E Sims in the wild: interdisciplinary research, design & implementation

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Society of Legal Scholars Conference, Durham, 2007, Legal Education stream, co-authored with Karen Barton. This is a presentation of our book chapter, …

Society of Legal Scholars Conference, Durham, 2007, Legal Education stream, co-authored with Karen Barton. This is a presentation of our book chapter,
Barton, K., Maharg, P. (2006) Interdisciplinary research, design and implementation, in Games and Simulations in Online Learning, edited by Aldrich, C., Gibson, D., Prensky, M., Part 2, chapter 6, 170-218, Idea Group Ltd, 115-148 (16,000 words)

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  • 1. E-simulations in the wild: interdisciplinary research, design & implementation Karen Barton Paul Maharg Glasgow Graduate School of Law
  • 2. Maritime simulation – Marine Simulation Centre, Australian Maritime College.
  • 3. SIMSE: AN INTERACTIVE SIMULATION GAME FOR SOFTWARE ENGINEERING EDUCATION Emily Oh Navarro & André van der Hoek School of Information and Computer Science University of California
  • 4. What does scientific discovery learning consist of, online?
    • Key points:
    • There is no pure discovery learning process.
    • There is no pure instructional process.
    • There is a continuum between these two poles.
    • Online environments & tools have been developed to move the gauge to 1, not 2.
    Van Joolingen, W. (1999) Cognitive tools for discovery learning, International J. of AI in Education , 10, 385-97
  • 5.
    • Representation of reality is complex: what, how, why?
    • Complex concepts or surface tasks & procedures only?
    • See:
    • de Jong & van Joolingen (1998) –
      • Conceptual models sims vs operational model sims
    • De Jong & Njoo (2000) –
      • Transformative vs regulative processes
    • Klahr, Fay & Dunbar (1993) –
      • Scientific discovery as dual search in two types of spaces:
        • Hypothesis space
        • Experimental space
    Two key issues for simulation learning
  • 6. Key questions for us...
    • The literature on simulation is extensive in other disciplines, eg business process, medical education.
    • Can the research be used interdisciplinary way?
    • Are simulations useful tools for teaching complex concepts?
    • Area of case-study: scientific discovery literature.
    • We relied on two meta-analyses:
    • de Jong and van Joolingen, 1998
    • Lee, 1999
    • and our own research subsequent to 1999.
  • 7.
    • Categorisations are useful, but rather than prescriptive, they must be based upon experience: staff & student experience.
    • For example:
      • open & bounded field...
      • depth of simulation field...
    How should we categorize...
  • 8.
    • Students tended to:
    • Gather insufficient information...
    • Another aspect which should possibly have been covered was to get a second medical report determining the long-term prognosis for [the client] Mr. Graham. As we did not have this, we proceeded on the basis of the first report stating more or less that Mr. Graham almost had full use of his wrist back but still suffered some discomfort. We, as a group, took this to mean that Mr. Graham was suffering very little eight months on from the accident, nonetheless I feel now, reflecting back, we should have requested more information on this area.
    Scientific discovery simulation & legal simulation
  • 9.
    • Focus on the wrong information...
    • With hindsight, the condition of the equipment and the work practices of A&B DIY Ltd were in fact more important than Mr. Graham’s actions leading up to the accident. Therefore next time I would insist on an independent engineer’s report examining the above aspects.
    Scientific discovery simulation & legal simulation
  • 10.
    • Sought to confirm their own hypotheses about the case rather than critically examining information and contradictions...
    • There was information that we failed to check (for example, we accepted Mr. Graham’s word as regards his level of loss of earnings. This turned out to be false and we should have asked for a copy of his pay slips for the months proceeding and immediately after the accident).
    • In saying this however, I do not feel it hampered our case against A&B DIY LTD as they soon pointed out our mistake as regards to Mr. Graham’s pay cheque.
    Scientific discovery simulation & legal simulation
  • 11.
    • Identified patterns in the information they had
    • Assessed the value of information
    • Sensed gaps in information backing theory of case
    • Were rarely careless of information
    • Were careful of process management
    • (Schauble, Glaser, Raghavan, & Reiner, 1991; Shute & Glaser, 1990).
    Successful firms...
  • 12.
    • Found goal-setting problematic (Charney, Reder & Kusbit, 1990)...
    • The beginning of the project was somewhat daunting; I wasn’t entirely clear on what we were to do. Nevertheless, I found myself really getting in to and enjoying the project as time went on.
    • ... but not because of low prior knowledge. Instead, 2 issues were key:
    • - transfer of knowledge from one domain to another
    • - integration of case management skills & legal knowledge
    Poorly-performing firms...
  • 13.
    • Just-in-time information via surgeries very helpful.
    • (Berry & Broadbent, 1987, confirmed Rieber, 2005)
    • Students unlikely to use FAQs after first few weeks of start.
    • (Elshout and Veenman, 1992).
    • Comms tools: poor integration in early iterations led to fragmented learning. (Bodemer, 2004)
    Learning support techniques...
  • 14. Comms process in PI project – first iteration of environment (c.1998)
  • 15. Comms process in PI project – latest iteration of environment
  • 16.
    • No provision of scratchpad hints/hypotheses or menus, but we do give transactional guidelines
    • (Rivers & Vockell, 1987)
    • Private Client is introduced in stages via tutorials
    • (White & Frederiksen, 1990)
    In individual transactions...
  • 17.
    • “ The benefits from case-based learning such as authenticity and active learning can be threatened if issues closely associated with qualitative variation arising from incoherence in the experience are not addressed” (Ellis, Marcus, and Taylor (2005, p. 240).
    • See also Barton, McKellar & Maharg (2007, forthcoming) Authentic fictions: simulation, professionalism and legal learning, Clinical Law Review, 13, 2.
    Importance of authenticity & learning
  • 18.  
  • 19. contact details
    • Contact details:
    • T: 44 00 (0)141 548 4984 / 4946
    • E: [email_address]
    • [email_address]
    • Blog: http://zeugma.typepad.com
    • Glasgow Graduate School of Law
    • Lord Hope Building
    • University of Strathclyde
    • 141 St James’ Road
    • Glasgow G4 0LU