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Managing External Knowledge in Open Innovation Processes – A Systematic Review of Literature
Managing External Knowledge in Open Innovation Processes – A Systematic Review of Literature
Managing External Knowledge in Open Innovation Processes – A Systematic Review of Literature
Managing External Knowledge in Open Innovation Processes – A Systematic Review of Literature
Managing External Knowledge in Open Innovation Processes – A Systematic Review of Literature
Managing External Knowledge in Open Innovation Processes – A Systematic Review of Literature
Managing External Knowledge in Open Innovation Processes – A Systematic Review of Literature
Managing External Knowledge in Open Innovation Processes – A Systematic Review of Literature
Managing External Knowledge in Open Innovation Processes – A Systematic Review of Literature
Managing External Knowledge in Open Innovation Processes – A Systematic Review of Literature
Managing External Knowledge in Open Innovation Processes – A Systematic Review of Literature
Managing External Knowledge in Open Innovation Processes – A Systematic Review of Literature
Managing External Knowledge in Open Innovation Processes – A Systematic Review of Literature
Managing External Knowledge in Open Innovation Processes – A Systematic Review of Literature
Managing External Knowledge in Open Innovation Processes – A Systematic Review of Literature
Managing External Knowledge in Open Innovation Processes – A Systematic Review of Literature
Managing External Knowledge in Open Innovation Processes – A Systematic Review of Literature
Managing External Knowledge in Open Innovation Processes – A Systematic Review of Literature
Managing External Knowledge in Open Innovation Processes – A Systematic Review of Literature
Managing External Knowledge in Open Innovation Processes – A Systematic Review of Literature
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Managing External Knowledge in Open Innovation Processes – A Systematic Review of Literature

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07. September 2012 @ ECKM2012

07. September 2012 @ ECKM2012

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  • 1. Faculty of Business | Chair of Business and Information Systems, esp. Information Management | Prof. SchoopManaging External Knowledge in OpenInnovation Processes – A SystematicReview of LiteraturePaul Kruse (paul.kruse@tu-dresden.de)Peter Geißler (peter.geissler@communardo.de)Dresden University of Technology, Dresden, GermanyKRC – Knowledge Research Center e.V.
  • 2. AgendaFaculty of Business | Chair of Business and Information Systems, esp. Information Management | Prof. Schoop Motivation Conceptual Base Approach Results Conclusion & OutlookCartagena, External Knowledge in Open Innovation | ECKM 2012 | Paul Kruse 207.09.12
  • 3. MotivationFaculty of Business | Chair of Business and Information Systems, esp. Information Management | Prof. SchoopNovelty of Open Innovation  e.g., research on ―user innovation‖ (von Hippel, 1986), ―collective invention‖ (Allen, 1983) or ―interactive value creation‖ (Reichwald & Piller, 2006)  emergence of social media/software  lack of research on convergence of KM and OIPotentials and challenges  EK equally important as internal (Chesbrough, 2006b)  various influencing factors (Chen et al., 2011)  focus on internal knowledge not enough (Powell et al., 1996)  fluctuant transfer effort requires precise selection  focus on well-balanced mixture of sources (Laursen & Salter, 2006)Cartagena, External Knowledge in Open Innovation | ECKM 2012 | Paul Kruse 307.09.12
  • 4. MotivationFaculty of Business | Chair of Business and Information Systems, esp. Information Management | Prof. SchoopAim  Overview on state-of-the-art  Systematization of findings  Identification of research gaps  Clarification of role and complexity of EK for innovationResearch questions 1. What kind of external knowledge influences the process of innovation in an Open Innovation context? 2. How does external knowledge influence corporate innovativeness? 3. What challenges can be derived from 1 and 2?Cartagena, External Knowledge in Open Innovation | ECKM 2012 | Paul Kruse 407.09.12
  • 5. Conceptual Base – Knowledge Faculty of Business | Chair of Business and Information Systems, esp. Information Management | Prof. Schoop •―Entirety of skills •Process ―through •―IntegratedKnowledge Knowledge transfer Knowledge Management and capabilities which one unit is intervention concept which individuals affected by the for managing the utilize to solve experience of organizational problems‖ another‖ knowledge base‖ (Probst et al., 2010, S. 24) (Argote et al., 2000, S. 3) (Probst et al., 2010, S. 24) Cartagena, External Knowledge in Open Innovation | ECKM 2012 | Paul Kruse 5 07.09.12
  • 6. Conceptual Base – Innovation Faculty of Business | Chair of Business and Information Systems, esp. Information Management | Prof. Schoop •―Implementation of •Companies ―use •―Leadership and Innovation ManagementInnovation Open Innovation novel technical, external ideas as Management [...] of commercial, well as internal the whole process of organizational, or ideas, and internal innovation‖ social solutions in a and external paths business to market, [in order] (Disselkamp, 2005) environment.‖ to advance their technology‖. (Pleschak & Sabisch, 1996) (Chesbrough, 2003) Cartagena, External Knowledge in Open Innovation | ECKM 2012 | Paul Kruse 6 07.09.12
  • 7. Research approachFaculty of Business | Chair of Business and Information Systems, esp. Information Management | Prof. SchoopLiteratur Review (Webster & Watson, 2002; vom Brocke et al., 2009)  Scientific databases & search engines (ca. 200 papers from pertinent scientific journals (cf. Harzing, 2011))Structuring content analysis (Mayring, 2008) Step 1 Step 3 Step 7 Identification of Definition of Revision of analysis material category system categories Step 2 Step 4 Step 5/6 Step 8 Definition of Screening and Definition of Preparation of structuring extraction coding approach results dimensions of fragments CodingCartagena, External Knowledge in Open Innovation | ECKM 2012 | Paul Kruse 707.09.12
  • 8. Research approachFaculty of Business | Chair of Business and Information Systems, esp. Information Management | Prof. SchoopStep 1: Identification of analysis material  search queries on several data bases and narrowing down resultsStep 2: Definition of structuring dimensions  sources of EK as well as influences through EKStep 3: Definition of category system  introduction of concepts/categories and their relationStep 4: Definition of coding approach  provide definitions, examples and coding rulesStep 5/6: Screening of material and extraction of fragments  step-wise approach partially based on Grounded TheoryStep 7: Revision of categories  final adjustment of categoriesCartagena, External Knowledge in Open Innovation | ECKM 2012 | Paul Kruse 807.09.12
  • 9. Results – RQ1Faculty of Business | Chair of Business and Information Systems, esp. Information Management | Prof. Schoop Sources of external knowledge customersCartagena, External Knowledge in Open Innovation | ECKM 2012 | Paul Kruse 907.09.12
  • 10. Results – RQ1Faculty of Business | Chair of Business and Information Systems, esp. Information Management | Prof. Schoop Sources of external knowledge 1/2Category Sub category Exampleinstitutions academic universities, colleges, public research institutions, laboratories non-academic commercial/private research institutions governmental governements, governmental institutions, legislation, chambers of commercenetworks/ R&D external research networks/alliances,alliances research projects, innovation networks, consortia science expert networks, science parks, university alliances industry cooperation agreements, technology parks, company networks, industry cluster/-consortia other communities, partnerships, joint ventures, strategic alliances, networkscustomers user/ (future) consumer, lead user, user consumer innovators, iser communities customer buyer, (potential) customer, reference customers, focus groups, customer companiescompetitors competitors, competing products/servicesCartagena, External Knowledge in Open Innovation | ECKM 2012 | Paul Kruse 1007.09.12
  • 11. Results – RQ1Faculty of Business | Chair of Business and Information Systems, esp. Information Management | Prof. Schoop Sources of external knowledge 2/2Category Sub category Examplebusiness supplier suppliers of machinery/material, IT-partners /suppliers, vendors innovators innovation partners, intermediary companies within value technology intermediary, specialized chain SMEs, service providers, research firms other companies consultancies, non-customers, non- suppliers, start-ups, venture capitalistsemployees scientific researcher, alumni, PhD students business external specialists, employees of other companies, personnel exchange, knowledge brokersmedia patents/licences patents, license agreements, patent databases standards/ security standards, technical standards, regulations health regulations mass media Internet, magazines, journals, TV, databases, scientific publications, seach engines events fairs, trade shows, conferences, idea competitions, workshops, trainingsCartagena, External Knowledge in Open Innovation | ECKM 2012 | Paul Kruse 1107.09.12
  • 12. Process of innovation Faculty of Business | Chair of Business and Information Systems, esp. Information Management | Prof. Schoop Advocacy and Experimentation ScreeningGeneration and Mobilization Diffusion and Commercialization Implementation (DeSouza et al., 2005) Cartagena, External Knowledge in Open Innovation | ECKM 2012 | Paul Kruse 12 07.09.12
  • 13. Results – RQ2Faculty of Business | Chair of Business and Information Systems, esp. Information Management | Prof. Schoop Positive influences through external knowledgeCategory Example Category ExampleGeneration Compensate low R&D resources Diffusion Deregulate loss/outlet of knowledge& Increase number of ideas and & Increase number of new productsMobilizatiodegree of novelty Implemen Increase number of new processesn Skimming of spillover from -tation Increase number of patents external knowledge bearers Avoid redundancies Increase innovativeness Enhance organizational knowledge Generate new knowledge base Advocacy Facilitate radical innovation Incorporate new & Support technological innovation abilities/capabilities Screening Allow selection of complex Enhance existing skills innovation Experi- Shorten time to develop Cross- Depend on previous mentation Increase/Improve innovation process knowledge/R&D quality Complement internal Enable new combinations (e.g., of knowledge/R&D EK and technology) Integration develops into core Commercia Decrease risk and insecurity competency -lization Increase mutual benefit in Increase competitiveness collaborative agreements Increase flexibility and visibility Increase probability of successful Increase financial savings realization Shorten innovation process Increase Return on R&D Facilitate acquisition/transfer of EK Investment Decentralize innovation processesCartagena, Shorten time Knowledge in Open Innovation | ECKM 2012 | Paul Kruse to market External 13 Reduce complexity of internal R&D07.09.12 Improve internal R&D
  • 14. Results – RQ2Faculty of Business | Chair of Business and Information Systems, esp. Information Management | Prof. Schoop Negative influences through external knowledgeCategory Example Category Example Generation Cannot guarantee uniqueness of Cross- Cannot replace internal R&D & EK process Cannot secure correctness of EK Mobilizatio Increases dependency on Cause internal knowledge to seep out n external knowledge bearers Require cultural changes Cannot automatically increase Require organizational changes innovativeness Advocacy Cause nonobservance of Lead to immoderate openness & opportunities Cannot complement internal R&D Screening Leads to miss of chances Cause lock-in effect Experi- none Reduces internal R&D mentation Cause ―over-search‖ by exorbitant Commercia Increase risk and insecurity number of sources -lization Cannot automatically increase Increase complexity if sources are business value widespread Cause IPR problems Equals internal body of knowledge Increase cost for search, Differs from internal body of acquisition, integration of EK knowledge Cannot exclusively belong to Increase complexity of relationships organization Diffusion & Cause conflict between sharing Slowed down by low number of Implemen- and protection sources tation Impede exchange by over- Cause Inertia protection Not-invented-here syndrome / buy-in Pollute internal body of Relate-out / all-stored-hereCartagena,07.09.12 knowledge Knowledge in Open Innovation | ECKM 2012 | Paul Kruse here / sell-out 14 External Only-used
  • 15. ConclusionFaculty of Business | Chair of Business and Information Systems, esp. Information Management | Prof. Schoop 1. What kind of external knowledge influences the process of innovation in an Open Innovation context? 2. What impact has external knowledge on corporate innovativeness? 3. What challenges can be derived from 1 and 2?Cartagena, External Knowledge in Open Innovation | ECKM 2012 | Paul Kruse 1507.09.12
  • 16. ConclusionFaculty of Business | Chair of Business and Information Systems, esp. Information Management | Prof. SchoopApplication  Better understanding of external knowledge and its role for innovation  Facilitate selection of proper source/type of knowledge  Basis for further recommendations (in progress...)  ...Further research  Mapping of possible integration concepts and categories  Performance measurement of knowledge transfer in OI  Legal gray area (?)Cartagena, External Knowledge in Open Innovation | ECKM 2012 | Paul Kruse 1607.09.12
  • 17. Discussion Faculty of Business | Chair of Business and Information Systems, esp. Information Management | Prof. SchoopThank you for your attention. Paul Kruse Chair of Business and Information Systems, esp. Information Management Technische Universität DresdenQuestions? Fon: +49 351 463 33098 Mail: paul.kruse@tu-dresden.de twitter: @hoellenpaul (for slides) Cartagena, External Knowledge in Open Innovation | ECKM 2012 | Paul Kruse 17 07.09.12
  • 18. References Faculty of Business | Chair of Business and Information Systems, esp. Information Management | Prof. SchoopAllen, R. C. (1983). Collective invention. Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 4(1), 1–24. Elsevier.Argote, L., Ingram, P., Levine, J. M., & Moreland, R. L. (2000). Knowledge Transfer in Organizations: Learning from the Experience of Others.Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 82(1), 1-8.Barge-Gil, A. (2010). Cooperation-based innovators and peripheral cooperators: An empirical analysis of their characteristics and behavior.Technovation, 30(3), 195-206.Belkahla, W., & Triki, A. (2011). Customer knowledge enabled innovation capability: proposing a measurement scale. Journal of KnowledgeManagement, 15(4), 648-674.Bercovitz, J. E. L., & Feldman, M. P. (2007). Fishing upstream: Firm innovation strategy and university research alliances. Research Policy,36(7), 930-948.Bergman, J., Jantunen, A., & Saksa, J.-M. (2009). Enabling Open Innovation Process Through Interactive Methods: Scenarios and GroupDecision Support Systems. International Journal of Innovation Management, 13(01), 139-156.Bogers, M. (2011). The open innovation paradox: knowledge sharing and protection in R&D collaborations. European Journal of InnovationManagement, 14(1), 93-117.Cassiman, B., Di Guardo, M. C., & Valentini, G. (2009). Organising R&D Projects to Profit From Innovation: Insights From Co-opetition. LongRange Planning, 42(2), 216-233. Elsevier Ltd.Cepeda-Carrion, G., Cegarra-Navarro, J. G., & Jimenez-Jimenez, D. (2010). The Effect of Absorptive Capacity on Innovativeness: Context andInformation Systems Capability as Catalysts. British Journal of Management, no-no.Chen, J., Chen, Y., & Vanhaverbeke, W. (2011). The influence of scope, depth, and orientation of external technology sources on the innovativeperformance of Chinese firms. Technovation, 31(8), 362-373. Elsevier.Chesbrough, H.W. (2003). Open Innovation: The new imperative for creating and profiting from technology. Boston: Harvard Business SchoolPress, p. xxivChesbrough, H. W. (2006). Open innovation: the new imperative for creating and profiting from technology (p. 227). Boston: Harvard BusinessPress.Chesbrough, H. W., & Crowther, A. K. (2006). Beyond high tech: early adopters of open innovation in other industries. R&D Management,36(3), 229-236.Dahlander, L., & Magnusson, M. (2008). How do Firms Make Use of Open Source Communities? Long Range Planning, 41(6), 629-649. ElsevierLtd.de Faria, P., Lima, F., & Santos, R. (2010). Cooperation in innovation activities: The importance of partners. Research Policy, 39(8), 1082-1092.Elsevier B.V.Disselkamp, M. (2005). Innovationsmanagement: Instrumente und Methoden zur Umsetzung im Unternehmen (p. 204). Wiesbaden: GablerVerlag.Enkel, E., Kausch, C., & Gassmann, O. (2005). Managing the risk of customer integration. European Management Journal, 23(2), 203–213.Elsevier.Enkel, E., Perez-Freije, J., & Gassmann, O. (2005). Minimizing Market Risks Through Customer Integration in New Product Development:Learning from Bad Practice. Creativity and Innovation Management, 14(4), 425-437. Cartagena, External Knowledge in Open Innovation | ECKM 2012 | Paul Kruse 18 07.09.12
  • 19. References Faculty of Business | Chair of Business and Information Systems, esp. Information Management | Prof. SchoopFilippetti, A. (2011). Innovation modes and design as a source of innovation: a firm-level analysis. European Journal of Innovation Management,14(1), 5-26.Fontana, R., Geuna, A., & Matt, M. (2006). Factors affecting university–industry R&D projects: The importance of searching, screening and signalling.Research Policy, 35(2), 309-323.Fu, X., Pietrobelli, C., & Soete, L. (2011). The Role of Foreign Technology and Indigenous Innovation in the Emerging Economies: TechnologicalChange and Catching-up. World Development, 39(7), 1204-1212. Elsevier Ltd.Füller, J., & Matzler, K. (2007). Virtual product experience andcustomer participation—A chance for customer-centred, really new products. Technovation, 27(6-7), 378-387.Greer, C. R., & Lei, D. (2011). Collaborative Innovation with Customers: A Review of the Literature and Suggestions for Future Research.International Journal of Management Reviews, no-no.Grimpe, C., & Kaiser, U. (2010). Balancing Internal and External Knowledge Acquisition: The Gains and Pains from R&D Outsourcing. Journal ofManagement Studies, 47(8), 1483-1509.Haefliger, S., Jäger, P., & von Krogh, G. (2010). Under the radar: Industry entry by user entrepreneurs. Research Policy, 39(9), 1198-1213. ElsevierB.V.Harzing, A.-W. (2011). Journal Quality List. Retrieved August 25, 2011, from http://www.harzing.com/jql.htmHervas-Oliver, J.-L., Albors Garrigos, J., & Gil-Pechuan, I. (2011). Making sense of innovation by R&D and non-R&D innovators in low technologycontexts: A forgotten lesson for policymakers. Technovation, 31(9), 427-446.Hsuan, J., & Mahnke, V. (2011). Outsourcing R&D: a review, model, and research agenda. R&D Management, 41(1), 1-7.Huggins, R. (2010). Forms of network resource: Knowledge access and the role of inter-firm networks. International Journal of Management Reviews,12(3), 335-352.Kafouros, M. I., & Buckley, P. J. (2008). Under what conditions do firms benefit from the research efforts of other organizations? Research Policy,37(2), 225-239.Kang, K. H., & Kang, J. (2009). How Do Firms Source External Knowledge for Innovation? Analyzing Effects of Different Knowledge SourcingMethods. International Journal of Innovation Management, 13(01), 1-17.Keinz, P., & Prügl, R. (2010). A User Community-Based Approach to Leveraging Technological Competences: An Exploratory Case Study of aTechnology Start-Up from MIT. Creativity and Innovation Management, 19(3), 269-289.Laursen, K., & Salter, A. (2004). Searching high and low: what types of firms use universities as a source of innovation? Research Policy, 33(8),1201-1215.Laursen, K., & Salter, A. (2006). Open for innovation: the role of openness in explaining innovation performance among U.K. manufacturing firms.Strategic Management Journal, 27(2), 131-150.Lee, S., Park, G., Yoon, B., & Park, J. (2010). Open innovation in SMEs—An intermediated network model. Research Policy, 39(2), 290-300. ElsevierB.V.Li, Y., & Vanhaverbeke, W. (2009). The effects of inter-industry and country difference in supplier relationships on pioneering innovations.Technovation, 29(12), 843-858. Elsevier. Cartagena, 07.09.12 External Knowledge in Open Innovation | ECKM 2012 | Paul Kruse 19
  • 20. References Faculty of Business | Chair of Business and Information Systems, esp. Information Management | Prof. SchoopLichtenthaler, U., & Ernst, H. (2009). Opening up the innovation process: the role of technology aggressiveness. R&D Management, 39(1), 38-54Lichtenthaler, U., Lichtenthaler, E., & Frishammar, J. (2009). Technology commercialization intelligence: Organizational antecedents andperformance consequences. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 76(3), 301-315. Elsevier Inc.Lind, F., Holmen, E., & Pedersen, A.-C. (2011). Moving resources across permeable project boundaries in open network contexts. Journal ofBusiness Research. Elsevier Inc.Mu, J., Peng, G., & Love, E. (2008). Interfirm networks, social capital, and knowledge flow. Journal of Knowledge Management, 12(4), 86-100.Mudambi, S. M., & Tallman, S. (2010). Make, Buy or Ally? Theoretical Perspectives on Knowledge Process Outsourcing through Alliances.Journal of Management Studies, 47(8), 1434-1456.Murovec, N., & Prodan, I. (2009). Absorptive capacity, its determinants, and influence on innovation output: Cross-cultural validation of thestructural model. Technovation, 29(12), 859-872. Elsevier.Perkmann, M., & Walsh, K. (2007). University–industry relationships and open innovation: Towards a research agenda. International Journal ofManagement Reviews, 9(4), 259-280.Pleschak, F., & Sabisch, H. (1996). Innovationsmanagement (p. 379). Stuttgart: Schäffer-Poeschel.Powell, W. W., Koput, K. W., & Smith-Doerr, L. (1996). Interorganizational Collaboration and the Locus of Innovation: Networks of Learning inBiotechnology. Administrative Science Quarterly, 41(1), 116-145.Probst, G., Raub, S., & Romhardt, K. (2010). Wissen managen: wieUnternehmen ihre wertvollste Ressource optimal nutzen (p. 307). Wiesbaden: Gabler Verlag.Reichwald, R., & Piller, F. (2006). Interaktive Wertschöpfung: Open Innovation, Individualisierung und neue Formen der Arbeitsteilung (p. 356).Wiesbaden: Gabler Verlag.Standing, C., & Kiniti, S. (2011). How can organizations use wikis for innovation? Technovation, 31(7), 287-295. Elsevier.Teirlinck, P., Dumont, M., & Spithoven, A. (2010). Corporate decision-making in R&D outsourcing and the impact on internal R&D employmentintensity. Industrial and Corporate Change, 19(6), 1741-1768. Tether, B. S., & Tajar, A. (2008). Beyond industry–university links: Sourcingknowledge for innovation from consultants, private research organisations and the public science-base. Research Policy, 37(6-7), 1079-1095.vom Brocke, J., Simons, A., Niehaves, B., Riemer, K., Plattfaut, R., & Cleven, A. (2009). Reconstructing the Giant: On the Importance of Rigourin Documenting the Literature Search Process. 17th European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS 2009). Verona.von Hippel, E. (1986). Lead Users: A Source of Novel Product Concepts. Management Science, 32(7), 791-805.Webster, J., & Watson, R. T. (2002). Analyzing the past to prepare for the future: Writing a literature review. MIS Quarterly, 26(2), xiii-xxiii.Weck, M., & Blomqvist, K. (2008). The role of inter-organizational relationships in the development of patents: A knowledge-based approach.Research Policy, 37(8), 1329-1336.Xia, T., & Roper, S. (2008). From capability to connectivity—Absorptive capacity and exploratory alliances in biopharmaceutical firms: A US–Europe comparison. Technovation, 28(11), 776-785.Zhang, J., & Baden-Fuller, C. (2010). The Influence of Technological Knowledge Base and Organizational Structure on Technology Collaboration.Journal of Management Studies, 47(4), 679-704.Zeng, S. X., Xie, X. M., & Tam, C. M. (2010). Relationship between cooperation networks and innovation performance of SMEs. Technovation,30(3), 181-194. Elsevier. Cartagena, External Knowledge in Open Innovation | ECKM 2012 | Paul Kruse 20 07.09.12

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