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Open Content and Open Data

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Lecture given as part of the 'Policies and Practices in Access to Digital Archives: Towards a New Research and Policy Agenda' couse at the CEU summer course 2012 in budapest

Lecture given as part of the 'Policies and Practices in Access to Digital Archives: Towards a New Research and Policy Agenda' couse at the CEU summer course 2012 in budapest

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  • 1. Open  Content  and  Open  DataPaul  Keller,  CEU  Budapest,  3  July  2012
  • 2. (1)  copyright,  content  &  metadata
  • 3. (1)  copyright,  content  &  metadata (2)  the  public  task  &  open  data
  • 4. copyright,  content  &  metadata
  • 5. ~1850 1941
  • 6. ~1850 1941
  • 7. ~1850 1941
  • 8. Cultural  institutions  should  make  public  domain  material  digitised  with  public  funding  as  widely  available  as  possible  for  access  and  re-­‐use.  This  should  be  part  of  the  funding  conditions  for  digitisation  across  Europe.  (Key  recommendation  1,  p.5)
  • 9. Europeam  Commission  recommendation  on  the  digitisation  and  online  accessibility  of  cultural  material  (27  October  2011):
  • 10. Europeam  Commission  recommendation  on  the  digitisation  and  online  accessibility  of  cultural  material  (27  October  2011):...  recommends  that  Member  States  improve  access  to  and  use  of  digitised  cultural  material  that  is  in  the  public  domain  by:
  • 11. Europeam  Commission  recommendation  on  the  digitisation  and  online  accessibility  of  cultural  material  (27  October  2011):...  recommends  that  Member  States  improve  access  to  and  use  of  digitised  cultural  material  that  is  in  the  public  domain  by:• ensuring  that  material  in  the  public  domain  remains  in  the  public   domain  after  digitisation,
  • 12. Europeam  Commission  recommendation  on  the  digitisation  and  online  accessibility  of  cultural  material  (27  October  2011):...  recommends  that  Member  States  improve  access  to  and  use  of  digitised  cultural  material  that  is  in  the  public  domain  by:• ensuring  that  material  in  the  public  domain  remains  in  the  public   domain  after  digitisation,• promoting  the  widest  possible  access  to  digitised  public  domain   material  as  well  as  the  widest  possible  re-­‐use  of  the  material  for  non-­‐ commercial  and  commercial  purposes
  • 13. ~1850 1941
  • 14. knowledge ignorance known knownwe know unkowns knownswe don’t unknown unknown know knowns unknowns
  • 15. knowledge ignorance known knownwe know unkowns knownswe don’t unknown unknown know knowns unknowns Donald R. Rumsfeld
  • 16. knowledge ignorance known knownwe know unkowns knownswe don’t unknown unknown know knowns unknowns Slavoj Žižek Donald R. Rumsfeld
  • 17. rights not rights expired expiredrightsholder known known known knowns unkownsrightsholder unknown unknown unknown knowns unknowns
  • 18. rights not rights expired expiredrightsholder known known © unkownsrightsholder unknown unknown unknown knowns unknowns
  • 19. rights not rights expired expiredrightsholder public known © domainrightsholder unknown unknown unknown knowns unknowns
  • 20. rights not rights expired expiredrightsholder public known © domainrightsholder unknown orphan unknown unknowns
  • 21. rights not rights expired expiredrightsholder public known © domainrightsholder orphans >1850 orphan 1850> public domain unknown
  • 22. Content  that  is  under  copyright  (not  PD)
  • 23. Content  that  is  under  copyright  (not  PD)• For  material  that  is  still  under  copyright  and  where  the  author  is  known,   you  need  permission  to  make  the  work  available  online  (in  many  cases   also  to  digitize  it)
  • 24. Content  that  is  under  copyright  (not  PD)• For  material  that  is  still  under  copyright  and  where  the  author  is  known,   you  need  permission  to  make  the  work  available  online  (in  many  cases   also  to  digitize  it)• For  material  that  is  still  under  copyright  and  where  the  author  is  not   known  (or  cannot  be  found)  you  still  have  to  obtain  permission  -­‐-­‐>   ‘Hostage  Works’
  • 25. Content  that  is  under  copyright  (not  PD)• For  material  that  is  still  under  copyright  and  where  the  author  is  known,   you  need  permission  to  make  the  work  available  online  (in  many  cases   also  to  digitize  it)• For  material  that  is  still  under  copyright  and  where  the  author  is  not   known  (or  cannot  be  found)  you  still  have  to  obtain  permission  -­‐-­‐>   ‘Hostage  Works’• This  means  that  you  have  do  ‘rights  clearance’  before  these  works  can   be  used  online.
  • 26. A  word  on  Creative  Commons  licenses
  • 27. A  word  on  Creative  Commons  licenses• They  are  not  a  tool  for  rights  clearance!  you  can  only  use  a  Creative   Commons  license  if  you  are  the  rights  holder  or  if  you  have  permission   from  the  rights  holder.
  • 28. A  word  on  Creative  Commons  licenses• They  are  not  a  tool  for  rights  clearance!  you  can  only  use  a  Creative   Commons  license  if  you  are  the  rights  holder  or  if  you  have  permission   from  the  rights  holder.• Also  you  cannot  apply  a  Creative  Commons  license  to  works  that  are  in   the  public  domain.
  • 29. A  word  on  Creative  Commons  licenses• They  are  not  a  tool  for  rights  clearance!  you  can  only  use  a  Creative   Commons  license  if  you  are  the  rights  holder  or  if  you  have  permission   from  the  rights  holder.• Also  you  cannot  apply  a  Creative  Commons  license  to  works  that  are  in   the  public  domain.• This  means  that  memory  institutions  can  generally  only  apply  them  to   works/collections  for  whom  they  are  the  rights  holder.
  • 30. A  word  on  Creative  Commons  licenses• They  are  not  a  tool  for  rights  clearance!  you  can  only  use  a  Creative   Commons  license  if  you  are  the  rights  holder  or  if  you  have  permission   from  the  rights  holder.• Also  you  cannot  apply  a  Creative  Commons  license  to  works  that  are  in   the  public  domain.• This  means  that  memory  institutions  can  generally  only  apply  them  to   works/collections  for  whom  they  are  the  rights  holder.• Free  CC  licenses  are  a  very  powerful  tool  to  encourage  re-­‐use  of  works   in  the  collection  of  memory  organizations.
  • 31. copyright,  content  &  metadata
  • 32. Metadata  is  different!    
  • 33. Metadata  is  different!    • Most  metadata  is  not  protected  by  copyright  because  it  is  factual  data.   (and  no,  the  fact  that  you  invested  in  assembling  it  does  not  give  you   copyright  although  in  europe  it  get’s  you  a  database  right)  
  • 34. Metadata  is  different!    • Most  metadata  is  not  protected  by  copyright  because  it  is  factual  data   (and  no,  the  fact  that  you  invested  in  assembling  it  does  not  give  you   copyright  although  in  europe  it  get’s  you  a  database  right)  
  • 35. Metadata  is  different!    • Most  metadata  is  not  protected  by  copyright  because  it  is  factual  data   (and  no,  the  fact  that  you  invested  in  assembling  it  does  not  give  you   copyright  although  in  europe  it  get’s  you  a  database  right)  • When  metadata  is  covered  by  copyright  (for  example  longer,  textual     descriptions)  the  copyright  generally  rests  with  the  memory   organization.
  • 36. Metadata  is  different!    • Most  metadata  is  not  protected  by  copyright  because  it  is  factual  data   (and  no,  the  fact  that  you  invested  in  assembling  it  does  not  give  you   copyright  although  in  europe  it  get’s  you  a  database  right)  • When  metadata  is  covered  by  copyright  (for  example  longer,  textual     descriptions)  the  copyright  generally  rests  with  the  memory   organization.• As  a  result  memory  organizations  can  generally  decide  themselves  if   and  under  which  conditions  they  want  to  make  their  metadata   available.
  • 37. Europeana  Licensing  Framework
  • 38. Europeana  Licensing  Framework Layer #1: Digital objects (on the site of the provider)
  • 39. Europeana  Licensing  Framework Layer #2: Previews (lower quality versions of #1) Layer #1: Digital objects (on the site of the provider)
  • 40. Europeana  Licensing  Framework Layer #3: Metadata (descriptive information of object) Layer #2: Previews (lower quality versions of #1) Layer #1: Digital objects (on the site of the provider)
  • 41. Europeana  Licensing  Framework Layer #3: Metadata (descriptive information of object) Layer #2: Previews (lower quality versions of #1) EDM:rights Layer #1: Digital objects (on the site of the provider)
  • 42. Europeana  Licensing  Framework Layer #3: Metadata (descriptive information of object) Layer #2: Previews (lower quality versions of #1) Layer #1: Digital objects (on the site of the provider)
  • 43. copyright,  content  &  metadata  (summary)
  • 44. copyright,  content  &  metadata  (summary)• It  is  important  to  ensure  that  Public  Domain  Content  stays  in  the  public   domain  and  is  not  misappropriated  by  memory  institutions  • Metadata  should  be  made  available  without  any  restrictions.   Europeana  and  the  DPLA  set  good  examples  here  that  should  become   the  general  code  of  conduct  among  all  memory  organizations• We  need  legal  instruments  that  allow  memory  institutions  to  make   available  the  content  in  their  collections  available  online.  This  will   require  legislative  change.
  • 45. the  public  task  &  open  data
  • 46. ‘In addition we are of the opinion that publicarchive institutions need to be authorized to makeworks in their collections available online for non commercial purposes without the need to obtain permission by the rights holders’ [position taken by the National Archive of the Netherlands in negotiations with rights holders]
  • 47. main  aspects  of  the  proposal• will  require  not  only  access  to  public  sector  information  but  also  the   free  re-­‐use  of  (almost)  all  publicly  accessible  public  sector  information  • proposes  to  expand  the  scope  of  the  directive  to  include  memory   institutions:  Libraries,  Archives  &  Museums  (but  interestingly  does  not   expand  it  to  producing  institutions  such  as  public  broadcasters)
  • 48. question:  should  the  scope  of  the  PSI  be  expanded  to  memory  institutions?