s tomb </li></ul>Archaeology
Altar on Mount Ebal Archaeology Excavated during the period 1982 – 1984
Altar on Mount Ebal <ul><li>Joshua built an altar on Mount Ebal (Joshua 8:30) </li></ul><ul><li>Remains of an altar discov...
Herod’s Tomb Archaeology Herod’s tomb discovered in 2007 at Herodium (his winter palace) 3 miles SE of Bethlehem
Herod’s Tomb <ul><li>Herod the Great died a few years after the birth of Christ (Matthew 2:19-21) </li></ul><ul><li>In 200...
Findings relating to life in  Biblical times <ul><li>Evidence of early form of Hebrew in the 10 th  century BC </li></ul><...
Hebrew alphabet from  10 th  century BC Archaeology
The earliest alphabet known <ul><li>Discovered in Tell Zayit SW of Jerusalem embedded in a wall and dated back to 10 th  c...
Silver amulet - 7 th  century BC Archaeology Rolled silver amulet discovered in a tomb in Jerusalem 1979 and unrolled 1983
The name of Yahweh Archaeology Ancient Hebrew script
The name of Yahweh <ul><li>A silver amulet was found on the SW slope of the Valley of Hinnom </li></ul><ul><li>Found in a ...
Galilee boat Archaeology Discovered in the mud at edge of Sea of Galilee during drought of 1986
Reconstruction of the boat Archaeology
Remains of Galilee boat <ul><li>Discovered in the mud during a severe drought in 1985 – 6 </li></ul><ul><li>Dated to perio...
What can we conclude? <ul><li>With the Bible we are dealing in facts, for it is God’s word </li></ul><ul><li>These discove...
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Recent Archaeological Findings In The Holy Land

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Recent Archaeological Findings In The Holy Land

  1. 1. Recent archaeological findings in the Holy Land Laindon Bible Class ‒ 12 th August 2009
  2. 2. Our study plan <ul><li>Why study archaeology? </li></ul><ul><li>What do we mean by recent? </li></ul><ul><li>Current archaeological practice </li></ul><ul><li>Archaeological findings relating to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Places </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Events </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Life in Biblical times </li></ul></ul>Archaeology
  3. 3. Current archaeological practice <ul><li>Academic policy: “the Bible should be assumed false until proven true” </li></ul><ul><li>The Old Testament thought to have been written in the early 6 th century BC </li></ul><ul><li>Question whether there was a distinct Jewish state before the 8 th century BC </li></ul><ul><li>Dating of findings frequently the subject of argument and uncertainty </li></ul>Archaeology
  4. 4. Archaeological dating Archaeology
  5. 5. Findings relating to people <ul><li>The Baruch seal (bulla) </li></ul><ul><li>The ossuary of Caiaphas </li></ul><ul><li>Reference to the House of David </li></ul><ul><li>The home of Goliath </li></ul><ul><li>The seal of Jezebel </li></ul>Archaeology
  6. 6. The Baruch seal Archaeology Came to light in 1975, original source unknown
  7. 7. The Baruch seal <ul><li>Baruch, Jeremiah’s scribe (Jeremiah 36) </li></ul><ul><li>The use of clay seals </li></ul><ul><li>How they have survived </li></ul><ul><li>The inscription: “belonging to Berechiah son of Neriah the scribe” </li></ul><ul><li>Has a fingerprint on its edge </li></ul><ul><li>Part of a collection that also includes a seal of Seraiah son of Neriah </li></ul>Archaeology
  8. 8. The ossuary of Caiaphas Archaeology Joseph Caiaphas Discovered in Jerusalem 1990
  9. 9. The ossuary of Caiaphas <ul><li>Caiaphas (Matthew 26:3, Luke, John & Acts) </li></ul><ul><li>What is an ossuary? </li></ul><ul><li>Inscription reads “Joseph son of Caiaphas” </li></ul><ul><li>Contained bones of two infants, a child, a boy, a woman and a man about 60 </li></ul>Archaeology
  10. 10. House of David inscription Archaeology Discovered at Tel Dan in 1994
  11. 11. House of David inscription <ul><li>Thought to refer to the exploits of Jehoash, grandson of Jehu (2 Kings 13:23) </li></ul><ul><li>Found in Dan at the foot of Mt Hermon (1979) </li></ul><ul><li>Inscription reads: “killed Ahaz iahu son of Jehoram kin g of the House of David” </li></ul><ul><li>One of only two references to King David outside the Bible </li></ul>Archaeology
  12. 12. Goliath of Gath Archaeology Excavation of the Philistine city of Gath & pottery fragment with ‘Goliath like’ names discovered 2009
  13. 13. City of Gath Archaeology
  14. 14. Goliath of Gath <ul><li>Excavations in Gath (1 Samuel 17:4,23) </li></ul><ul><li>Large quantities of Philistine style pottery fragments found at Tell es-Safi dating back to 1000BC (2001 onwards) </li></ul><ul><li>Inscription found 2005 using names “Alwat and Wlt” thought to be early Semitic spellings of Goliath or something very similar </li></ul>Archaeology
  15. 15. Ancient seal of Jezebel Archaeology Came to light 1964, precise original source unknown
  16. 16. Ancient seal of Jezebel <ul><li>Jezebel, wife of King Ahab (1 Kings 16:31) </li></ul><ul><li>Seal discovered in 1964 by Nahman Avigad and dated to 9 th century BC </li></ul><ul><li>Work of Dr Korpel confirms it to be almost certainly the seal of Queen Jezebel </li></ul><ul><li>Queen Jezebel uses Ahab’s seal (1 Kings 21:8) but also appears to have had one of her own, perhaps later </li></ul>Archaeology
  17. 17. Findings relating to places <ul><li>King David’s Palace </li></ul><ul><li>The significance of the Kingdom of Edom (13 th to the 8 th century BC) </li></ul><ul><li>The Philistine city of Ekron </li></ul>Archaeology
  18. 18. King David’s Palace Archaeology Discovered in East Jerusalem by Dr Eilat Mazar 2005
  19. 19. King David’s Palace? Archaeology
  20. 20. King David’s Palace <ul><li>King David’s ‘house’ (2 Samuel 5:11 2 Kings 11:2, 1 Chronicles 17:1) </li></ul><ul><li>The work of Eilat Mazar, uncovering what is thought to be David’s palace from around 1000BC (2005) </li></ul><ul><li>Faced considerable opposition from archaeologists who deny the authenticity of David & Solomon </li></ul><ul><li>Outside wall above the fortress (2 Samuel 5:17) </li></ul>Archaeology
  21. 21. Excavations at Khirbat en-Nahas Archaeology Evidence of the powerful Kingdom of the Edomites uncovered in 2006
  22. 22. Kingdom of Edom Archaeology
  23. 23. The Kingdom of the Edomites <ul><li>Significant Kingdom (south of Dead Sea) in existence at time of David (2 Samuel 8:14) </li></ul><ul><li>A fortress, 100 buildings and copper mines discovered in the Biblical land of Edom dating back to 10 th century BC (2006-8) </li></ul><ul><li>The Edomites mentioned in scripture 99 times but academics had questioned its significance before 7 th century BC </li></ul>Archaeology
  24. 24. Philistine city of Ekron Archaeology Inscription & excavations at Ekron 1998
  25. 25. Philistine city of Ekron <ul><li>David fled to Achish ‘king of Gath’ (1 Samuel 21:10) </li></ul><ul><li>Discoveries identified the city of Ekron, 22 miles SW of Jerusalem (1982 – 2005) </li></ul><ul><li>Inscription names Achish and also Padi, who is identified in the royal Assyrian annals as a contemporary of Hezekiah when he was besieged by Sennacherib </li></ul>Archaeology
  26. 26. Findings relating to events <ul><li>The altar on Mount Ebal </li></ul><ul><li>Herod’s tomb </li></ul>Archaeology
  27. 27. Altar on Mount Ebal Archaeology Excavated during the period 1982 – 1984
  28. 28. Altar on Mount Ebal <ul><li>Joshua built an altar on Mount Ebal (Joshua 8:30) </li></ul><ul><li>Remains of an altar discovered during excavations in 1982 – 1987 (dated c1200BC, which is too recent) </li></ul><ul><li>However, design is remarkably consistent with later altars as specified by God </li></ul><ul><li>Animal remains sheep, goats & cattle (no pigs, donkeys or dogs) </li></ul>Archaeology
  29. 29. Herod’s Tomb Archaeology Herod’s tomb discovered in 2007 at Herodium (his winter palace) 3 miles SE of Bethlehem
  30. 30. Herod’s Tomb <ul><li>Herod the Great died a few years after the birth of Christ (Matthew 2:19-21) </li></ul><ul><li>In 2007 his tomb was found on the NE slope of Herodium </li></ul><ul><li>The sarcophagus was broken into 100s of pieces (no doubt smashed during the Jewish revolt against Romans 66 – 72AD) </li></ul><ul><li>Josephus describes the grand funeral </li></ul>Archaeology
  31. 31. Findings relating to life in Biblical times <ul><li>Evidence of early form of Hebrew in the 10 th century BC </li></ul><ul><li>Reference to the name of Yahweh in the 7 th century BC </li></ul><ul><li>Remains of a boat in the Sea of Galilee dating from around 120BC – AD40 </li></ul>Archaeology
  32. 32. Hebrew alphabet from 10 th century BC Archaeology
  33. 33. The earliest alphabet known <ul><li>Discovered in Tell Zayit SW of Jerusalem embedded in a wall and dated back to 10 th century BC </li></ul><ul><li>Written in an early form of Hebrew </li></ul><ul><li>Confirms the level of literacy of the Jewish people </li></ul><ul><li>Possibly the mother of all modern languages </li></ul>Archaeology
  34. 34. Silver amulet - 7 th century BC Archaeology Rolled silver amulet discovered in a tomb in Jerusalem 1979 and unrolled 1983
  35. 35. The name of Yahweh Archaeology Ancient Hebrew script
  36. 36. The name of Yahweh <ul><li>A silver amulet was found on the SW slope of the Valley of Hinnom </li></ul><ul><li>Found in a tomb in 1979 and dated back to the 7 th century BC </li></ul><ul><li>Took about 3 years to discover how to unroll and yet to be fully translated </li></ul><ul><li>Contains a prayer like inscription which includes YHWH the name of God </li></ul>Archaeology
  37. 37. Galilee boat Archaeology Discovered in the mud at edge of Sea of Galilee during drought of 1986
  38. 38. Reconstruction of the boat Archaeology
  39. 39. Remains of Galilee boat <ul><li>Discovered in the mud during a severe drought in 1985 – 6 </li></ul><ul><li>Dated to period 120BC – AD40 </li></ul><ul><li>30 feet long and 8 feet wide (10 x 2.5m) </li></ul><ul><li>Contained a complete lamp and cooking pot plus other fragments </li></ul><ul><li>Would have been similar to the boats Jesus and his disciples used </li></ul>Archaeology
  40. 40. What can we conclude? <ul><li>With the Bible we are dealing in facts, for it is God’s word </li></ul><ul><li>These discoveries bring things to life for us, from out of the dust </li></ul><ul><li>They contradict the false theories of modern archaeologists who reject the Biblical record </li></ul><ul><li>They can help interested friends build their confidence in the truth of the Bible </li></ul>Archaeology
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