Paul Maharg Glasgow Graduate School of Law Simulations as open educational resources (OER) Karen Barton ,  School of Law, ...
OER – what are they? <ul><li>Learning content  - full courses, course materials, content modules, learning objects, collec...
other Open initiatives… <ul><li>UNESCO Forum on the Impact of Open Courseware for Higher Education in Developing Countries...
Cape Town Open Education Declaration
why create OER? <ul><li>Lowers the costs of educational materials for students </li></ul><ul><li>Fosters pedagogical innov...
3 types of OER… <ul><li>Institutional OpenCourseWare initiatives: eg MIT, Stanford, Harvard, Open University, etc </li></u...
institutional OER: Open University
MIT OpenCourseWare (OCW) Initiative <ul><li>2000: OpenCourseWare initiated </li></ul><ul><li>Goal: to make all primary cou...
disciplinary OER: HumBox Project
under licence?
why create OER? <ul><li>Philanthropic : Sharing and providing education to people all over the world, with special attenti...
why do OERs fail? <ul><li>OER Creators </li></ul><ul><li>Hubris </li></ul><ul><li>Poor quality product </li></ul><ul><li>N...
simulations: a definition <ul><li>educational simulation  : ‘a simplified, dynamic and precise representation of reality d...
simulations: our model <ul><li>Are  close to the world of practice , but safe from the (possible) realities of malpractice...
educational approach to simulation <ul><li>concept of  transactional learning </li></ul><ul><li>is active learning,   </li...
 
what has the SIMPLE project done? <ul><li>Provided academic staff in UK Universities with software tools to design and bui...
aims of the simSHARE project? <ul><li>Collation of simulation resources  which are repurposed as open educational content ...
project details <ul><li>Funded  in the by JISC & HEA through the subject centre – see  http://www.jisc.ac.uk/oer  for list...
 
my profile
 
 
 
 
 
 
future plans <ul><li>Collation of as many interdisciplinary sims as we can get </li></ul><ul><li>Currently in disseminatio...
1.  sustainability is not the main issue… <ul><li>Simshare is not an organisation (Microsoft), it’s an ecosystem (Linux) <...
…  it’s the type of CoP we need … <ul><li>Re social capital, do we want –  </li></ul><ul><li>Bonding capital? </li></ul><u...
…  and how we go about achieving it. <ul><li>Construe Simshare as ‘commons-based peer production’ (Benkler) </li></ul><ul>...
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Simshare: simulations as open educational resources

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Simshare presentation slides used at the HEA annual conference, 2010, U. of Herts.

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  • Free to remix the MIT resources. Crown jewel-s MIT staff and the piece of paper. Content is a draw to the university. Goodwill factor- people learned it from MIT
  • Too much up there- if I build it they will come Get lost Content poor Wide range even in MIT- 15k per course to go up on site- on average Need a sus plan Many people doing a little provide a community.
  • We provide subject-specific support to academics and disciplines through our network of subject centres
  • Transactional learning is active learning, not passive. In that sense, we want students to be involved in activities within legal actions, rather than standing back from the actions and merely learning about them. transactional learning goes beyond learning about legal actions to learning from legal actions we aim to give them experience of legal transactions. Transactional learning involves thinking about transactions. It includes the ability to rise above detail, and &amp;quot;helicopter&amp;quot; above a transaction; or the ability to disengage oneself from potentially damaging views of the group process, and re-construct that view Students are valuable resources for each other. Collaborative learning breaks down the isolation and alienation of what might be regarded as isolated or cellular learning. There is of course a place for individual learning, silent study, and the like. But students can help each other enormously to understand legal concepts and procedures by discussing issues, reviewing actions in a group, giving peer feedback on work undertaken in the group, and so on. And perhaps what is even more important is that they begin to trust each other to carry out work that is important. In other words, students begin to learn how to leverage knowledge amongst themselves, and to trust each other’s developing professionality (learning about know-who, know-why, as well as know-what within the firm). Often, we have found, if there are firms that are not producing good work or keeping to deadlines, it is because they do not know how to work together effectively; and this often arises from a lack of trust. Transactional learning ought to be based on a more holistic approach. Allowing students to experience the whole transaction- and all the different parts- not just the actual procedure but how this may affect the client and how you may have to report this to the client. Transactional learning of necessity draws upon ethical learning and professional standards. There are many examples of how students have had to face ethical situations within the environment – some are ones where we have created a situation with an ethical issue- others have arisen unexpectedly. E.g mandate example ( if time) 7 &amp; 8: Students are taking part in a sophisticated process that involves taking on the role of a professional lawyer within the confines of the virtual town and firm. In order to enhance the learning experience they must be immersed in the role play- and to do that they must be undertaking authentic tasks. Research suggests that when students are involved with online environment similar to the virtual village- that these authentic settings have the capability to motivate and encourage learner participation by facilitating students ‘willing suspension of disbelief’. This allows them to become immersed in the setting.
  • So what are we doing in the project: We are creating- indeed have created – tools which allow academics to build simulations similar to the one you’ve seen here. These can be highly structured, closed boundary simulations as well as loosely-structured, open-field simulations We’re developing guidelines for academics, support staff, IT staff and students. There is a tool for the creation of the map and directory and communication tools. We are mentoring a number of partner projects and also evaluating the experience for future users.
  • Impact reward &amp; recognition
  • Simshare: simulations as open educational resources

    1. 1. Paul Maharg Glasgow Graduate School of Law Simulations as open educational resources (OER) Karen Barton , School of Law, University of Strathclyde Patricia McKellar , UK Centre for Legal Education Paul Maharg , School of Law, University of Northumbria
    2. 2. OER – what are they? <ul><li>Learning content - full courses, course materials, content modules, learning objects, collections and journals </li></ul><ul><li>Tools - software to support the creation, delivery, use and improvement of open learning content including searching and organisation of content, content and learning management systems, content development tools and online learning communities. </li></ul><ul><li>Implementation resources - intellectual property licenses to promote open publishing of materials, design principles and localisation of content . </li></ul>
    3. 3. other Open initiatives… <ul><li>UNESCO Forum on the Impact of Open Courseware for Higher Education in Developing Countries (2002) </li></ul><ul><li>SSRN – Social Science Research Networks </li></ul><ul><li>Digital Access to Scholarship at Harvard (DASH) </li></ul><ul><li>Wikipedia </li></ul><ul><li>SourceForge </li></ul><ul><li>Open-source software, eg OpenOffice </li></ul><ul><li>Mozilla Foundation (Firefox, etc) </li></ul><ul><li>Open primary resources in law, eg AUSTLII, BAILII </li></ul>
    4. 4. Cape Town Open Education Declaration
    5. 5. why create OER? <ul><li>Lowers the costs of educational materials for students </li></ul><ul><li>Fosters pedagogical innovation and relevance that avoids ‘teaching from the textbook’ </li></ul><ul><li>Gives faculty tools to gain control over learning content and delivery. </li></ul><ul><li>Share and remix learning materials for customized and localized use </li></ul><ul><li>Fast feedback loop on quality and relevance of learning materials => continual improvement and rapid development </li></ul><ul><li>http://edtechpost.wikispaces.com/OER+Benefits </li></ul>
    6. 6. 3 types of OER… <ul><li>Institutional OpenCourseWare initiatives: eg MIT, Stanford, Harvard, Open University, etc </li></ul><ul><li>Disciplinary initiatives: eg HumBox, or disciplinary repositories </li></ul><ul><li>Pedagogic initiatives (simSHARE) </li></ul><ul><li>There are hundreds of examples of each category </li></ul><ul><li>http://oad.simmons.edu/oadwiki/Disciplinary_repositories </li></ul>
    7. 7. institutional OER: Open University
    8. 8. MIT OpenCourseWare (OCW) Initiative <ul><li>2000: OpenCourseWare initiated </li></ul><ul><li>Goal: to make all primary course resources accessible on the web </li></ul><ul><li>2002: launched 50-course pilot </li></ul><ul><li>2009: 1,900 courses available free online </li></ul>
    9. 9. disciplinary OER: HumBox Project
    10. 10. under licence?
    11. 11. why create OER? <ul><li>Philanthropic : Sharing and providing education to people all over the world, with special attention to those in third-world countries or without access to high-quality local education. </li></ul><ul><li>Strategic : Adapting educational practices to the changing world culture may increase viability of educational institutions. (Additional motivations exist here as well, but are perhaps more subtle or less overarching). </li></ul><ul><li>Pedagogic : The act of sharing may increase attention to quality; the act of adapting or remixing may increase quality; the utilization of new technologies may enhance educational engagement amongst learners. </li></ul><ul><li>Economic : Cost-savings to the institution by digitally archiving their own materials, and then sharing and reusing within the institution and amongst peers. </li></ul><ul><li>http://mfeldstein.com/itoe-motivations-for-open-education/ </li></ul>
    12. 12. why do OERs fail? <ul><li>OER Creators </li></ul><ul><li>Hubris </li></ul><ul><li>Poor quality product </li></ul><ul><li>No business plan </li></ul><ul><li>No sustainability plan </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on product to detriment of community </li></ul><ul><li>A heroic leader (who gets promoted or fed up or too busy) </li></ul><ul><li>OER Community </li></ul><ul><li>No community </li></ul><ul><li>No embedded sense of a remix culture </li></ul><ul><li>Other employment factors, eg management rules, block use of OER </li></ul><ul><li>Community takes and doesn’t give </li></ul>
    13. 13. simulations: a definition <ul><li>educational simulation : ‘a simplified, dynamic and precise representation of reality defined as a system...a model of reality defined as a system; a dynamic model; a simplified model; a model that has fidelity, accuracy and validity…[and] should address directly the learning outcomes’ </li></ul><ul><li>simulation game : ‘one or more players participate in a simulation and interact with its various components, [upon which] the notion of a winner and loser is introduced’ (Sauvé et al , 2007, pp251-253). </li></ul>
    14. 14. simulations: our model <ul><li>Are close to the world of practice , but safe from the (possible) realities of malpractice and negligent representation. </li></ul><ul><li>Enable students to practise skills and transactions , discuss the transactions with other tutors, students, and use a variety of instruments or tools, online or textual, to help them understand the nature and consequences of their actions </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitate a wide variety of assessment , from high-stakes assignments with automatic fail points, to coursework that can double as a learning zone and an assessment assignment </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage collaborative learning . The guilds and groups of hunters in multi-player online games can be replicated for very different purposes in education. </li></ul><ul><li>a form of learning that changes quite fundamentally what and how they learn </li></ul>
    15. 15. educational approach to simulation <ul><li>concept of transactional learning </li></ul><ul><li>is active learning, </li></ul><ul><li>is based on doing legal transactions, </li></ul><ul><li>involves reflection on learning, </li></ul><ul><li>enables deep collaborative learning, </li></ul><ul><li>requires holistic or process learning, </li></ul><ul><li>facilitates ethical and professional learning </li></ul><ul><li>encourages immersion in professional role play </li></ul><ul><li>develops task authenticity </li></ul><ul><li>Paul Maharg (2004) </li></ul>
    16. 17. what has the SIMPLE project done? <ul><li>Provided academic staff in UK Universities with software tools to design and build simulations and collate all of the resources required </li></ul><ul><li>Developed teaching, learning and assessment templates, including curriculum guidelines </li></ul><ul><li>Provided tools to create a map and directory for a virtual town </li></ul><ul><li>Enabled communication between students and simulated characters/staff </li></ul><ul><li>Monitoring and mentoring functions </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluated student and staff experiences in using the simulation environment </li></ul>
    17. 18. aims of the simSHARE project? <ul><li>Collation of simulation resources which are repurposed as open educational content </li></ul><ul><li>Creation of guidelines for future publication of simulation projects </li></ul><ul><li>Help staff to use simulation more widely and effectively through staff development . </li></ul><ul><li>Create methodologies that will help staff to see more clearly how simulation OER can be interpreted and in particular how to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Generate or re-purpose a simulation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Archive a simulation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Retrieve a simulation and analyse its component parts for educational value and purpose </li></ul></ul>
    18. 19. project details <ul><li>Funded in the by JISC & HEA through the subject centre – see http://www.jisc.ac.uk/oer for list of current projects </li></ul><ul><li>Core personnel: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Danielle Lysaght (Project Manager, UKCLE) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Julian Priddle, (Project Co-ordinator) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sheila Skinner (Development Officer) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gavin Maxwell (Web Developer) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Academic advisors: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Karen Barton </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Karen Counsell </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Patricia McKellar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Paul Maharg </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Project partners: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>University of Glamorgan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>University of Strathclyde </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>University of Warwick </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>University of Northumbria </li></ul></ul>
    19. 21. my profile
    20. 28. future plans <ul><li>Collation of as many interdisciplinary sims as we can get </li></ul><ul><li>Currently in dissemination phases of project </li></ul><ul><li>simSHARE adds value to open-source SIMPLE, by disseminating SIMPLE blueprints as open resources </li></ul>
    21. 29. 1. sustainability is not the main issue… <ul><li>Simshare is not an organisation (Microsoft), it’s an ecosystem (Linux) </li></ul><ul><li>Like all Open ecosystems, it’s remarkably tolerant of failure </li></ul><ul><li>Cheap failure enables the creation of multiple possibilities </li></ul><ul><li>It best operates on a publish-then-filter model </li></ul><ul><li>This model requires very minimal infrastructure (Wikipedia vs Encarta) </li></ul>
    22. 30. … it’s the type of CoP we need … <ul><li>Re social capital, do we want – </li></ul><ul><li>Bonding capital? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase in trust & connections within a homogeneous group, eg a disciplinary group or even sub-group interested in sims </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relatively exclusive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>People support each other’s worldviews </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bridging capital? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase in connections among heterogeneous groups, eg different disciplinary groups interested in sims </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relatively inclusive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Puts people at great risk of having good ideas… </li></ul></ul>Thanx to Shirky, C. (2008) Here Comes Everybody , London, p.222
    23. 31. … and how we go about achieving it. <ul><li>Construe Simshare as ‘commons-based peer production’ (Benkler) </li></ul><ul><li>Bring together heterogeneous groups, ie use bridging capital </li></ul><ul><li>Build from the most local levels up, where there’s opportunity to host & bridge </li></ul><ul><li>Accept power law distribution of effort, sharing & use. </li></ul><ul><li>Reconceptualise OER not as harmonious sharing but as peer improvement and adaptation – sometimes with bittersweet results </li></ul><ul><li>Link research to practice; radicalise practice by using Simshare as a ZPD, a safe zone for experimentation </li></ul>

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