Kobe, Session 2, curriculum design
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×
 

Kobe, Session 2, curriculum design

on

  • 1,463 views

 

Statistics

Views

Total Views
1,463
Views on SlideShare
1,463
Embed Views
0

Actions

Likes
0
Downloads
18
Comments
0

0 Embeds 0

No embeds

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

CC Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike LicenseCC Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike LicenseCC Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike License

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment
  • Transactional learning is active learning, not passive. In that sense, we want students to be involved in activities within legal actions, rather than standing back from the actions and merely learning about them. transactional learning goes beyond learning about legal actions to learning from legal actions we aim to give them experience of legal transactions. Transactional learning involves thinking about transactions. It includes the ability to rise above detail, and "helicopter" above a transaction; or the ability to disengage oneself from potentially damaging views of the group process, and re-construct that view Students are valuable resources for each other. Collaborative learning breaks down the isolation and alienation of what might be regarded as isolated or cellular learning. There is of course a place for individual learning, silent study, and the like. But students can help each other enormously to understand legal concepts and procedures by discussing issues, reviewing actions in a group, giving peer feedback on work undertaken in the group, and so on. And perhaps what is even more important is that they begin to trust each other to carry out work that is important. In other words, students begin to learn how to leverage knowledge amongst themselves, and to trust each other’s developing professionality (learning about know-who, know-why, as well as know-what within the firm). Often, we have found, if there are firms that are not producing good work or keeping to deadlines, it is because they do not know how to work together effectively; and this often arises from a lack of trust. Transactional learning ought to be based on a more holistic approach. Allowing students to experience the whole transaction- and all the different parts- not just the actual procedure but how this may affect the client and how you may have to report this to the client. Transactional learning of necessity draws upon ethical learning and professional standards. There are many examples of how students have had to face ethical situations within the environment – some are ones where we have created a situation with an ethical issue- others have arisen unexpectedly. E.g mandate example ( if time) 7 & 8: Students are taking part in a sophisticated process that involves taking on the role of a professional lawyer within the confines of the virtual town and firm. In order to enhance the learning experience they must be immersed in the role play- and to do that they must be undertaking authentic tasks. Research suggests that when students are involved with online environment similar to the virtual village- that these authentic settings have the capability to motivate and encourage learner participation by facilitating students ‘willing suspension of disbelief’. This allows them to become immersed in the setting.
  • Improved letter writing skills Skills: Increased awareness of client care skills - time recording - planning, organising and managing - groupworking Improved IT skills Improved understanding of the subject IT Skills: Students require basic IT and confidence Students noted: - lack of instant messaging - need to always create a document for every message Dull interface Minor IT irritations But: system is robust- over 10,000 documents sent by over 500 students Authenticity Students were not conscious of who was replying to them i.e. was it a lecturer, admin assistant, the computer? Students thought using practitioners to respond would add to the realism Monitoring of students/simulations Students were concerned about names being attached to/owned by emails Students aware everything being recorded Simulation acted as a check on what students were doing for tutor. Feedback Need for effective feedback - Warwick: weekly - Architecture: mark at end of 16 part activity Feedback more important in open field transactions
  • Transactional learning is active learning, not passive. In that sense, we want students to be involved in activities within legal actions, rather than standing back from the actions and merely learning about them. transactional learning goes beyond learning about legal actions to learning from legal actions we aim to give them experience of legal transactions. Transactional learning involves thinking about transactions. It includes the ability to rise above detail, and "helicopter" above a transaction; or the ability to disengage oneself from potentially damaging views of the group process, and re-construct that view Students are valuable resources for each other. Collaborative learning breaks down the isolation and alienation of what might be regarded as isolated or cellular learning. There is of course a place for individual learning, silent study, and the like. But students can help each other enormously to understand legal concepts and procedures by discussing issues, reviewing actions in a group, giving peer feedback on work undertaken in the group, and so on. And perhaps what is even more important is that they begin to trust each other to carry out work that is important. In other words, students begin to learn how to leverage knowledge amongst themselves, and to trust each other’s developing professionality (learning about know-who, know-why, as well as know-what within the firm). Often, we have found, if there are firms that are not producing good work or keeping to deadlines, it is because they do not know how to work together effectively; and this often arises from a lack of trust. Transactional learning ought to be based on a more holistic approach. Allowing students to experience the whole transaction- and all the different parts- not just the actual procedure but how this may affect the client and how you may have to report this to the client. Transactional learning of necessity draws upon ethical learning and professional standards. There are many examples of how students have had to face ethical situations within the environment – some are ones where we have created a situation with an ethical issue- others have arisen unexpectedly. E.g mandate example ( if time) 7 & 8: Students are taking part in a sophisticated process that involves taking on the role of a professional lawyer within the confines of the virtual town and firm. In order to enhance the learning experience they must be immersed in the role play- and to do that they must be undertaking authentic tasks. Research suggests that when students are involved with online environment similar to the virtual village- that these authentic settings have the capability to motivate and encourage learner participation by facilitating students ‘willing suspension of disbelief’. This allows them to become immersed in the setting.

Kobe, Session 2, curriculum design Kobe, Session 2, curriculum design Presentation Transcript

  • Learning and curriculum design Professor Paul Maharg Glasgow Graduate School of Law
  • s imulations…
    • Are close to the world of practice , but safe from the (possible) realities of malpractice and negligent representation.
    • Enable students to practise legal transactions , discuss the transactions with other tutors, students, and use a variety of instruments or tools, online or textual, to help them understand the nature and consequences of their actions
    • Facilitate a wide variety of assessment , from high-stakes assignments with automatic fail points, to coursework that can double as a learning zone and an assessment assignment
    • Encourage collaborative learning . The guilds and groups of hunters/players in multi-player online games can be replicated for very different purposes in FE & HE.
    • Students begin to see the potential for the C in ICT ; and that technology is not merely a matter of word-processed essays & quizzes, but a form of learning that changes quite fundamentally what and how they learn .
  • authenticity as transactional learning…
    • Transactional learning:
    • active learning
    • through performance in authentic transactions
    • involving reflection in & on learning,
    • deep collaborative learning , and
    • holistic or process learning,
    • with relevant professional assessment
    • that includes ethical standards
  •  
  • presentation
    • Curriculum design issues:
    • Plagiarism
    • Effects on curriculum: views of staff and students
    • Long-term implications of transactional learning
  • Plagiarism … ?
    • Plagiarism is not just about students being selfish, or narcissistic behaviour, or academic cheating or a syndrome or lack of integrity or anything else
    • We create fertile conditions for it to flourish by our teaching & assessment designs:
      • lack of apprenticeship models
      • insufficient situated learning & assessment
      • poor academic literacy support within disciplines
    • We need to re-design the ecology of learning, eg :
      • trading zones, for students > students, staff > staff, students > staff
      • teach rhetorical models via games, sims, debriefs, PBL, etc.
      • transactional learning
    • One attempt to change practice: SIMPLE
    • See the early work of Flower & Hayes, Scardamalia & Bereiter; New Literacies movement; London Group; James Gee.
    • In Law, see the work of James Stratman, Dorothy Deegan, Leah Christensen on the effect of professional identity on student reading & writing strategies.
    • Each discipline needs to
      • invent methods to embed these approaches in its teaching, learning & assessment
      • assess student performance based on the learning of rhetorical models.
    rhetorical models…?
    • If Web 2.0 apps enhance social learning, collaboration, what effect will this have on the practice of plagiarism?
    • It may have a beneficial effect, if Web 2.0 is used to transform academic teaching practices…
    • Or may become yet one more example of e-plagiarism
    • See Gerry McKiernan’s blog:
    • www.scholarship20.blogspot.com/
      • & 2008 Horizon Report www.nmc.org/pdf/2008-Horizon-Report.pdf
    rhetorical models & Web 2.0…?
    • Students co-opted to community-police plagiarism
    • Students carry out authentic client-based work, not artificial, assessment-led tasks
    • ICT is used to create multiple versions of tasks via document variables + support for tasks: feed forward
    • Students take responsibility for their transactional learning, their files, their clients, their firm, ie assessment:
      • encourages ownership, not submission
      • enhances collaboration, not plagiarism
    • Staff take responsibility for designing transactional learning
    • But what about tools to stop free-loading within/between firms?
    summary of the SIMPLE effect on plagiarism…
    • Methodology: integrative evaluation
    • Used mixed methods and multiple data sources to develop an overall picture of each participant’s use of SIMPLE
    • Highlighting issues, drivers and barriers
    • Allowed for the emergence of unanticipated aspects
    SIMPLE evaluation: effect on curriculum
    • Students
    • Tutors
    • Lecturers and module leaders
    • Developers
    • Support staff such as Institutional IT Helpdesk staff and the SIMPLE Core team
    • Evaluation Activities carried out:
    • Pre simulation
    • During simulation
    • Post simulation
    • End of SIMPLE Project
    data sources
  • data collection methods
    • Observations
    • Tutor Interviews
    • Student Interviews
    • Focus groups (tutors)
    • Focus groups (students)
    • Diaries/logs
    • Student materials
    • Examining SIMPLE office
    • Pre-course card exercise
    • Post-course questionnaires
    • System statistics
    • Three evaluative levels:
    • What role does professional learning play within the partner institutions and how can and does SIMPLE contribute?
    • How do we address curricular issues in the design and development of innovative practices and the implementation of SIMPLE in particular?
    • What are the wider systemic and institutional factors that affect this form of learning?
    e valuation of SIMPLE as a transformative practice
    • SIMPLE:
    • Enhanced professional skills
    • Heightened awareness of client care
    • Improved IT skills
    • Improved understanding of the subject matter
    • Encouraged peer review
    • Students:
    • Welcomed the authenticity
    • Wanted regular feedback
    • Assessment results improved over a number of projects
    l evel 1: student experiences
  • L evel 1: staff experiences
    • Different expectations in look and feel
    • Some technical skills required
      • some found tools ‘clunky’
      • most managed to operate the tools after training
    • Welcomed enhanced monitoring functionality of student work
    • Concerned about the front-loading of work to create the simulation blueprint
    • Initial difficulties in simulation design and design of resources
    • Platform hosting challenges
    • Start with a simple scenario for the first attempt.
    • Run a pilot before letting students loose on it.
    • Don’t underestimate the skills you might need to get things up and running.
    • Begin the process of developing the scenario as early as possible.
    • Think in advance about how sim responses will be managed ie when/who/how often: set clear guidelines to students about how this will work.
    • Allow time to familiarise yourself with both the technological aspects ie using the tools, and also with new concepts such as the Narrative Event Diagram.
    • Plan & organise well in advance
    L evel 1: staff experiences
  • level 2: curricular themes
    • Open sims vs bounded sims
    • Staff c ontrol: disruptive sims vs convergent sims
    • Identity exploration (personal + profession) vs conventional learning (personal + profession)
    • Knowledge object-forming via play vs knowledge resumption by traditional means
    • Transactional learning vs conventional teaching
    • Front-loading timetable vs conventional timetabling
    • Interactive mentor roles vs conventional lecturer/tutor roles
    • Curriculum organised around spaces & resources vs curriculum organised around teaching interventions & resources
    • Replay/remix/feedforward assessment culture vs snapshot assessment culture
  • level 3: learning, institutions, practices
    • T here is no such thing as experiential learning.
    • Learning is distributed among expanded environments, tools, roles, tasks, social relations.
    • T here is no spoon: curriculum is technology.
    • Staff role-change vs conventional teaching/admin roles.
    • The role of the institution changes.
    • The question is no longer why conventional learning vs sim, clinic, PBL, etc; but in an era where Wikipedia & SourceForge flourish against all odds, why are we not collaborating at all levels in teaching & learning?
  • 1. there’s no such thing as experiential learning
    • W e don’t learn from experience
    • We learn by working to interpret experience, given that, when learning:
      • we have different prior knowledge
      • our aims are always different in subtle ways
      • we learn different things from the same resources
      • ‘ resources’ means symbolic objects like books & web pages, but also people, including ourselves
      • we can learn intimately and deeply from any resource, given a suitable context
    • Teachers and students need to encode those interpretations as complex memories, habits, skills, attitudes or knowledge objects if they are to re-use them
        • Schratz, M. and Walker, R.(1995) Research as Social Change: New Opportunities for Qualitative Research. London: Routledge.
    • Curriculum is multiple distributed technologies and practices. Eg timetables, course teams, notepads, learning spaces, forms of knowledge transmission, discussion, computers, forms of speech, writing – all existing in time spans.
    • Some technologies are ancient ( lectura, glossa) , some new (SIMPLE, standardised clients, mobile phones)
    • Success in learning means:
      • f or staff, the need to compose and orchestrate the curriculum .
      • f or students, the tools, support & spaces to manage their own curriculum
    3. curriculum is technology
  • 5. the institution will change …
    • Still focused on:
    • Organisations , ie LMSs, silos of knowledge
    • Products , ie handbooks, CDs, closely-guarded downloads
    • Content , ie modules, instruction, transmissive content
    • Snapshot assessment of taught substantive content
  • … to accommodate social, collaborative learning
    • Focus shifts to:
    • Organisation has weak boundaries, strong presence through resource-based, integrated learning networks, with open access (open courseware initiatives, etc)
    • Focus not on static content but on web-based, aggregated content
    • E-learning as integrated understanding & conversation, just-in-time learning
    • Assessment of situated learning
  • SIMPLE project conclusions: simulation environments
    • They can enable more engaged and deeper learning in students, both at undergraduate and postgraduate levels
    • They can be used to learn and assess conceptual and second-order symbolic knowledge, practice-based skills and personal achievement of integrated skills.
    • Students adapt best to new learning environments when they are aware of the expectations of them in the new arena.
    • Simulation is a disruptive heuristic and requires support.
    • Although initial workload is heavy there is payback in later years
    • T here are serious implications for institutional change and innovation
  • Standard classroom c.1908. Would you like to learn about measurement and volume this way? Thanks to Mike Sharples, http://tinyurl.com/6bzdgx
  • … o r this way? (Dewey’s Laboratory School, U. of Chicago, 1901), http://tinyurl.com/6onvjp
  • Would you like to learn about history and town planning this way?
  • … o r by building a table-top town for a social life history project? (Dewey’s Lab School, http://tinyurl.com/59c93q )
  • Dewey & Thorndike: where extremes meet
    • ‘ One cannot understand the history of education in the United States in the twentieth century unless one realizes that Edward L. Thorndike won and John Dewey lost.’
        • Lageman, D. (1989) The plural worlds of educational research, History of Education Quarterly , 29(2), pp. 185–214
  • E.L. Thorndike John Dewey
  • John Dewey E.L. Thorndike 1. Philosopher & educationalist Educational psychologist 2. Theoretician and practical implementer Theoretician & experimentalist 3. Interested in the arc between experience & the world Explored the dyadic relationship between mind & the world 4. Pragmatist approach to learning: prior experience, ways of contextual knowing Adopted as precursor of a behaviourist approach to learning: assessment-led; laws of effect, recency, repetition 5. Emphasised learning ecologies Emphasised teaching strategies 6. Followed by: Bruner, Kilpatrick, standards movement, Constructivist tradition Followed by: Watson, Skinner, Gagné, outcomes movement,
  • authenticity as transactional learning…
    • Transactional learning:
    • active learning
    • through performance in authentic transactions
    • involving reflection in & on learning,
    • deep collaborative learning , and
    • holistic or process learning,
    • with relevant professional assessment
    • that includes ethical standards
  • signature pedagogies (Lee Shulman) Sullivan, W.M., Colby, A., Wegner, J.W., Bond, L., Shulman, L.S. (2007) Educating Lawyers. Preparation for the Profession of Law, Jossey-Bass, p. 24
  • Transforming Legal Education: four key themes
  • contact details
    • Email: [email_address]
    • Blog: http://zeugma.typepad.com
    • Book: www.transforming.org.uk
    • SIMPLE: http://simplecommunity.org
    • These slides at: www.slideshare.net/paulmaharg